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# TRANSFORMER’S EFFICIENCY

## Prepared by:Lily Jean S. Junio

1. In a 100 KVA transformer, the iron loss is 1.2 kW and full-load copper loss is 2
kW. If the load p.f is 0.8 lagging, find the efficiency at (i)full-load and (ii) half
Given:
𝑆 = 100 𝑘𝑉𝐴
𝑃𝑐 = 1.2 𝑘𝑊
𝑃𝑐𝑢𝐹𝐿 = 2 𝑘𝑊
𝑃𝑓 = 0.8
Solution:

## 𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 (100×103 )(0.8)

(i) %𝑛𝐹𝐿 = 𝑃 × 100 = (100×103 )(0.8)+(1.2×103)+(2×103 ) × 100
𝑜𝑢𝑡 +𝑃𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑠

%𝒏𝑭𝑳 = 96.15
1
( )𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡
(ii) %𝑛𝐻𝐿 = 1
2
1 2
× 100
( )𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 +𝑃𝑐 +( ) 𝑃𝑐𝑢
2 2

1
(2)(100 × 103 )(0.8)
= × 100
1 1 2
(2)(100 × 103 )(0.8) + (1.2 × 103 ) + (2) (2 × 103 )

%𝒏𝑯𝑳 = 95.94
2. The primary and secondary windings of a 500 kVA,6600/400 V transformer
have resistances of 0.42 Ω and 0.0011 Ω respectively and the iron loss is 2.9 kW.
Calculate the efficiency at (i) full-load and (ii) half full-load, assuming the power
factor of the load to be 0.8 lagging. [(i)98.27% (ii) 95.07%]

Given:
𝑆 = 500 𝑘𝑉𝐴
6600 33
𝑎 = 400 = 2
𝑅1 = 0.42 Ω
𝑅2 = 0.0011Ω
𝑝𝐶 = 2.9 𝑘𝑊

Solution:

𝑃𝑐𝑢 = 𝐼2 2 + 𝑅𝑒2

500 × 103
𝐼2 = = 𝟏𝟐𝟓𝟎 𝑨
400
𝑅
𝑅𝑒2 = 𝑅2 + 𝑎21
0.42
𝑅𝑒2 = 0.0011 + 33 2
( )
2

## 𝑃𝑐𝑢 = 𝐼2 2 + 𝑅𝑒2 = (12502 )(2.643 × 10−3 ) =

𝟒𝟏𝟐𝟗. 𝟔𝟖 𝑾 𝒐𝒓 𝟒. 𝟏𝟑 𝒌𝑾
𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 500(0.8)
(i) %𝑛𝐹𝐿 = 𝑃 × 100 = 500(0.8)+2.9+4.13 × 100 = 98.27
𝑜𝑢𝑡 +𝑃𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑠

1
( )𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡
(ii) %𝑛𝐻𝐿 = 1
2
1 2
× 100
( )𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 +𝑃𝑐 +( ) 𝑃𝑐𝑢
2 2

1
(2)(500 × 103 )(0.8)
= × 100
1 1 2
(2)(500 × 103 )(0.8) + (2.9 × 103 ) + (2) (4.13 × 103 )

%𝒏𝑯𝑳 = 95.07
3. A 150 kVA transformer has an iron-loss of 1.4 kW and full-load copper loss of
2.8 kW. Calculate (i)the efficiency of transformer at full-load (ii) the maximum
efficiency of the transformer and (iii) the output power at the maximum level of
efficiency. Assume unity power factor. [(i)97.2% (ii) 98.13%(iii)106.05kW]

Given:
𝑆 = 150𝑘𝑉𝐴 %𝑛𝐹𝐿 =?
𝑃𝑐 = 1.4 𝑘𝑊 𝑃𝑜𝑚𝑎𝑥 =?
𝑃𝑐𝑢𝐹𝐿 = 2.8 𝑘𝑊 %𝑚𝑎𝑥 =?
𝑃𝑓 = 1
Solution:
𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 150(1)
(i) %𝑛 = 𝑃 × 100 = 150(1)+1.4+2.8 × 100 = 97.3
𝑜𝑢𝑡 +𝑃𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑠
𝑃𝑜𝑚𝑎𝑥 150(1)
(ii) %𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑃 × 100 = 150(1)+2(1.4) × 100 = 98.2
𝑜𝑚𝑎𝑥 +2𝑃𝑐
1.4
(iii) 𝑷𝒐𝒎𝒂𝒙 = 𝑘𝑉𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑥 (𝑝. 𝑓. ) = 150√2.8 (1) = 106.07 kW

4. A 100 kVA transformer has an iron loss of 1 kW and full-load Cu loss of 1.5
kW. Calculate the kVA loading at which the efficiency is maximum and its
efficiency at this loading at 0.8 p.f. lagging. [(i) 82.3 kVA (ii) 97.05%]

Given:
𝑆 = 100 𝑘𝑉𝐴
𝑃𝑐𝑢 = 1.5 𝑘𝑊
𝑃𝑐 = 1 𝑘𝑊
𝑘𝑉𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑥 =?
p.f.=0.8

Solution:

𝑃𝑐 1 𝑘𝑊
(𝑖) 𝑘𝑉𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑘𝑉𝐴𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 √ = 100 √ = 𝟖𝟐 𝒌𝑽𝑨
𝑃𝑐𝑢𝐹𝐿 1.5 𝑘𝑊

𝑃𝑜𝑚𝑎𝑥 82(0.8)
(𝑖𝑖) %𝑚𝑎𝑥 = × 100 = × 100 = 𝟗𝟕. 𝟎𝟒
𝑃𝑜𝑚𝑎𝑥 + 2𝑃𝑐 82(0.8) + 2(1)
5. A 300 kVA, single -phase transformer is designed to have a resistance of 1.5%
and maximum efficiency occurs at a load of 173.2kVa. find its efficiency when
supplying full-load at 0.8 p.f lagging at normal voltage and frequency.
[(i) 97..6%]
Given:
𝑆 = 300 𝑘𝑉𝐴
𝑘𝑉𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 173.2 𝑘𝑉𝐴
%𝑅 = 1.5
Solution:
𝑃
%𝑅 = 𝑃𝑐𝑢𝐹𝐿
𝑜𝑢𝑡
𝑃𝑐𝑢𝐹𝐿
0.015 =
300000𝑊
𝑃𝑐𝑢𝐹𝐿 = 4500 W

𝑃𝑐
𝑘𝑉𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑘𝑉𝐴𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 √𝑃
𝑐𝑢𝐹𝐿

𝑃
173.2 kVA = 300kVA √4500𝑐 𝑊

𝑃𝑐 = 1500 𝑊
𝑃𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑠 = 𝑃𝑐 + 𝑃𝑐𝑢𝐹𝑙 = 4500 + 1500 = 6000 𝑊
@ 0.8 p.f Lagging
𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 300 𝑘𝑉𝐴(0.8)
(i) %𝑛 = 𝑃 × 100 = 300𝑘𝑉𝐴+6𝑘𝑊 × 100 = 𝟗𝟕. 𝟔
𝑜𝑢𝑡 +𝑃𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑠
6. A 50 kVA, 6360/240 V transformer is tested on open and short circuit to obtain
efficiency. The results of the tests are as follows:
O.C test: Primary voltage 6360 V, Primary current 1 A, power input 2
kW
S.C test: Voltage across secondary winding 50 V, current in the secondary
winding 175 A, power input 2 kW.
Find the efficiency of the transformer when supplying full-load at a power factor
of 0.8 lagging. [(i) 89.2%]
Given:
𝑉𝑜𝑐 = 6360 𝑉 𝑉𝑆𝐿 = 50 𝑉
𝐼𝑜𝑐 = 1 𝐴 𝐼𝑆𝐿 = 175 𝐴
𝑃𝑖𝑛 𝑜𝑐 = 2 𝑘𝑊 𝑃𝑖𝑛 𝑆𝐶 = 2 𝑘𝑊
𝑃𝑐 = 2 𝑘𝑊 𝑃𝑐𝑢 𝐹𝐿 = 2 𝑘𝑊
p.f.=0.8

Solution:
𝑆 50 𝑘𝑉𝐴
𝐼2 = 𝑉 = =208.3 A
2240 𝑉
208.3
𝑃𝑐𝑢 = (%𝑠𝑖𝑧𝑒 )2 𝑃𝑐𝑢𝐹𝐿 = ( 175 )2 (2) = 2.83 𝑘𝑊
𝑃 50(0.8)
(i) %𝑛 = 𝑃 +𝑃 𝑜+𝑃 × 100 = 50(0.8)+2+2.83 × 100 = 89.2
𝑜 𝑐 𝑐𝑢

7. A 600 kVA, single phase transformer has an efficiency of 92% both at full-load
and half full- load at unity power factor. Determine its efficiency at 60% of full-
load at 0.8 power factor lag.
[(i) 90.59 %]
Given:
𝑆 = 600 𝑘𝑉𝐴
%𝑛 = 92.5
𝑝. 𝑓. = 1
Solution:
@ full load unity power factor
𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡
%𝑛 = 𝑃
𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡

600(1)
𝑃𝑖𝑛 = = 652.17 𝑘𝑊
0.92

## 𝑃𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑠 = 𝑃𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 − 𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡

𝑃𝑖 + 𝑃𝐶 = 652.17 𝑘𝑊 − 600 𝑘𝑊
𝑃𝑖 + 𝑃𝐶 = 52.17𝑘𝑊 → 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 1
@ half full-load ,unity power factor

(1/2)600(1)
𝑃𝑖𝑛 = = 326.08 𝑘𝑊
0.92

## 𝑃𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑠 = 𝑃𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 − 𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡

1
𝑃𝑖 + ( )2 𝑃𝐶 = 326.08𝑘𝑊 − 300 𝑘𝑊
2

1
𝑃𝑖 + ( )2 𝑃𝐶 = 26.08 → 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 2
2

SS:

𝑃𝑖 = 17.33 𝑘𝑊

𝑃𝑐 = 34.79 𝑘𝑊

## 𝑃𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑠 = 𝑃𝑖 + (0.6)2 𝑃𝑐 = 17.38 + (0.6)2 (34.78) = 29.91 𝑘𝑊

𝑃𝑜 288
%𝑛 = 𝑃 × 100 = × 100 = 90.59
𝑜 +𝑃𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑠 288+29.91
8. The losses in a 80 kVa,1100/250 V, single-phase transformer are as follows: Iron
losses 800W;copper loss with 160 A in low voltage winding is 200 W. Calculate the
[(i)98.8% (ii) 97.9%]
Given: 𝑆 = 80 𝑘𝑉𝐴
1100 22
𝑎= =
250 5
𝑃𝑐𝑢𝐹𝐿 = 200 𝑊
𝑃𝑐 = 800 𝑊
p.f.=1
Solution :
𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 (80×103 )(1)
(i) %𝑛𝐹𝐿 = 𝑃 × 100 = (80×103 )(1)+800+200 × 100 = 𝟗𝟖. 𝟖
𝑜𝑢𝑡 +𝑃𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑠
1
( )𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡
(ii) %𝑛𝐻𝐿 = 1
2
1 2
× 100
( )𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 +𝑃𝑐 +( ) 𝑃𝑐𝑢
2 2

1
(2)(80 × 103 )(1)
= × 100
1 1 2
(2)(80 × 103 )(1) + (800) + (2) (200)

%𝒏𝑯𝑳 = 97.9
9. A 4 kVA, 200/400 V, single-phase transformer has equivalent resistance and
reactance referred to low-voltage side equal to 0.5 Ω and 1.5 Ω respectively. Find the
terminal voltage on the high-voltage side when it supplies 3/4th full-load at power
factor of 0.8 lagging, the supply voltage being 200 V. Hence find the output of the
transformer and its efficiency of core losses are 100 W.
[(i)361 V (ii) 2.4kW (iii)91.87%]

Given:
400
𝑆 = 4 𝑘𝑉𝐴 𝑎 = 200 = 2
𝑅𝑒1 = 0.5 Ω 𝑅𝑒2 = 𝑎2 𝑅𝑒1 = 22 (0.5 Ω) = 2 Ω
𝑋𝑒1 = 1.5 Ω 𝑋𝑒2 = 𝑎2 𝑋𝑒1 = 22 (1.5 Ω) = 6 Ω
𝑝. 𝑓. = 0.8
𝜭 = 𝟑𝟔. 𝟖𝟕
𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜭 = 𝟎. 𝟔
Solution:
@ secondary current when load is ¾

3
4𝑘𝑉𝐴( )
𝐼2 = 4
= 7.5 𝐴
400

## 𝑃𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑠 = 𝑃𝐶 + 𝑃𝑐𝑢 = 100𝑊 + 112.5 𝑊 = 212.5 𝑊

3
(ii) 𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 = 4 𝑘𝑉𝐴(0.8) (4) = 𝟐. 𝟒 𝒌𝑾

𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 2400 𝑊
(iii) %𝑛 = × 100 = ((2400𝑊+212.5𝑊)) = 𝟗𝟏. 𝟖𝟕
𝑃𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡
10. A efficiency of a 20 kVA, 2000/200 V transformer is 96.8% at full-load unity p.f
and 96% at 60% of a load at 0.8 p.f. Find the regulation at full-load at: (i) 0.8 p.f.
lagging; and (ii)0.8 p.f. leading if the impedance is 7% .
[(i)5.469%(ii)-2.385%]
Given:
𝑆 = 20𝑘𝑉𝐴 %𝑛𝐹𝐿 = 96.8 p.f = 1
2000
𝑎 = 200 = 10 %𝑛60 = 96 p.f = 0.8

Solution:
20(1)
96.8% = 20(1)+𝑃 +𝑃 × 100
𝑐 𝑐𝑢𝐹𝐿

20(1)
20(1) + 𝑃𝑐 + 𝑃𝑐𝑢𝐹𝐿 = 0.968

𝑃𝑐 + 𝑃𝑐𝑢𝐹𝐿 = 𝟎. 𝟔𝟔 𝒌𝑾 → 𝒆𝒒𝒖𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏 𝟏
@ 96%
20(0.8)(0.6)
96% = 20(0.8)(0.6)+𝑃 +(0.6)2 𝑃 × 100
𝑐 𝑐𝑢𝐹𝐿

20(0.8)(0.6)
20(0.8)(0.6) + 𝑃𝑐 + (0.6)2 𝑃𝑐𝑢𝐹𝐿 = × 100
0.96
𝑃𝑐 + (0.6)2 𝑃𝑐𝑢𝐹𝐿 = 𝟎. 𝟒 𝒌𝑾 → 𝒆𝒒𝒖𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏 𝟐
SS:
𝑃𝑐 = 0.25375 𝑘𝑊
𝑃𝑐𝑢𝐹𝐿 = 0.40625 𝑘𝑊
𝑃𝑠𝑐 = 𝑃𝑐𝑢𝐹𝐿 = 0.40625 𝑘𝑊

𝑃𝑐𝑢𝐹𝐿 = 𝐼2 2 (𝑅𝑒2 )
𝑃𝑠𝑐 0.40625
𝐼𝑅 = = = 𝟐. 𝟎𝟑% 𝒐𝒓 𝟎. 𝟎𝟐𝟎𝟑
𝑘𝑉𝐴𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 20

%𝐼𝑍 = 7%

## (𝑖) %𝑉. 𝑅 = %𝐼𝑅𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜭 + %𝐼𝑋𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜭 = (𝟐. 𝟎𝟑)(𝟎. 𝟖) + (𝟔. 𝟕)(𝟎. 𝟔) = 𝟓. 𝟔%

(𝑖𝑖) %𝑉. 𝑅 = %𝐼𝑅𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜭 − %𝐼𝑋𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜭 = (𝟐. 𝟎𝟑)(𝟎. 𝟖) − (𝟔. 𝟕)(𝟎. 𝟔) = −𝟐. 𝟑𝟗𝟔%
Rationale

Traffic light which is one of the vital public facilities that plays an important role

to the road users. Traffic congestion problem is a phenomenon which contributed huge

impact to the transportation system in the country. This causes many problems especially

when there are emergency cases at traffic light intersections which are always busy with

many vehicles.

The traffic light has given many benefits to all road users. Besides reducing the

number of accidents, it made the traffic flow smoothly and possibly could save people

time.

The basic idea behind the design is to avoid the collisions of vehicles providing

appropriate signals to different directions for a limited time slot, after which the next

waiting drivers will be given same treatment. In this way a cycle will be established