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A. DITCH EROSION
Introduction

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A.1 Increase Ditch Capacity

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cc    c
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cc     c

Effectiveness:

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Ôimitations:

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c   cc c  ccc
3c c   c    c  c cc
c  cc
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A.2 Install Ôining in the Ditch

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c 
c  c 
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Effectiveness:

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3c g
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cc  c 
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3c  c  c
c  c  

cc   
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Ôimitations:

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Considerations:

A.3 Install Additional Cross Culverts


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cc cc c  


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Effectiveness:

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A.4 Install Check Dams


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Effectiveness:

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Ôimitations:

3c P  
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3c c c c 
cc
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. EMANKMENT EROSION
Introduction

Problem:

Damage caused by erosion of inadequately protected slopes.

Mitigation Objective:
Harden the damaged embankment slope or redirect flows to avoid higher velocities.

.1 io-Engineered Embankment Slope Protection

Provide bio-engineered embankment slope protection by covering the slope with deep rooting
vegetation and where it is adjacent to and in contact with a live stream, strategically anchor large
woody debris (i.e. root wads) that will hold the soil in place and protect it from erosion.

CÔICK ON IMAGES TO ENÔARGE

Effectiveness:

3c Gery effective in areas of low flow velocity.


3c Environmentally friendly.
3c Contributes to settling of particulate matter.

Ôimitations:

Gegetation must have sufficient time to become established prior to being exposed to floodwaters.
Generally not suitable for areas of sustained high velocity flows.

Considerations:

.2 Install Half-Round or Spillway Pipes, or Rock Channels

Concentrate flows in a collection structure and install half-round or spillway pipes, or rock
channels down steep slopes to eliminate erosion.

Effectiveness:
3c Most effective for intermittent streams or surface water collection.
3c Pipes very effective when properly connected to drainage collection structures or roadway
ditches.

Ôimitations:

3c Requires good anchors to eliminate failure by slippage of the pipes on the steep slope.
3c Consider constructing an energy dissipater at bottom of slope.

.3 Change Geometry of Roadway Section

Alter the angle of an embankment slope through shoulder rounding and slope reduction to reduce
erosion. Reducing the angle of slope generally reduces the velocity of the water running across it.

Effectiveness:

Gery effective in areas of roadway overtopping with low velocity flows.

Particularly effective if combined with armoring of the downstream embankment slope and road
shoulder.

Ôimitations:

May reduce carrying capacity of ditch or stream.

Considerations:

.4 Construct a Wall

Construct a wall to protect the slope from erosion and consequent sloughing and slumping. Walls
can be constructed of various materials including rock, gabions, sheet pile, concrete, etc.
Effectiveness:

Gery effective.

Suitable for high velocity, high volume flood events.

May be designed to accommodate replanting of a damaged riparian area.

Ôimitations:

May preclude regrowth of riparian areas.

Considerations:

.5 Place Riprap Along Eroded Slop

Place appropriately sized riprap along the eroded embankment slope in sufficient quantities to
resist scouring effects of higher velocity flows and protect the embankment slope from future
flood. damage.

Effectiveness:

Gery effective in areas of moderate flow velocity and volume when appropriately graded material
is placed in sufficient quantity and layered so fines are not eroded.
Water velocity will determine size and volume of riprap.

Ôimitations:

Extensive use of riprap may preclude re-growth of riparian areas.

Access may limit where riprap can be placed.


c

ROADWAY SURFACE AND


SHOUÔDER EROSION
Introduction

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C.1. Increase Roadway Elevation

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Effectiveness:

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Ôimitations:

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C.2. Construct Shoulder Protection

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Effectiveness:

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Ôimitations:

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C.3 Increase Capacity of Drainage Structure


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  CUÔGERTS

. Plugging
Introduction

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.1. Install an Entrance Debris arrier


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Effectiveness:

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Ôimitations:

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Considerations:

.2. Install a Sediment Catch asin


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Effectiveness:

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cc c c  c
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Ôimitations:

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3c 
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Considerations:

.3. Install a Relief Culvert

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Effectiveness:

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Ôimitations:

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Considerations:

.4. Install a Perforated Standpipe


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Effectiveness:

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Ôimitations:

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  CUÔGERTS

C. Embankment Erosion
Introduction

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C.1. Shape Culvert Entrance

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Effectiveness:

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Ôimitations:

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Considerations:

C.2. Construct a Cutoff Wall



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Effectiveness:

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Ôimitations:

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C.3. Install Appropriate Culvert End Sections



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Effectiveness:

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3c   c  
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Ôimitations:

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C.4. Construct an Energy Dissipater



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Effectiveness:

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Ôimitations:

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3c P   cc 
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C.5. Extend Culvert Inlet or Outlet

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Effectiveness:

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3c  
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Ôimitations:

3c ñ
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3c ñ
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cc

  RIDGES

A. Misalignment
Introduction

Problem:

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c

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c%g c+ 
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Mitigation Objective:

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A.1 Construct ridge Wingwalls


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ñ 
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Effectiveness:

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3c ôc cc c    cc
c0.c  
c   cc cc
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3c  cc   cc
 
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3c   c  c 
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cc c

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Ôimitations:

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c  cc  cP c c  cc
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cc

A.2 Construct Spur Dikes

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ccc
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cc

Effectiveness:

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c
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Ôimitations:

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c    c   
cc
3c c
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c c  c cc c  c  
cc 
cc
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c  cP c c  c  cc
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c    c   
cc  cc

A.3 Install Additional ridge Openings or Spans


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à c   c c c  c
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cc
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ccc  c
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Effectiveness:

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c  c  c
 
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cc c 
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Ôimitations:

3c  c 
cc  c
c
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Considerations:

A.4 Realign Piers and Abutments

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ccc
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Effectiveness:

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3c ôc cc c    cc
c0.c  
c c  c c  cc

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c  c  c 
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c  c

cc c 
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Considerations:

A.5 Install Approach erms

(SEE 2.D.3)

A.6 Install Flow Diverters

(SEE 2.D.4)

A.7 Realign the Stream Channel

(SEE 2.D.5)

cc
c

. Insufficient Flow Capacity (Decks)


Introduction

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ccc 
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.1 Elevate the ridge Deck

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c  

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c
cc  c  
c

c c

cc c) c
 c
c
c  cc   c c
c
 c cc

Effectiveness:

3c 
c 
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cc cc cc

Ôimitations:

3c à c cc
 
c 
cc c
c c   c
c 
c
c 
c
c  
c  c cc  
c  

 cc

Considerations:

.2 Replace a Steel Truss ridge With an Open Deck ridge

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c
 c  c
cc c c  c c  c
c 
c

 c
 cc   
c
c 
cc  c c
c  c
  c 
 c cc  
cc

c
Effectiveness:

3c   c c 
 cc
3c )c c c  c c
c
c
c  c
c
c  c 

c

cc
c

 c  c c c 
 cc
3c 
  c c    c c c c  c c  
cc

Ôimitations:

3c   c  cc
 
cc   c 
  c  c
c 
c
 c c  cc

Considerations:

.3 Replace Multi-Spans With a Single Span ridge

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c
 c  ccc  c
cc  c   c
c   
c
c c
c  cà c c    c
cc
 c
c  cc  c
 c 
c

 cc

Effectiveness:

3c G c 
 cc
3c    c
c 
 c  cc
c  c  ccc 
cc
3c  c  c 
cc
3c P   c
c 
c 
 c
 cc
c  cc
c 
cc
c
 c
cc
3c   c  c   c  c   
cc  cc
 
c
 
c  c

cc
 
c  c 
 cc c

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Ôimitations:

3c Ô 
cc cc c 
cc
 
cc
  cc
Considerations:

.4 Increase ridge Opening Size

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c  cc
c  c  % &cc 
 c
c  cc c
c
  c c   c  c  c  c c   cc 
c 
 c

 cc
c  cc  c
c 
ccc
 c
c  cc

Effectiveness:

3c G c 
 cc'
c 
 c  c c c  cc
 
 cc
c  c c
c   c  c
c  c  
 c

 ccc   c  c
c 
c  c
c cc
 
c

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3c P  cc 
  c c
c
c    cc
c
c  c

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c  cc
c
c
c 
c

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c  cc
3c   c  c   c  c   
cc  cc
 
c
 
c  c

cc  c 
 cc c

  cc

Ôimitations:

3c  cc
 c  c 
cc  c
c
cc

Considerations:

.5 Construct a Relief Opening



c cc c  c   c
 c
cc c
cc 
c

c c
c  c
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cc  cc
 c
 
cc  cà c   c c c 
c
c
c  c   cc c  c

c cc  c 
cc
c
 c  c%g c+ 
' +&cc

Effectiveness:

3c   c c 
 c
c c   c
c 
c  
c
c  c 
 cc

c
 
 
c
3c   c  c  
c  c

cc  c 
 cc
 c 
  cc

Ôimitations:

3c  
cc  c cc  c
c
cc

Considerations:

.6 Construct ridge Wingwalls

(SEE 3.A.1)

.7 Install A High Water Overflow Crossing

(SEE 2.A.8)

.8 Realign Piers & Abutments

(SEE 3.A.4)

.9 Install Additional ridge Openings or Spans

(SEE 3.A.3)
c

  RIDGES
C. Erosion (Approaches)

Introduction

Problem:

P c
c  c c 
cc 
 c
c   
c  cc

cc  c  cc  


ccc 
ccc cc  c

c   
c  cc
c  
c

Mitigation Objective:

Ãc  
c
 c c
c  c c%  
cc  ccc
 &cc   
c 
 cc  c

C1. Install High Water Overflow Crossing.

(SEE 2.A.8)

C2. Construct a Relief Opening.

(SEE 3..5)

C3. Realign Stream Channel.

(SEE 2.D.5)

C4. Construct Road Surface & Shoulder Protection.

(SEE 2.C.2)

C5. io-Engineered Embankment Slope Protection.

(SEE 1..1)

C6. Install Ôining in the Ditch.

(SEE 1.A.2)

cc
D. Scour (Piers & Abutments)
Introduction

Problem:

Damage to bridge piers and abutments resulting from scouring of the


streambed along and under their footings.

Mitigation Objective:

Reduce flood flow velocities along bridge piers and abutments, thereby
eliminating scouring of the streambed along and under their footings.

D.1 Increase Footing Depth

The depth of pier and abutment footings should be extended below the
expected depth of streambed scour or to bedrock. The expected depth of
scour depends on the flood flow velocities along the footing and the
nature of the streambed materials.

Effectiveness:

3c Gery effective, particularly when flood flow velocities are


relatively high.
3c Consider flow deflectors, debris deflectors, or replacing multi-
spans with a single span for maximum effectiveness.

Ôimitations:

3c The depth of pier and abutment footings may be limited by


streambed characteristics.
3c Footings should be inspected periodically after floods for
streambed erosion.

Considerations:

D.2 Install Flow Deflectors

Install "G" shaped flow deflectors on or immediately upstream from the


upstream sections of piers and abutments to reduce flow velocities and
protect footings from scouring. Install a concrete collar on lower section
of piers immediately above the footing. Also extend lower sections of
abutments and the wingwalls, if present. This will assist in deflecting
flood flows away from the piers and abutments, and will eliminate
streambed scour along and under them.

Effectiveness:

3c Flow deflectors are very effective, particularly for flood flows with
high velocities.
3c Pier collars and abutment sub-walls are moderately effective
3c Pier collars and extended abutment and wingwalls may provide
additional protection from impact of rocks and debris.

Ôimitations:

3c Flow deflectors should be inspected periodically after floods for


impact damage and for streambed erosion.

Considerations:

D.3 Install Semicircular or Triangular Endnoses

Semicircular or triangular endnoses may be installed on the upstream


ends of the piers to redirect flood flow velocities. Pier endnoses are a
protection measure, such as sheet metal attached to the pier to redirect
flow. Endnoses should also be designed to both prevent debris
accumulation and to protect the piers and abutments from floating
debris impact.

Effectiveness:

3c Moderately effective where flood flow velocities are relatively


high.
3c Ôess effective when flood flow velocities are relatively low.

Ôimitations:

3c Piers should be inspected periodically after floods for impact


damage and for streambed erosion.
3c ridge decks need to be high enough to pass floating debris.
3c Any debris that accumulates in the bridge opening needs to be
removed during the flood or immediately after the flood peak has
passed

Considerations:

D.4 Construct ridge Wingwalls.

(see 3.A.1)

D.5 Realign Piers and Abutments.

(see 3.A.4)

D.6 Replace Multi-Spans With Single Span ridge.


(see 3..3)

D.7 Install Additional ridge Openings or Spans.

(see 3.A.3)

  RIDGES

E. Debris Impact (Piers & Abutments)

Introduction

Problem:

P c
c  c  cc
 
c 
cc
c 
cc 
cc
  c

Mitigation Objective:

Ãc  
c
 c  c c
c  c  cc
 
cc 
c  c
cccc
cc  c  c  cc  c
 c
c  c
  ccc    c
cc  c 
cc
c

c   
cc
c
  c

E.1 Install Debris Deflectors

P  c 
 cc  c  c c c 
 cc
c
 c  cc  cc

 
cc c c c
c 
c
c  c 
c  cc  ccc
 
cà c  c 
 cc  c c c+G+c  cc 
c
 cc
 
c
 c
c 
c
c
c  cc  c  c
 c
c  c
P  c 
 cc  c c c  c
c
c  
c  c 
cc
c


c
c  cc
 
cc
c  c 
cc
c

Effectiveness:

3c G c 
 c c  c

c  c   
c  c c c
c
 c
  cccc 
c c  cc
3c Ô c 
 c ccc 
c ccc

Ôimitations:

3c   c  c c
c c  c  c
c c
c  cc

Considerations:

E.2 Install atters


c

 c%
c
&cc
c
 c  cc  
c  c
c   cc
+G+c  c  ccc c  cc 
 
c(
 c
c

c

cc
c 
cc
c  cc

Effectiveness:

3c G c 
 c c

c  cc  c 
c cc

Considerations:

E.3 Replace Wood Pile ent Pier Structure With


g c 
cc' cc

 cc c 

c
c c  c
cc  c  
c c cà c
   c c  
c  cc  c 
cc 
c c
c  c 
c
 c  
cc c

c
c cc  c 
cc

Effectiveness:

3c G c 
 c c  c

c  c   
c  c c c
c
 c
  cc
3c 
  c    c
c  c 
 cc  c  c   cc+G+c
 c  cc

 cc

Considerations:

E.4 Construct Debris Catchments

P  c 
 
c

 c  c c  c  c%
 c  &ccc 
c c
c c 

cc c
 
c
  c
 cc
c  cà c

 
c

 c c c  c
c
c  c  c c
c
 ccc
c  c 
 
cc c 

c
c
c   cc    c  cc

Effectiveness:
3c 
 c  c
c  cc  c cc  c 

c  c  c

 cc
c  cc  c
 c c 
c
 c  c
 c
c
c 
 
c

 cc
3c Ô c 
 cc c
 
c
  cc

Ôimitations:

3c )c  c

c 
c
 cc
c 
 
c

 c  c
c
 c  c c
ccc   
c
c
cc c  c cc

Considerations:

cc

E.5 Install Semicircular or Triangular Endnoses.

(SEE 3.D.3)

E.6 Construct ridge Wingwalls.

(SEE 3.A.1)

E.7 Realign Piers and Abutments.

(SEE 3.A.4)

E.8 Replace Multi-Spans With Single Span ridge.

(SEE 3..3)
c

 UIÔDINGS

A. Floodwater Inundation
Introduction

Problem:

P c
c   c   
cc
c  
c c
c c  cc

c 
cô
c 
c
c  c 

c
c  c

  cc
c 

cà c
c c c 
 
ccc cc

 c  c c  cc
c  c
  c

Mitigation Objective:

à c
c 
 c

c cc

c
c  c 
cc
 c
 c c
 c  
cc  
c
c  c

A.1 Relocate uilding

 
c
c 
 c  c
cc
c c (
c
c cc
cc  c c

 c
c .. c ccc/.. c c cc 
c 
cc

Effectiveness:

3c à c
c 
 c

c  c c
c

 c cc c c
(
c
c cc

Ôimitations:

3c ) 
c  c
c
c c
  cc

Considerations:

A.2 Elevate uilding

ñ 
c
c  c 
cc ccc

 c c
c cc  
cc
 c
c .. cc   c c c  
cc  
c c  c  cc
 cc c c c
c  
c
c
c c 
c
c 
c 

c
 cc
c

Effectiveness:

3c G c 
 cc
3c ) c c
c  c% c 
cc  &cc c cc
 c cc
 cc

Ôimitations:

3c   c c c c   c cc  


cc
3c ô c c c 
cc

cc  cc
3c c   c
c

c   
 cc  cc c  c
 cc

Considerations:

A.3 Wet Flood-Proof uilding

)c
c
c 
c 
c
 cc
c 
c c  c

c c
c
  c
c cc
c 

cc c


c 

c

 c  c   ccc
c  cc  
c  c

 c  c c 
 c   
c c
c cc  
cP c c
  c
c 

cc   c
c   c 

c  cc 

c
c
c c
c
c 

c  cc

c
Effectiveness:

3c G c 
 cc

Ôimitations:

3c '
 cc  c  c
c
c c c   c cc
 
cc
3c 
c
c c  cc  c 
cc  c 
cc
3c ) c c  c c

c
 c
  c c c  cc

Considerations:

A.4 Dry Flood-Proof uilding

g c
c  c c

c
c c
c 
c 
cccc c
c   c &c

c 
 c -c"&c

cc    c
 cc
c 
-cc0&cg  c
c  c
c
c
 cc

à c cc
c  c
c c    ccÚ

cc  c
 c
c c
 c 
c 
cc

effectiveness:

3c G c 
 c c  
c c
c  c 

cc
3c   cc c c c 

c 
c  cc

Ôimitations:

3c c
c c
c c  cc  c 
c cc c  c cc
3c c   c c
c c 
  cc  c c
c
 c
  c

 cc
3c g
c c c  c
c
c
c cc
 cc 
c

c  c  cc
3c g c  c
c 
cc  c 
c c c c cc

Considerations:

A.5 Install ackflow Devices on Sewer Drains


c c  c   c cc c cc  c  cc
c  cà c  c  
c  cc
c
cc c c c

c
c 
cc

effectiveness:

3c G c 
 c
cc   c
 cc
c cc

Ôimitations:

3c 2 c cc  c  cc  cc c


c  cc
3c 
c c   c

c
c c cc  c c
c 
cc

Chapter 4: UIÔDINGS

. High Gelocity Flows

Introduction

Problem:

High velocity flows can scour the soil from under and around footings,
threaten the building's structural integrity, and even knock buildings off
of their foundations.

Mitigation Objective:
Protect building facilities from damage due to erosion caused by high
velocity flood flows.

.1 Construct Piling or New Spread Footing

uilding foundations can be undermined due to high velocity flows that


scour away the soils supporting the foundation. y constructing a piling
or new spread footing, the foundation is supported, thereby preventing
failure in subsequent flooding.

Effectiveness:

3c Gery effective

Ôimitations:

3c Spread footings should not be used in a coastal environment.


3c Area may be inaccessible to pile driving equipment.
3c Pile driving may cause damage to adjacent facilities.

Considerations:

.2 Replace Footing Materials

To better secure footings and the surrounding material, replace lost


footing material of soil or gravel with concrete or grouted granular fill.
Soil consolidation and settling caused by inundation, or erosion of the
soil due to flow past the footing, can often undermine the soil beneath the
footing, which creates a space between the bottom of the footing and the
top of the soil beneath the footing.
Effectiveness:

3c Gery effective

Ôimitations:

3c May not be effective if future erosion cannot be controlled, or, if in


the case of inundation, soil consolidation is not complete.

A. High Gelocity Flows

Introduction

Problem:

Ú  c 
c c c cc  c   c c   cc

, c 
c

Mitigation Objective:

'

c
c

c 
cc  c 
c c

c c  c   ccc
c


c  c
c  c
cc c

A.1 Relocate Utility

 
c
c

c
cc  c 
ccc
c c) c   c c
c


cc
c

Effectiveness:

3c G c 
 cc

Ôimitations:

3c  c 
c c c cc
c  c  c c   c
c  c  c
c
 c  cc

Considerations:

A.2 Elevate Utility

ñ 
cc c  c  
cc
c

c 
c   c 
 c
 
cc c 
c c
c cc  
cc

Effectiveness:

3c G c 
 c c  
c
 cc 
 c
c 
 c  c c

 c 
c  c
   cc 
cc

c c 
cc

Ôimitations:

3c c   c 
cc
c 
cc
3c c  
c 
 c cc
3c c
c c   c c  cc c cc c  c  cc

Considerations:

A.3 Encase the Utility

ñ  c

c  c  c c 
 c  
c cc
c
  cc

 
c  c c  
cc 
c
c

c
cc
c c 
c
c
 c   c  cc

Effectiveness:

3c G c 
 cc

Ôimitations:

3c c
c c   c c  c
c  c   c (
c
c  c 
c cc
  c 
  c  c c cc

 
 c cc c   
c

cc



c  c c c  c
c 
 c   cc
c 
c
  
c  
cc
c

. Soil Settlement
Introduction

Problem:

  
cc

  
cc   c

c cc

c 
c ccc  
c
Mitigation Objective:

'

c
c

cc  c

  
c   c   cc
 c c

.1 Ôine Damaged Pipes

'  cc  c   c c


cc 
c  c  c
c  
c  

cc
 

cc  
c  cc

  
cÔ  c c c  
c    c c
 c
c  

cc   c
c

c c  c
 
 
c
cc
c
 
c c   cc
c 
cg  c  c
  c c  cà c
c
c
  c c  c  cc   c  cc

Effectiveness:

3c G c 
 cc
3c * c  
c  

  

cc
 cc

Ôimitations:

3c Ô  cc
c c c c 
c  
c c
cc
cc  
cc
3c c
c c   cc c 
c  cc

Considerations:

.2 ury the Utility

' c cc



c  c c
  cc
 
c  cc 

cc
 
c  c c
c c cc
 c  ccc  c

  
cc
c

Effectiveness:

3c G c 
 cc

Ôimitations:

3c  
 c cc c

ccc
3c  c

c  c c c  c
c 
 c   cc
c 
c
  
c  
cc

 IRRIGATION FACIÔITIES

A. High Gelocity Flows

Introduction

Problem:

Ú  c 
c c 
cc  
c 
c  c  c

c
c   c

cc 
c c
c 
c

Mitigation Objective:

Ãc  
c cc  c  c 
c c

c c  c  c

A.1 Install an Inverted Siphon



cc  
c  c
c
 
c  
c
c cc
 cc c c
 c
c  
c
 cc  cc c
c
 c cc  
c
 cc
c

Effectiveness:

3c G c 
 c c  
c  c 
c cc
c  c
  c
c  
c 
cc

Ôimitations:

3c P 
cc
 cc cc  c
c
cc

Considerations:

A.2 Ôine Earthen Canals

)
c   c   c  
c 
c  cc  
c  
c
c
c
c cÔ  c c  cc cc  c
c 
 c c
  c  c c  c

c c  c
c  c   c c%g 

cc

c c  &cà c  
cc  c  c c c cc
 
c

 c
c  
c

 cccc
 c 
cc 
 c
c
  
c cc  c c
c
 c  cc
c 

cc

Effectiveness:

3c G c 
 cc
3c Ô  c 
c c c
c c cc
3c Ô  c c 
c c
c cc  
c
 c c   cc

Ôimitations:

3c )   cc
 cc c 
c c
c cc
c  
cc

Considerations:

cc

.3 Place Riprap

(SEE 1..5)

.4 Install Flow Diverters

(SEE 2.D.4)
c

 MISCEÔÔANEOUS FACIÔITIES

A. Inundation

Introduction

Problem:

P c
c   c 
c  c c  cc
c 
 c c c
 cc
c 
cc
c
c 

c c
c 
c c c
 cc
 cc  c

c c  c
 c
c
 c

Mitigation Objective:

Ãc

c   c 
cc c c
c
c 
c

A.1 Strengthen Fencing

g
 
c  c ccc
c 
c 
c cc &c c  c
 c
  -c"&c) c c c
c
c  c
-cc0&c
 c

  
c  c
cc
c

Effectiveness:

3c ô  c
 
 c c  c 
 c c  c

c c ccc
 
c c
c  c  c cc
3c )
c   c  c c  c    c  c
 c
cc

 c
c cc c   c
c    c
c 
  c c
 c
c 
ccc

Ôimitations:

3c ô  c
 
 c  c 
c 
  c c  cc 
c
c c
 
cc  c cc
3c ô  c
 
 c c c  c 
  c  c  cc c 
c
 c
 c
c   cc

Considerations:

A.2 Anchor & Tie-Down uoyant Facilities

'  c  cc


 cc c
 cc
c
c 
c  c c
  c c
 c   ccc   
c
c c
cc c
 cc cc  
cc

Effectiveness:

)  cc
 c c c 
 c c  c c
c 
cc
 c cc

3c ) c  
c(
cc  cc  c(
 ccc  cc

 
cc

Ôimitations:

3c c
c c 
 c c  cc 
c
c  c 
c c
c 
c

c c  c cc
c 
 c  
c  
cc
c


c

 c c c    cc

 MISCEÔÔANEOUS FACIÔITIES

. High Gelocity Flows

Introduction

Problem:

P c
c   c 
c  c c  cc
c c c c c
c  c
 
c c

c  c 
c
  cc c  c

c 
cc
c
 c
c 
c

Mitigation Objective:

Ãc

c   c 
cc
 c c c
c  c 
c c

.1 Install Sacrificial Fence Sections


c    c% &c  c
 c ccc
c  c%  c  c

 c  c
c c
c

 c 
 &c
cc
 c
c c   c
  cc( 
c  c
 c  
c(c c
c
c  cg   c

 c c c  c c

c
c  c
 cc
c  c c c
c

 cc  
c
c  cc  c 
c cc
c

Effectiveness:

3c ) c
c  cc  c 
c c c c c  c c

c
  cc

Ôimitations:

3c g   c  c
 cc   c   c
cc  
cc
3c c
c c 
 c c  
c c c

 c  c
c
 
c  cc c c
c
c
c

cc  cc

Considerations:

.2 Replace oat Ramp Material With Concrete

* c
c c c cc  c  c
c  c c
ccc
c

c
 c  cc cc  
c
cc
c  
cc

Effectiveness:

3c   
cc  c
 c
c  
cc c c 
 c c  cc
  
c c  c cc
3c 2
c   c  c c cc
c  c

c
  c c
c

c
 c  cc
ccc    c
c 
  cc
c


c

 cc

Ôimitations:

3c c
c c 
 c c

 c  c
c
cc c  
c 
c
c cc  c 
c cc
3c  
cc
cc c  cc
c

 c  c c 

cc
c(

c
c

c
cc c c    c c
c 
 cc

Considerations:

.3 Construct a Jetty to Protect oat Ramp



cc(

c
 cc
c
cc
c

c
cc  c 
c cc

Effectiveness:

3c 

ccc(

c
 cc
c
ccc c c 
 c c
  cc 
c
c  c 
c cc
3c 2
c   c  c c cc
c  c

c
  c c
c

c
 c  cc
ccc    c
c 
  cc
c


c

 cc

Ôimitations:

3c   c  
c
cc
c
c  
ccc