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Jan week 4

Night in the Country

By Cynthia Rylant

Day 1

There is no night so dark, so black as night in the country.And while the

people dream of daytime things, the nighttime world awakens. Owls
swoop, a rabbit patters, and in the yard an apple falls -- pump! -- from
the tree.
Listen. Go to the window. Across the field a light glows. Who else is up
so late? Who else watches and hears the sights and sounds of night in the
country -- the many stirrings of silence, the many colors of the dark?
Lyrical text and velvety pictures present a very different kind of
nighttime: a mysterious, moving night that will lull small children to
About The Author

Day 2

a) LOGIC – is the use and study of valid reasoning.

b) FAULTY - (of reasoning and other mental processes) mistaken or

misleading because of flaws.
Faulty logic describes poor reasoning, such as the use of fallacious
arguments like personal (ad hominem) attacks, irrelevancies, analogies.

Example: They fall into three main types: Distraction; Ambiguity;

and Form.

1. Fallacies of Distraction
Ad baculum (Veiled threat): "to the stick": - threatening an opponent if
they don’t agree with you; - "If you don’t agree with me you’ll get hurt!"

2. Fallacies of Ambiguity
Division: assuming that what is true of whole must be true of the parts; -
"The Lakers are a great team, so every player must be great too."

3. Fallacies of Form
Post hoc ergo propter hoc (False cause): "after this, therefore because of
this;" - assuming that a temporal sequence proves a causal relationship; -
"I saw a great movie before my test; that must be why I did so well."
c) FACTS – something that has really occurred or is actually the case.

...unsupported facts are those facts claimed by an individual or a group

of individuals that have actually occurred but were unable to provide
sufficient evidence to support their claim... (see full details

d) APPEAL - the power of arousing a sympathetic response.

An emotional appeal is a method of persuasion that's designed to create

an emotional response. Emotional appeals persuade audiences by
arousing the emotions. They refer to the speaker or writer’s goal of
arousing the emotions of an audience to move them to act.

Example: Emotional appeals are especially prevalent in advertising.

When fashion magazines play on our insecurities about body image,
they're using emotional appeals. When political ads play on our fears,
telling us that voting for someone will lead to financial ruin or wars,
they're using emotional appeals.
Read more on -

3rd day
Would You Need Help Writing a Play Summary?
Plays come in many forms from short single act performances through to full-length plays and
even musicals. Some would characterize plays by a playwright such as Shakespeare as comedies,
tragedies, and histories. No matter how you categorize them, however, plays are a rare opportunity
to see in action what another has written in a way that just cannot be rivaled by what you will see
on TV or in the cinema. As such, writing a play summary is a favorite for many tutors and you
will often be tasked with this as an assignment. Your summary will need to capture the main parts
of the play so that your reader will have a good grasp of just what the play is about. The reason for
this is so that you can demonstrate a full understanding of what has been displayed through the
theatrical performance. Often you will be asked to not only summarizing on what has happened
but also to analyze it to discover the underlying meaning or moral being imparted by the author.
Summaries are not just written as assignments however, you may wish to create a summary as part
of a larger paper or discussion. You may even want to write one for promotional purposes or even
as a review within a newspaper or online. Whatever the purpose, however, you will need to learn
how to capture the most important points of the play for your audience.

How to Write a Summary of a Play

Writing a summary is rarely as simple as just providing an outline of the plot. More often than not
you are evaluating not just the actual storyline and characters but also the specific theatrical
performance that you will get to see. So preparing yourself appropriately is very important if you
are going to do it well.
The following guidance will help you to write a summary of a play effectively:
 Ensure that you are fully aware of what the requirements are for your assignment; is this a simple summary
of the plotline for the play, are you going to analyze the play, or are you looking at the whole performance as
a whole? You need to be clear on this before you view the performance so as to know what notes you need
to take.
 Read the play through before you see the performance. Unless you are planning to sit through the play more
than once it is often best to have a good understanding of the play before you actually get to see it performed.
This will allow you to be better focused when taking your notes. You may also want to highlight areas within
the play at this point that you feel are important or maybe even difficult for the performance.
 Attend the performance and take notes; ensure however that you concentrate fully on the performance and
not just looking at your notepad. You will need to consider all of the followings when watching the
performance as well as the actual plotline of the play:
o Has the director followed the play just as it was written or have they made any deviations? If so why have they
made the changes?
o Is the play as you expected or did you learn something different from watching it to simply reading it?
o How were the costumes and the design of the sets? Were they as you imagined from reading?
o How was the performance of the actors? Did they deliver in the way that you expected?
o Were there any restrictions to how the play was to be performed due to the stage etc.
o After the play discuss what you have seen with your fellow students to get their opinions also as to what they
have observed.
o Create an outline for your summary based on the notes that you have taken from which to write. If you are
purely writing a summary based on the plot then that is all you should be including within your outline. More
often, however, you will be expected to actually evaluate what you have seen.
o Edit your writing very carefully to ensure that you have met all expectations for a format, length of summary and
what you needed to cover.
o Carefully proofread your writing so that there are no errors in your writing. Errors will have a significant impact
on your grades as well as lower your credibility in the eyes of the reader.
Remember however, as George Bernard Shaw once said:

“In order to fully realize how bad a popular play can be, it is necessary to see it twice.”
esson Transcript
Instructor: Angela Janovsky

Angela has taught middle and high school English, Social Studies, and Science for seven years. She
has a bachelor's degree in psychology and has earned her teaching license.
A play is a form of literature with a distinct approach and formatting. In this lesson, you'll learn about
the basic guidelines and strategies for writing the script of a play.

Play: Definition
To be, or not to be…that is the question.
This is one of the most famous lines from a play that's ever been written. Do you think you can write
a play with such a long-lasting impact? Well, it might be a stretch to aim for Shakespearean quality
right off the bat, but you can definitely work on several aspects of play writing to create a meaningful
In literature, a play is text written in the form of dialogue among characters that's intended to be
performed on a stage rather than read. Since a play relies almost completely on dialogue, it can be
difficult to write. This lesson focuses on the basic guidelines for how to write the script of a play.

Before you can begin to write a play, you first have to understand the format and how a play differs
in structure from other types of fiction. A play is written as a script, a text version of planned
There are two major parts of a script. The dialogue refers to the words that will be spoken by the
actors. The stage directions are instructions about the positioning or movement of the actors or
different aspects of the set.
Let's take a look at an example: the dialogue and stage directions from William Shakespeare's
play Romeo and Juliet.

Verona. A public place.

Enter SAMPSON and GREGORY, of the house of Capulet, armed with swords and bucklers.
SAMPSON: Gregory, o' my word, we'll not carry coals.
GREGORY: No, for then we should be colliers.
SAMPSON: I mean, an we be in choler, we'll draw.
GREGORY: Ay, while you live, draw your neck out o' the collar.

Do you see the difference in formatting between the dialogue and stage direction in this excerpt?
First, note how the stage directions are in italics and separated from the dialogue. Stage directions
are often given right at the start of a new scene so that the reader can visualize what the actors will
be doing on stage. For the dialogue, note how the text moves to a new line when the speaker
changes. Additionally, the speaker's name appears before each line of dialogue. Furthermore, the
names are written in all caps to help them stand out. If you need to provide more stage directions
throughout a scene, set them apart just like the ones shown previously.

Acts & Scenes

Once you understand the formatting for a play, your next step is to plan the organization of your own
script. Most plays are organized into acts, the larger sections of text, and scenes, or sections of text
within an act. Acts follow the normal cycle of a plot. In fact, Shakespeare always wrote five acts,
which represented the parts of a story (exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, resolution).
Each act can have several scenes, which usually change when the characters or the setting
changes. Just like

Example of a Play Summary

Summarizing a play is rarely easy, however looking at an example will often give you some good
guidance as to what you should write and how you should structure it. Do not however simply
copy what you find as that would be considered plagiarism and is not going to get you the results
that you are expecting.
Of course, a summary can be as long or as short as required depending on the demands that are
placed on you. For example, you could summarize a play such as Romeo and Juliet as follows:
“A girl and a boy from two families at war fall in love and then kill themselves.”
Always ensure that you fully understand the requirements and write your summary in your own
words at all times.
We Can Support Your Theatrical Summary Writing
Whether you need a simple summary or a full blown analysis of the play our experts are able to
provide you with the support that you need. We offer our help through specialists that are highly
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that fully understands the play that you are writing about.
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iterary Analysis: Using Elements of Literature

Students are asked to write literary analysis essays because this type of
assignment encourages you to think about how and why a poem, short story,
novel, or play was written. To successfully analyze literature, you’ll need to
remember that authors make specific choices for particular reasons. Your essay
should point out the author’s choices and attempt to explain their significance.

Another way to look at a literary analysis is to consider a piece of literature from

your own perspective. Rather than thinking about the author’s intentions, you
can develop an argument based on any single term (or combination of terms)
listed below. You’ll just need to use the original text to defend and explain your
argument to the reader.

Allegory - narrative form in which the characters are representative of some

larger humanistic trait (i.e. greed, vanity, or bravery) and attempt to convey
some larger lesson or meaning to life. Although allegory was originally and
traditionally character based, modern allegories tend to parallel story and

 William Faulkner’s A Rose for Emily- the decline of the Old South
 Robert Louis Stevenson’s Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde- man’s
struggle to contain his inner primal instincts
 District 9- South African Apartheid
 X Men- the evils of prejudice
 Harry Potter- the dangers of seeking “racial purity”

Character - representation of a person, place, or thing performing traditionally

human activities or functions in a work of fiction

 Protagonist - The character the story revolves around.

 Antagonist - A character or force that opposes the protagonist.
 Minor character - Often provides support and illuminates the
 Static character - A character that remains the same.
 Dynamic character - A character that changes in some important way.
 Characterization - The choices an author makes to reveal a character’s
personality, such as appearance, actions, dialogue, and motivations.

Look for: Connections, links, and clues between and about characters. Ask
yourself what the function and significance of each character is. Make this
determination based upon the character's history, what the reader is told (and
not told), and what other characters say about themselves and others.

Connotation - implied meaning of word. BEWARE! Connotations can change

over time.
 confidence/ arrogance
 mouse/ rat
 cautious/ scared
 curious/ nosey
 frugal/ cheap

Denotation - dictionary definition of a word

Diction - word choice that both conveys and emphasizes the meaning or theme
of a poem through distinctions in sound, look, rhythm, syllable, letters, and

Figurative language - the use of words to express meaning beyond the literal
meaning of the words themselves

 Metaphor - contrasting to seemingly unalike things to enhance the

meaning of a situation or theme without using like or as
o You are the sunshine of my life.
 Simile - contrasting to seemingly unalike things to enhance the meaning
of a situation or theme using like or as
o What happens to a dream deferred, does it dry up like a raisin in
the sun
 Hyperbole - exaggeration
o I have a million things to do today.
 Personification - giving non-human objects human characteristics
o America has thrown her hat into the ring, and will be joining forces
with the British.

Foot - grouping of stressed and unstressed syllables used in line or poem

 Iamb - unstressed syllable followed by stressed

o Made famous by the Shakespearian sonnet, closest to the natural
rhythm of human speech
 How do I love thee? Let me count the ways
 Spondee - stressed stressed
o Used to add emphasis and break up monotonous rhythm
 Blood boil, mind-meld, well- loved
 Trochee - stressed unstressed
o Often used in children’s rhymes and to help with memorization,
gives poem a hurried feeling
 While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a ta
 Anapest - unstressed unstressed stressed
o Often used in longer poems or “rhymed stories”
 Twas the night before Christmas and all through the house
 Dactyls - stressed unstressed unstressed
o Often used in classical Greek or Latin text, later revived by the
Romantics, then again by the Beatles, often thought to create a
heartbeat or pulse in a poem
 Picture yourself in a boat on a river,
With tangerine trees and marmalade skies.

The iamb stumbles through my books; trochees rush and tumble; while anapest
runs like a hurrying brook; dactyls are stately and classical.

Imagery - the author’s attempt to create a mental picture (or reference point)
in the mind of the reader. Remember, though the most immediate forms of
imagery are visual, strong and effective imagery can be used to invoke an
emotional, sensational (taste, touch, smell etc) or even physical response.

Meter - measure or structuring of rhythm in a poem

Plot - the arrangement of ideas and/or incidents that make up a story

 Foreshadowing - When the writer clues the reader in to something that

will eventually occur in the story; it may be explicit (obvious) or implied
 Suspense - The tension that the author uses to create a feeling of
discomfort about the unknown
 Conflict - Struggle between opposing forces.
 Exposition - Background information regarding the setting, characters,
 Rising Action - The process the story follows as it builds to its main
 Crisis - A significant turning point in the story that determines how it
must end
 Resolution/Denouement - The way the story turns out.
Point of View - pertains to who tells the story and how it is told. The point of
view of a story can sometimes indirectly establish the author's intentions.

 Narrator - The person telling the story who may or may not be a
character in the story.
 First-person - Narrator participates in action but sometimes has limited
 Second person - Narrator addresses the reader directly as though she is
part of the story. (i.e. “You walk into your bedroom. You see clutter
everywhere and…”)
 Third Person (Objective) - Narrator is unnamed/unidentified (a
detached observer). Does not assume character's perspective and is not a
character in the story. The narrator reports on events and lets the reader
supply the meaning.
 Omniscient - All-knowing narrator (multiple perspectives). The narrator
knows what each character is thinking and feeling, not just what they are
doing throughout the story. This type of narrator usually jumps around
within the text, following one character for a few pages or chapters, and
then switching to another character for a few pages, chapters, etc.
Omniscient narrators also sometimes step out of a particular character’s
mind to evaluate him or her in some meaningful way.

Rhythm - often thought of as a poem’s timing. Rhythm is the juxtaposition of

stressed and unstressed beats in a poem, and is often used to give the reader a
lens through which to move through the work. (See meter and foot)

Setting - the place or location of the action. The setting provides the historical
and cultural context for characters. It often can symbolize the emotional state
of characters. Example – In Poe’s The Fall of the House of Usher, the crumbling
old mansion reflects the decaying state of both the family and the narrator’s
mind. We also see this type of emphasis on setting in Thomas Mann’s Death in

Speaker - the person delivering the poem. Remember, a poem does not have
to have a speaker, and the speaker and the poet are not necessarily one in the

Structure (fiction) - The way that the writer arranges the plot of a story.

Look for: Repeated elements in action, gesture, dialogue, description, as well as

shifts in direction, focus, time, place, etc.

Structure (poetry) - The pattern of organization of a poem. For example, a

Shakespearean sonnet is a 14-line poem written in iambic pentameter. Because
the sonnet is strictly constrained, it is considered a closed or fixed form. An
open or free form poem has looser form, or perhaps one of the author’s
invention, but it is important to remember that these poems are not
necessarily formless.

Symbolism - when an object is meant to be representative of something or an

idea greater than the object itself.

 Cross - representative of Christ or Christianity

 Bald Eagle - America or Patriotism
 Owl - wisdom or knowledge
 Yellow - implies cowardice or rot

Tone - the implied attitude towards the subject of the poem. Is it hopeful,
pessimistic, dreary, worried? A poet conveys tone by combining all of the
elements listed above to create a precise impression on the reader.

types of Play
Quick revise
Shakespeare wrote nearly 40 plays during his life. These plays can be
divided into four types:

Tragedies – these plays focus on a tragic hero (or couple, as in

Romeo and Juliet) whose downfall is brought about through
weakness or misfortune of some kind. This kind of play ends
with the death of the central character but also involves the death
of a number of other characters.
 Comedies – this kind of play involves humour and often
confusion, disguise,mistaken identity etc. Unlike our modern
idea of comedy, some ofShakespeare’s comedies can be quite
‘dark’ but the main thing is that they end happily and there are no
deaths at the end.
Histories – this kind of play is based on historical events and

characters, often on kings or important figures from Roman
history. These plays often have tragic elements too.
 Romances – these are some of Shakespeare’s later plays
(sometimes called ‘Last Plays), and often involve magical worlds
and happenings, mysterious events and moral lessons contained
within a ‘happy’ ending. A small number of his plays, however,
do not fit easily into these categories. These are plays that fall
somewhere between tragedy and comedy and contain dark,
unsettling elements but which end ‘happily’ in so far as no one
dies. They are knows as ‘Problem Comedies’ or ‘Dark

Decide which type of play you are studying and be aware of its
particular characteristics

Plot and Structure

All plays, including those of Shakespeare, have a plot and some kind
of structure.
Put simply, the plot of a play is the ‘story’ that the play tells and the
structure is the way that the story is organised and put together.
Plot and structure are important because they make up the whole
‘storyline’ of the play and so, before you can really begin to study
the other aspects of the play, you really need to be familiar with
You cannot begin to study a play properly until you know what happens
in the play.