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# MODULE 3

## DETERMINATION OF FLUID SATURATION ON CORE SAMPLE WITH SOLVENT

EXTRACTION METHOD

EXPERIMENT REPORT

Name :
Student ID Number :
Shift : Rabu01_Kelompok03
Experiment Date : March 13th, 2019
Submission Date : March 19th, 2019
Lecturer : Prof. Ir. Pudji Permadi M.Sc., Ph.D.
Module Assistant :

PETROPHYSICS LABORATORY

## BANDUNG INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

2019

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COVER ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

## CHAPTER III ANALYSIS .............................................................................................................................................. 12

Assumptions ............................................................................................................................................................ 12

Analysis...................................................................................................................................................................... 12

## For Assistant ............................................................................................................................................................ 18

REFERENCE..................................................................................................................................................................... 19

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TABLE LIST

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PICTURE LIST

## Picture I.3.2. Hassler Core Holder............................................................................................................................. 6

Picture III.2.1. Graph of relationships between capillary pressure and water saturation............. 15

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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

## I.1 Module Title :

“Determination of Fluid Saturation on Core Sample with Solvent Extraction Method”

## I.2 Practical Work Objectives:

1. Determine the saturation of fluid (oil and water) contained in a core sample with the
solvent extraction method
2. Determine the porosity of a core sample indirectly
3. Understand the principles and how the solvent extraction tool works
4. Determine the relationship of saturation to other rock properties
I.3 Fundamental Theory
Knowing the quantity of fluid in a reservoir is very important. One of the petrophysics
properties that is very helpful in knowing this is saturation.
Saturation is defined as the ratio between the volume of fluid that fills the pores of the rock
with the total volume of rock pores. Mathematically saturation can be expressed in the equation:
𝑉 𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 𝑖𝑛 𝑟𝑜𝑐𝑘 𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑒
𝑆=
𝑉 𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑟𝑜𝑐𝑘 𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑒
The rock pores in a reservoir are always filled with fluid in the form of water, oil, and gas, so
the third amount of saturation must be worth 1. The value of fluid saturation in a reservoir rock
can be determined in two ways:
a. Determination by direct approach
The approach is done by measuring fluid saturation from a core sample taken directly
from a reservoir.
b. Determination by indirect approach
The approach is done by knowing in advance some physical properties of a reservoir
rock which will later be converted into saturation values.

One method of measuring fluid saturation in the laboratory is the solvent extraction method.
In this experiment, the type of solvent used was toluene. The solvent is heated, then it will
evaporate, rise, and push the fluid inside the core sample towards the condenser for condensation.
Water, oil and condensed solvents will descend into the graduated tube. Because water has a
greater density than oil and toluene, water will occupy the bottom. Solvents and dissolved oils that
are still in the form of steam will return to the heating tube. Thus, the amount of water contained
in the core sample can be seen from the volume of water collected in the graduated tube.

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The following are the main tools used in this module lab.

## Picture I.3.2. Hassler Core Holder

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In addition to knowing the amount of water contained in the core sample, this experiment
indirectly can also determine the value of rock porosity by knowing the core weight when dry and
the core weight when saturated.

There are some terms which is related with saturation, they are:
1. Connate water saturation, is the saturation of the formation water found in the reservoir, of
varying value depending on the depth of the rock and the geometry of the pores.
2. Initial water saturation, is the saturation of water in the initial conditions in the reservoir
where hydrocarbons are produced
3. Irreducible water saturation, is the maximum water saturation where water cannot flow
again in the rock.
4. Residual gas saturation, is the gas saturation that is left behind and cannot flow in the
reservoir.
5. Critical gas saturation, is the minimum gas saturation in the reservoir so that gas can flow
through rock pores.
6. Critical oil saturation, is the minimum oil saturation to flow through rock pores.
7. Residual oil saturation, is the condition of the oil content in the reservoir when oil can no
longer be driven by another fluid.

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CHAPTER II
DATA PROCESSING

## Length of core sample Lcore 3.75 cm

Table II.1.1. Experiment data
* Determination of paraffin density using reference density data is equal to 0.87 g / cc.

## II.2. Data Calculation

a. Determine the density of fluid using picnometer
Formula for calculating density of fluid:
𝑊𝑝𝑖𝑐𝑛𝑜+𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 − 𝑊𝑝𝑖𝑐𝑛𝑜
𝜌𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 =
𝑉𝑝𝑖𝑐𝑛𝑜

So, the density of water using a picnometer can be determined using the following
calculation.
 Density of water:
𝑊𝑝𝑖𝑐𝑛𝑜+𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 − 𝑊𝑝𝑖𝑐𝑛𝑜
𝜌𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 =
𝑉𝑝𝑖𝑐𝑛𝑜

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40.02 − 14.42
𝜌𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 =
25
𝑔𝑟
𝜌𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 1.024 = 1.024 𝑔𝑟/𝑐𝑐
𝑚𝐿

## b. Determine bulk volume of core sample

Formula for calculating bulk volume:
1
𝑉𝑏 = 𝜋 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 2 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ
4
1
𝑉𝑏 = 𝜋 𝐷𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑒 2 𝐿𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑒
4
1
𝑉𝑏 = (3.14) (2.25)2 (3.75)
4
𝑉𝑏 = 14.9027 𝑐𝑐

## c. Determine weight of fluid in core sample

Total weight of fluid in core sample:

## 𝑊𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑛 𝑖𝑛 𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑒 = 1.906 𝑔𝑟

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d. Determine volume of fluid and pore volume
Volume of fluid (paraffin) contained in core sample (in pores) can be calculated as follows.
𝑊𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑛 𝑖𝑛 𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑒
𝑉𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑛 =
𝜌𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑛

1.906
𝑉𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑛 =
0.87
𝑉𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑛 = 2.1908 𝑐𝑐

## 𝑉𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑒 = 2.1908 + 3.5

𝑉𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑒 = 5.6908 𝑐𝑐

## e. Determine saturation of fluid

Formula for calculating saturation of fluid :
𝑉𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑
𝑆𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑖𝑑 =
𝑉𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑒

##  Saturation of water in core sample

𝑉𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑
𝑆𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 =
𝑉𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑒

3.5
𝑆𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 =
5.6908
𝑆𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 0.615

##  Saturation of paraffin in core sample

𝑉𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑛
𝑆𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑛 =
𝑉𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑒

2.1908
𝑆𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑛 =
5.6908
𝑆𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑛 = 0.385

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f. Determine porosity of core sample
Formula for calculating porosity of core sample :
𝑉𝑝𝑜𝑟𝑒
∅𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑒 = × 100%
𝑉𝑏𝑢𝑙𝑘

5.6908
∅𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑒 = × 100%
14.9027
∅𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑒 = 0.382

∅𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑒 = 38.2 %

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CHAPTER III
ANALYSIS

III.1. Assumptions
The assumptions used in this lab are as follows.
1. Core samples are perfect tubes, so bulk volume can be calculated as cylinder volume.
2. There are no measurement errors and readings when using various tools.
3. There are no impurities or other particles entering the tools and materials.
4. Connected pore volume in the core sample is 100% fulfilled entirely
5. When calculating data processing, rounding is done from 2 to 4 decimal places just behind
the comma.
6. All extractions and condensation are complete so that all the fluid on the core sample falls
7. The tool used does not leak.
8. The pressure given in Hassler Core Holder is fixed, which is equal to 100 psi.
9. There is no steam coming out of the condenser
10. There was no volume difference in the core sample from saturated core to dry core.
11. When the core sample is dried, there is no more fluid left in it.

III.2. Analysis
1. Tool Analysis
The tools used in this lab are as follows.
 Solvent Extraction Equipment
This tools is used to determine saturation by using heating the solvent, such
as toluene. This is done to get data on the volume of water collected in graduated
tubes. The condition of this tool is good enough and can be used.
 Picnometer
This tool is used to measure mass of liquid (water and paraffin) and then it
can be calculated the density for each other. Mass of fluid is got by measure the
weight difference between empty picnometer and picnometer filled with fluid.
The density can be calculated by dividing mass of fluid by volume of picnometer.
The condition of this tool is good enough and can be used.
 Electric Heater
This tool is used to heat the solvent (toluene) in solvent extraction
equipment so that the fluid contained in core can evaporate. The condition of this
tool is good enough and can be used.
 Erlenmeyer Tube
This tool is used as a container for core sample when doing saturation
process. The condition of this tool is good enough and can be used.
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 Hassler Core Holder
This tool works based on pushing certain fluid by another fluid caused by
pressure difference for both ends of the core sample. This tool is used so that core
sample can be saturated by two different fluid by pushing paraffin to the core
which has been saturated by water before. The condition of this tool is good
enough and can be used.
 Measuring Cup
This tool is used to collect the fluid which has come out from Hassler Core
Holder. The condition of this tool is good enough and can be used.
 Calipers
This tool is used to measure the dimension of core sample, such as diameter
and length of core so that by this data, we can calculated the volume of bulk core
as the volume of cylinder. The condition of this tool is good enough and can be
used.
 Scales
This tool is used to weigh dry core and saturated core. Furthermore, scales
is also used to weigh picnometer filled with water and the empty picnometer. The
condition of this tool is good enough and can be used.
 Oven
This tool is used to dry the core sample after being used in solvent extraction
process because we want to get data of dry core. The condition of this tool is good
enough and can be used.
 Cloth/tissue
This tool is used to close the vapor exhaust section. At the lab yesterday, the
tools used were only tissue. The condition of this tool is good enough and can be
used.
 N2 Gas Tube
This tool is used as N2 gas supply for Hassler Core Holder tool for confining
pressure. There is a regulator that is used to set the value of pressure. The
condition of this tool is good enough and can be used.

## 2. Practical Work Analysis

Practicum on March 13, 2019 went well, smoothly and without accident. We
share each work well, so that all practitioners work together based on their respective
parts and work alternately. Therefore, data retrieval becomes effective and the
completion of timely measurements. However, not all data was obtained at the time of
the practicum as well, for example volume water data in graduated tubes. Where data
will be taken the next day after the graduated tube is left for one day. And also, in this
practicum, we just do some steps directly, not all steps as in module, such as doing
saturation to the core sample with water for one day, doing displacement to the core
sample with paraffin which before it has been saturated with water by using Hassler
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Core Holder, and measure density of paraffin by using picnometer. So, the practitioner
is only presented the steps and the assistant directly gives the sample core that has
been saturated and also give some data.

## We make measurements carefully and thoroughly guided by an assistant so that

the data obtained is estimated to be accurate data or hopefully the error is quite small.
However, not all data is obtained through experiments conducted by practitioners,
such as density of paraffin data that should use a picnometer to measure it. Density of
paraffin uses reference density data, which is around 0.87-0.9 g / cc. And I chose the
density of paraffin value to be used in the calculation that is equal to 0.87.

3. Result Analysis

From the results of the experiment, the saturation value in the core sample which
contains two fluids (water and paraffin) is 0.615, while the paraffin saturation value in
the core sample is 0.385. From this measurement, the core sample porosity value was
also measured, which was 38.2%. From the measurement results and calculation of
saturation values obtained, it can be said that paraffin saturation (or can be likened to
oil) is not good, and less profitable if it is first produced because the water saturation
value is greater than the paraffin saturation value itself. While the value of the porosity
itself is considered good enough because it has a fairly large value.

The method used to measure saturation this time is the Solvent Extraction
method. This method is a method of measurement directly on the core sample, which
means the value is not obtained from calculations using other data (such as porosity
data, permeability, etc.), but by making direct measurements using a series of solvent
extraction tools. Direct measurement data is more accurate because the data is
measured directly using various appropriate methods and has a fairly small error.
Measurement of porosity was also obtained from indirect calculations so that the value
obtained during the practicum can be considered less accurate.

Before carrying out this method, water fluids are saturated in a vacuum. In this
water saturation, it is assumed that the core is fully filled with water. There is no more
gas contained in the core, so the core only contains water. Next, paraffin is pressed by
a Hassler Core Holder on the core sample which has been saturated with water. This is
so that the core condition we want to examine is in accordance with the state of the
reservoir, so that we can determine the accurate value of water saturation and oil
saturation. In this tool, there are two pressures that work, namely confining pressure
from tube N2 and the pressure given by the compressor to inject paraffin into the core.
When it was pressed into a Hassler Core Holder, the core containing two fluids (water
and paraffin) was then weighed. After pressing paraffin, core samples can be put into
Solvent Extraction equipment. Next, the solvent is heated until it evaporates and can
pressure the water inside. Water that has been pushed and evaporated will pass
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through the condenser to experience condensation. Finally, the condensation results
will be accommodated by graduated tube. Graduated tubes will be left for a day so that
the volume of water is slightly mixed with other substances, such as paraffin can be
separated. The volume values obtained in graduated tubes will be used in calculations
to determine water and paraffin saturation in the core sample.

There are several things about the relationship of saturation with other
petrophysics quantities, such as porosity, permeability, capillary pressure, wettability
and resistivity. For porosity, the increased porosity indicates that the rock pore volume
also increases. This means that the volume of fluid in the core will also increase due to
the larger pore volume occupied so that fluid saturation will increase. Therefore, the
more porosity increases the saturation value increases. As a result of this, the more
pores occupied by fluid, the more fluid it will flow through the porous media.
Therefore, as saturation increases, permeability will increase. Whereas for capillary
pressure, the relationship between capillary pressure and saturation can be described
and explained through the capillary pressure (Pc) vs. saturation (Sw) curve as shown
in the following figure.

## Picture III.2.1. Graph of relationships between capillary pressure and water

saturation

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From the graph above, it can be seen that the relationship between capillary
pressure and saturation depends on the situation, namely imbibition or drainage.
Drainage is the process by which the fluid non-wetting phase exerts its fluid wetting
phase, while the imbibition is the process by which the fluid wetting phase urges the
non-wetting phase of the fluid. From the graph, when drainage, water saturation will
decrease with increasing capillary pressure, whereas in imbibition conditions, water
saturation will increase with decreasing. Therefore, the value of water saturation is
inversely proportional to capillary pressure. As for resistivity, the greater the
resistivity value of rocks containing hydrocarbons, the smaller the value of water
saturation.

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CHAPTER IV
CONCLUSION

## 1. Calculation of fluid saturation results as follow.

𝑆𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 0.615
𝑆𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑛 = 0.385
2. The porosity of the core sample results by indirect calculations is equal to 38.2%.
3. The principle of solvent extraction method is working by heating the solvent (toluene) to
get the volume of water collected in graduated tube after the evaporated water from
saturated core condensing in condenser.
4. Relations saturation with:
a. Porosity, is the increasing porosity, then saturation increases.
b. Permeability, is the greater the saturation, the greater the value of permeability
c. Capillary pressure, is explained through a curve of capillary pressure (Pc) vs. saturation
(Sw) where the relationship is inversely proportional.
d. Wettability, is that rock wettability determines imbibition and drainage conditions in the
graph of relationship between capillary pressure and saturation, so indirectly rock
wettability affects saturation.
e. Resistivity, is the greater the resistivity value of rocks containing hydrocarbons, the
smaller the value of water saturation.

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CHAPTER V
SUGGESTION

## 1. For Practical Work

This practice is quite unique because it is different from the previous week. This week's
practicum uses English language. Of course, this is a very good for developing the ability of
the practitioner of public speaking using English. Therefore, the practicum system that uses
English needs to be maintained and improved the system used is related to this. Overall, this
practicum is easy to understand based on the modules and videos provided so that it is very
good to maintain. My message regarding this practicum is:
 Development of practicum tools is carried out.
 Practicum time is not enough just around half an hour because each practitioner should
be able to conduct experiments in order to understand all the experiments in this
module.

2. For Assistant

Assistants in practicum are very helpful in understanding the workings of the tools,
work procedures and concepts/theories used in this experiment, but little bit nosy to
practitioner during the test and practicum takes place. There are so many new things done
in this practicum with the assistants that is different with the other assistants before, for
example start from preliminary test that it asks us to take photos with apparatus in this
for only one minute, practice the tool by likening several people to the tools that is used in
this practicum, etc. But overall, behind so many jokes in this experiment, I understand how
the tools and objectives work in this module work and get a lot of concepts about saturation
measurement. My message to assistants are still maintaining good performance now and
hopefully it can be improved.

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REFERENCE

Amyx, Bass, Whiting. 1960. “Petroleum Reservoir Engineering Physical Properties”. New York: Mc.
GrawHill Book Company.
Latifa, Zilva Rifanti. 2014. “Catatan Kuliah Petrofisika”. Bandung: Institut Teknologi Bandung
Tim Penyusun Modul Praktikum. 2019. “Buku Petunjuk Praktikum Laboratorium Petrofisika Teknik
Perminyakan ITB.” Bandung: Institut Teknologi Bandung.

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