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Ackerman's Formula
Consider a linear feedback system with no reference input:

u = − Kx

Where K is a vector of gain elements. Systems of this form are typically referred
to as regulators. Notice that this system is a simplified version of the one we
introduced above, except that we are ignoring the reference input. Substituting
this into the state equation gives us:

x' = Ax − BKx

Ackerman's Formula gives us a way to select these gain values K in order to

control the location's of the system poles. Using Ackerman's formula, if the
system is controllable, we can select arbitrary poles for our regulator system.

[Ackerman's Formula]

Where a(z) is the characteristic equation of the system and ζ is the controllability
matrix. The goal of this type of regulator is to drive the state vector to zero. By
using a reference input instead of a linear state feedback, we can use the same
kind of idea to drive the state vector to any arbitrary state, and to give the system
arbitrary poles.
(Sumber: © 2008 Wolfram Research, Inc.)

Ackermann's Formula

According to Ackermann's formula, the feedback matrix K that places the poles of
a single-input system into the positions can be found as


is the unit vector of length ,

is the controllability matrix, and

is the characteristic polynomial of

matrix . Here is the identity matrix, and the coefficients are such that , ,
, are the roots of the polynomial:

The function State Feedback Gains with the option Method Ackermann
implements this algorithm.

State feedback design using Ackermann's formula.

The Ackermann method, besides being useful for single-input systems, may also
find application if an attempt is to be made to control a multi-input system
through a single input. The option ControlInput Automatic is used in such cases
to find the "best" control using the condition number of the corresponding
controllability matrix as a criterion. It is also possible to specify the control input
Option specific to the Ackermann method.


As an example we consider an approximate model of the lateral dynamics of an F-

8 aircraft (Figure 9.2) linearized about a particular set of flight conditions and
reproduced after Brogan (1991). The state and input vectors in the model are

where , , , and are the roll and yaw rates and the sideslip and roll angles,
respectively, and and are the aileron and rudder deflections. Figure 9.3
introduces the nomenclature.

This is the state-space model of the aircraft.


Here are the closed-loop poles we wish the system to have.


StateFeedbackGains may be asked to determine whether it is possible to control

the aircraft using only one of the inputs if, say, a malfunction prevents
manipulation of the other. If such input exists, the feedback gain matrix will
contain a nonzero row corresponding to this input.

StateFeedbackGains finds that the system is better controlled through the second
input (i.e., the rudder deflection) and returns the corresponding feedback gains.



The attempt to control the aircraft from only the first input fails, and we are
presented with messages suggesting that the trouble possibly stems from the
system being uncontrollable.



Indeed, the system is not controllable from its first input; in other words, the
aircraft cannot be controlled by only the aileron deflections (at least not within the
linearized model).

In[19]:= Out[19]=
(Sumber: Christian Schmid 2005-05-09)

Design using Ackermann's formula

The method described in the previous section 13.3.1 needs the computation of the
full transformation matrix . This is not necessary as shown by the simplified
procedure of Ackermann.

Steps 5 and 6 from the end of the previous section 13.3.1 will be combined by
using the relationship for the transformation matrix from Eqs. (13.41) and

After multiplying, the feedback vector can be represented by two sums as

Adding the term to both sums, one obtains


is the desired polynomial from Eq. (13.30), where the scalar variable is
substituted by the matrix . The same holds for the characteristic polynomial
of the system matrix from Eq. (13.35). According to the Cayley-Hamilton
theorem a quadratic matrix always satisfies its own characteristic polynomial, i.e.
, Eq. (13.50) is simplified to

As is the last row of the inverse controllability matrix the calculation of the
feedback vector is simpler than in the previous case of section 13.3.1. The
following steps are necessary:

1. Calculation of the controllability matrix from Eq. (12.16), its inverse and
extracting the last row.
2. Choice of the eigenvalues .
3. Calculation of the coefficients of the desired polynomial according to
Eqs. (13.29) and (13.30).
4. Calculation of the term .

5. Calculation of the coefficients of the feedback vector according to

Eq. (13.51).