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YODER, H.S. & TILLEY , C.E., 1962. Origin of Structur der Basaltgesteine. Moncur, Bonn.
basalt magmas: an experimental study of 208pp. [Feldspar-basalt, Leucite basalt]
natural and synthetic rock systems. Journal ZIRKEL, F., 1894 A. Lehrbuch der Petrographie.
of Petrology. Oxford. Vol.3, p.342–532. Engelmann, Leipzig. 2nd Edn, Vol.2, 941pp.
[Tholeiite] [Felsogranophyre, Leucite phonolite,
YOUNG, G.A., 1906. The geology and petrog- Plethorite]
raphy of Mount Yamaska. Annual Report. ZIRKEL, F., 1894B. Lehrbuch der Petrographie.
Geological Survey of Canada. Montreal and Engelmann, Leipzig. 2nd Edn, Vol.3, 833pp.
Ottawa. Pt.H, p.1–43. [Yamaskite] [Therolite]
ZAVARITSKII, A.N., 1955. Izverzhennye gornye ZLATKIND, Z.G., 1945. Olivinovye turyaity
porody. Izadatel’stvo Akademii Nauk SSSR, (kovdority) – novye glubinnye melilitovye
Moskva. 479pp. [Bereshite, Plagiogranite] porody Kolskogo poluostrova. Sovetskaia
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Gosudarstvennyi Ilmenskii mineralogicheskii [Kovdorite]
zapovednik. 27th International Geological
209

Appendix A Lists of participants

This appendix contains the names of all those W – a member of one of the Working groups
people who have helped the Subcommission in who participated by attending meetings and/or
various ways and consists of two lists. by correspondence
The first list of participants is arranged alpha- P – a member of the Pyroclastic working group
betically by the country which the participant only
represented or the country in which they were C – a Correspondent with the Subcommission
residing when they corresponded with the Sub- who contributed with written submissions in
commission. The name of each participant is response to Subcommission circulars
followed in brackets by their affiliation with G – a Guest at one or more of the meetings.
the Subcommission using the following abbre- The second list is simply an alphabetical list
viations: of participants by name, followed in brackets
M – a Member of the Subcommission acting as by their country.
a representative of the country

A.1 PARTICIPANTS LISTED BY COUNTRY

ARGENTINA (4) Neall, V. (G)


Andreies, R.R. (C) Rock, N.M.S. (W)
Mazzoni, M.M. (C) Taylor, S.R. (W)
Spalletti, L.A. (C) Vallance, T.G. (W)
Teruggi, M.E. (M) Wass, S.Y. (C)
White, A.J.R. (C)
ARMENIA (1) Wilkinson, J.F.G. (M)
Shirinian, H.G. (G) Wilson, A.P. (W)

AUSTRALIA (21) AUSTRIA (4)


Branch, C.D. (W) Daurer, A. (C)
Cundari, A. (W) Exner, C. (C)
Dallwitz, W.B. (M) Richter, W. (C)
Ewart, A. (C) Wieseneder, H. (C)
Flinter, B. (G)
Green, D.H. (W) BELGIUM (4)
Harris, P.G. (C) Deblond, A. (W)
Hensel, H.D. (C) Duchesne, J.-C. (W)
Joyce, E.B. (G) Michot, J. (W)
Le Maitre, R.W. (M) Michot, P. (W)
Mackenzie, D.E. (C)
Matthison, C.J. (C) BOLIVIA (1)
Middlemost, E.A.K. (W) Ploskonka, E. (W)
210 Appendix A

BRAZIL (2) COLOMBIA (1)


Coutinho, J.M.V. (W) Schaufelberger, P. (C)
Leonardos, Jr., O.H. (W)
CROATIA (2)
BULGARIA (5) Majer, V. (C)
Boyadjiev, St.G. (G) Obradovic, J. (W)
Georgiev, G.K. (C)
Ivanov, R. (W) CZECH REPUBLIC (8)
Stefanova, M. (W) Dudek, A. (M)
Yanef, Y. (W) Fediuk, F. (C)
Fiala, F. (W)
CANADA (25) Kopecky, L. (W)
Armstrong, R.L. (C) Neu™ilová, N. (C)
Ayres, L.D. (M) Palivcova, M. (C)
Baragar, W.R.A. (W) Suk, M. (C)
Church, B.N. (W) Vejnar, Zd. (C)
Currie, K.L. (W)
Davidson, A. (W) DENMARK (7)
Edgar, A.D. (W) Berthelsen, A. (C)
Frisch, Th. (C) Jakobsson, S. (G)
Gittins, J. (W) Nielsen, T.F.D. (W)
Goodwin, A.M. (M) Noe Nygaard, A. (M)
Lambert, M.B. (W) Sørensen, H. (M)
Laurent, R. (C) Wilson, J.R. (C)
Laurin, A.F. (W) Zeck, H.P. (W)
Martignole, J. (W)
McCutcheon, S.R. (C) EIRE (1)
Mitchell, R.H. (W.) Mohr, P. (C)
Moore, J.M. (C)
Naldrett, A.J. (W) FINLAND (3)
Robinson, P. (W) Härme, M. (C)
Ruitenberg, A.A. (C) Laitakati, I. (C)
Scott-Smith, B.H. (W) Vartiainen, H. (C)
Sharma, K.N.M. (W)
Thurston, P.C. (W) FRANCE (20)
Woodsworth, G.J. (C) Albarede, F. (W)
Woussen, G. (C) Alsac, C. (W)
Bonin, B. (M)
CHILE (1) Bordet, P. (G)
Vergara, M. (W) Brousse, R. (C)
Chenevoy, M. (C)
CHINA (4) Colin, F. (C)
Heng Sheng Wang, (M) de la Roche, H. (M)
Malpas, J. (W) Forestier, F.H. (W)
Sung Shu Ho, (C) Giraud, P. (W)
Wang, B. (M) Juteau, Th. (W)
A.1 Participants listed by country 211

Lameyre, J. (M) Seim, R. (C)


Leterrier, J. (G) Stengelin, R. (W)
Raguin, E. (C) Tischendorf, G. (M)
Roques, M. (G) Troll, G. (C)
Soler, E. (W) Vieten, K. (W)
Tégyey-Dumait, M. (W) Watznauer, A. (W)
Velde, D. (W) Wedepohl, K.H. (W)
Vincent, P.M. (W) Wimmenauer, W. (M)
Westercamp, D. (W) Winkler, H.G.F. (W)
Wurm, A. (C)
GERMANY (45)
Amstutz, G.C. (W) GUYANA (1)
Arndt, N. (G) Singh, S. (W)
Bambauer, H.U. (C)
Chudoba, K. (C) HUNGARY (3)
Correns, C.W. (W) Kubovics, I. (G)
Förster, H. (C) Pantó, G. (M)
Frechen, J. (C) Széky-Fux, V. (M)
Hentschel, H. (W)
Huebscher, H.D. (C) ICELAND (1)
Jung, D. (W) Thorarinsson, S. (W)
Keller, J. (M)
Knetsch, G. (C) INDIA (8)
Kramer, W. (W) Bose, M.K. (W)
Kunz, K. (W) Chatterjee, S.C. (M)
Lehmann, E. (W) Sen, S.K. (W)
Lensch, G. (W) Subba Rao, S. (C)
Lorenz, V. (W) Subbarao, K.V. (W)
Mädler, J. (C) Subramaniam, A.P. (W)
Martin, H. (W) Subramaniam, K.V. (G)
Mathé, G (C) Sukheswala, R.N. (M)
Matthes, S (C)
Mehnert, K.R. (M) ISRAEL (1)
Mihm, A. (C) Bentor, Y.K. (W)
Morteani, G. (C)
Mucke, D. (W) ITALY (24)
Müller, P. (W) Balconi, M. (C)
Murawski, H. (C) Bellieni, G. (M)
Okrusch, M. (C) Bertolani, M. (C)
Pälchen, W. (W) Boriani, A. (G)
Paulitsch, P.D. (C) Callegari, E. (C)
Pfeiffer, L. (W) Cristofolini, R. (C)
Pichler, H. (W) D’Amico, Cl. (W)
Röllig, G. (W) Dal Piaz, G.V. (C)
Rost, F. (W) De Vecchi, Gp. (G)
Schmincke, H.U. (C) Deriu, M. (C)
212 Appendix A

Galli, M. (C) Carstens, H. (W)


Innocenti, F. (C) Dons, J.A. (C)
Justin-Visentin, E. (W) Griffin, W.L. (C)
Malaroda, R. (C) Oftedahl, C. (C)
Mittempergher, M. (W) Strand, T. (C)
Morbidelli, L. (C) Torske, T. (W)
Piccirillo, E.M. (W)
Rittmann, A. (W) POLAND (2)
Sassi, F. (C) Nowakowski, A. (C)
Simboli, G. (W) Smulikowski, K. (M)
Venturelli, A. (C)
Villari, L. (W) PORTUGAL (3)
Visentin, E.J. (G) Aires Barros, L. (W)
Zanettin, B (M) Mourazmiranda, A. (C)
Schermerhorn, L.J.G. (C)
JAPAN (4)
Aoki, K.J. (M) ROMANIA (9)
Aramaki, S. (M) Berbeleac, I. (W)
Katsui, Y. (M) Bercia, J. (G)
Yagi, K. (W) Dimitrescu, R. (C)
Giusca, D. (W)
KENYA (1) Kräutner, H. (W)
Williams, L.A.J. (W) Peltz, S. (W)
Radulescu, D. (M)
KUWAIT (1) Savu, H. (C)
Al Mishwat, A.T. (G) Seclaman, M. (W)

MALAYSIA (1) RUSSIAN FEDERATION (41)


Hutchinson, C.S. (C) Afanass’yev, G.D. (W)
Andreeva, E.D. (W)
NETHERLANDS (6) Bogatikov, O.A. (C)
de Roever, W.P. (M) Borodaevskaya, M.R. (W)
Den Tex, E. (C) Borodin, L.S. (W)
Oen, I.S. (C) Chvorova, L.V. (C)
Tobi, A.C. (M) Daminova, A.M. (W)
Uytenbogaardt, W. (C) Dmitriev, Yu.I. (W)
van der Plas, L. (C) Efremova, S.V. (M)
Frolova, T.I. (W)
NEW ZEALAND (3) Gladkikh, V.S. (W)
Cole, J.W. (M) Gon’shakova, V.I. (C)
Coombs, D.S. (C) Gorshkov, G.S. (W)
Neal, V.E. (W) Gurulev, S.A. (G)
Iakovleva, E.B. (W)
NORWAY (8) Kononova, V.A. (G)
Barth, T.F.W. (W) Kravchenko, S. (G)
Bryhni, I. (C) L’vov, B.K. (W)
A.1 Participants listed by country 213

Lazko, E. (W) SURINAM (2)


Luchitsky, J. (G) Dahlberg, E.H. (W)
Malejev, E.F. (W) de Roever, E.W.F. (W)
Markovsky, B.A. (W)
Massaitis, V.L. (W) SWEDEN (5)
Mikhailov, N.P. (M) Gorbatschev, R. (C)
Orlova, M.P. (W) Koark, H.J. (C)
Pertsev, N.N. (W) Lundqvist, T. (W)
Petrova, M.A. (W) Persson, L. (W)
Pjatenko, I.K. (W) von Eckerman, H. (C)
Polunina, L.A. (W)
Rotman, V.K. (W) SWITZERLAND (18)
Ruminantseva, N.A. (W) Ayrton, S. (C)
Schtschebakova, M.N. (C) Bearth, P. (W)
Sharpenok, L. (G) Burckhardt, C.E. (W)
Shemyakin, V.M. (W) Dietrich, V. (C)
Shurkin, K.A. (W) Hänny, R. (C)
Sobolev, N. (W) Hügi, T. (C)
Sobolev, S.F. (W) Kübler, B. (C)
Sobolev, V.S. (G) Maggetti, M. (W)
Sveshnikova, S.V. (W) Nickel, E. (C)
Vorobieva, O.A. (M) Niggli, E. (W)
Yashina, R. (G) Persoz, F. (C)
Schmid, R. (M)
SAUDI ARABIA (1) Seemann, U. (W)
Wolf, K.H. (W) Streckeisen, A. (M)
Trommsdorff, V. (M)
SOUTH AFRICA (8) Vuagnat, M. (W)
Dann, J.C. (W) Wenk, E. (W)
Evans, D. (W) Woodtli, R. (C)
Ferguson, J. (M)
Frick, G. (C) TAIWAN (2)
Moore, A.C. (C) Juan, V.C. (C)
Snyman, C.P. (M) Veichow, C.J. (C)
van Biljon, S. (C)
von Gruenewaldt, G. (M) TURKEY (5)
Aslaner, M. (C)
SPAIN (7) Ataman, G. (C)
Ancochea, E. (W) Irdar, E. (C)
Brändle, J.H. (M) Kraëff, A. (C)
Corretgé, L. (C) Kumbazar, I. (C)
Fuster, J.M. (C)
Muñoz, M. (W) UGANDA (1)
Pascual, E. (W) Macdonald, R. (W)
Puga, E. (C)
214 Appendix A

UK (46) USA (80)


Baker, P.E. (C) Barker, D.S. (W)
Berridge, N.G. (C) Bateman, P.C. (M)
Cheadle, M. (W) Bergman, S.C. (W)
Collins, G.H. (C) Best, M.G. (C)
Cox, K.G. (W) Boone, E.M. (C)
Dearnley, R. (C) Brooks, E.R. (C)
Donaldson, C. (W) Chayes, F. (M)
Elliot, R.B. (C) Cheney, J.T. (C)
Ellis, S.E. (W) Chesterman, C.W. (C)
Fitch, F.J. (C) Christiansen, R.L. (C)
Francis, E.H. (W) Coats, R.R. (W)
Gibson, S. (W) Coveney, R.M. (C)
Gill, R. (W) de Waard, D. (W)
Gillespie, M. (G) Dietrich, R.V. (W)
Hall, P. (W) Duffield, W. (G)
Harrison, R.K. (W) Earton, R.M. (W)
Hergt, J. (W) Effimoff, I. (C)
Hole, M. (W) Ekblaw, S.E. (C)
Howells, M. (W) Emerson, D.O. (C)
Howie, R.A. (W) Ernst, G. (C)
Hughes, D. (W) Evans, B.W. (C)
Kent, R. (W) Fisher, R.V. (M)
King, B.C. (W) Forbes, R.B. (C)
Lawson, R.I. (W) Gastil, G. (C)
Le Bas, M.J. (M) Grove, T. (W)
Macdonald, R. (W) Guidotti, C.V. (C)
MacKenzie, W.S. (C) Harrison, J.E. (C)
Menzies, M. (W) Hawkin, J.W. (C)
Muir, I.D. (W) Hays, J.F. (C)
Nesbitt, B. (W) Heiken, G. (W)
Nockolds, S.R. (C) Herz, N. (C)
Preston, J (C) Hobbs, S.W. (C)
Rea, W.J. (W) Hollister, L.S. (C)
Rollinson, H. (W) Honnorez, J. (W)
Sabine, P.A. (M) Hyndman, D.W. (C)
Stillman, C.J. (C) Jackson, E.D. (W)
Styles, M. (G) Krauskopf, K. (C)
Thompson, R. (W) Lofgren, G. (M)
Upton, B.J.G. (W) Lyons, P.C. (C)
Wadsworth, W.J. (W) Macdonald, G.A. (W)
Weaver, S.D. (W) Mattson, P.H. (C)
Wells, A.K. (W) McBirney, A.R. (M)
Wells, M.K. (W) McCoy, F.W. (W)
Wilson, M. (W) McHone, J.G. (C)
Woolley, A.R. (M) Meyer, H.O.A. (W)
Wright, A.E. (W) Miller, T. (W)
A.1 Participants listed by country 215

Misch, P. (C) Vidale, R.J. (C)


Miyashiro, A. (C) Vitaliano, C.J. (C)
Mohr, P.A. (W) Walker, G.P.L. (W)
Moore, G.E. (C) Waters, A.C. (C)
Murray, A.D. (C) Whitney, J.A. (C)
Mutschler, F.E. (C) Whitten, E.H.T. (C)
O’Connor, J.T. (C) Wilcox, R.E. (C)
Peck, D.L. (M) Williams, H. (C)
Peterson, D.W. (W) Wones, D.R. (C)
Presnall, D. (W) Wyllie, P.J. (C)
Putman, G.W. (C) Yoder, H.S.Jr. (W)
Rankin, D.W. (C)
Reitan, P.H. (C) VENEZUELA (1)
Scott, R.B. (C) Urbani, F. (C)
Sheridan, M.F. (W)
Simkin, T. (C) YUGOSLAVIA (1)
Snavely, P. (W) Karamata, S. (W)
Snyder, G.L. (W)
Taubeneck, W.H. (C) ZAMBIA (1)
Thornton, C.P. (M) Cooray, P.G. (W)
Tilling, R.I. (W)
Toulmin III, P. (C) ZIMBABWE (1)
Tweto, O. (C) Wilson, A.H. (W)
216 Appendix A

A.2 PARTICIPANTS LISTED BY NAME (WITH COUNTRY)

Afanass’yev, G.D. (Russian Federation) Brooks, E.R. (USA)


Aires Barros, L. (Portugal) Brousse, R. (France)
Al Mishwat, A.T. (Kuwait) Bryhni, I. (Norway)
Albarede, F. (France) Burckhardt, C.E. (Switzerland)
Alsac, C. (France) Callegari, E. (Italy)
Amstutz, G.C. (Germany) Carstens, H. (Norway)
Ancochea, E. (Spain) Chatterjee, S.C. (India)
Andreeva, E.D. (Russian Federation) Chayes, F. (USA)
Andreies, R.R. (Argentina) Cheadle, M. (UK)
Aoki, K.J. (Japan) Chenevoy, M. (France)
Aramaki, S. (Japan) Cheney, J.T. (USA)
Armstrong, R.L. (Canada) Chesterman, C.W. (USA)
Arndt, N. (Germany) Christiansen, R.L. (USA)
Aslaner, M. (Turkey) Chudoba, K. (Germany)
Ataman, G. (Turkey) Church, B.N. (Canada)
Ayres, L.D. (Canada) Chvorova, L.V. (Russian Federation)
Ayrton, S. (Switzerland) Coats, R.R. (USA)
Baker, P.E. (UK) Cole, J.W. (New Zealand)
Balconi, M. (Italy) Colin, F. (France)
Bambauer, H.U. (Germany) Collins, G.H. (UK)
Baragar, W.R.A. (Canada) Coombs, D.S. (New Zealand)
Barker, D.S. (USA) Cooray, P.G. (Zambia)
Barth, T.F.W. (Norway) Correns, C.W. (Germany)
Bateman, P.C. (USA) Corretgé, L. (Spain)
Bearth, P. (Switzerland) Coutinho, J.M.V. (Brazil)
Bellieni, G. (Italy) Coveney, R.M. (USA)
Bentor, Y.K. (Israel) Cox, K.G. (UK)
Berbeleac, I. (Romania) Cristofolini, R. (Italy)
Bercia, J. (Romania) Cundari, A. (Australia)
Bergman, S.C. (USA) Currie, K.L. (Canada)
Berridge, N.G. (UK) D’Amico, Cl. (Italy)
Berthelsen, A. (Denmark) Dahlberg, E.H. (Surinam)
Bertolani, M. (Italy) Dal Piaz, G.V. (Italy)
Best, M.G. (USA) Dallwitz, W.B. (Australia)
Bogatikov, O.A. (Russian Federation) Daminova, A.M. (Russian Federation)
Bonin, B. (France) Dann, J.C. (South Africa)
Boone, E.M. (USA) Daurer, A. (Austria)
Bordet, P. (France) Davidson, A. (Canada)
Boriani, A. (Italy) de la Roche, H. (France)
Borodaevskaya, M.R. (Russian Federation) de Roever, E.W.F. (Surinam)
Borodin, L.S. (Russian Federation) de Roever, W.P. (Netherlands)
Bose, M.K. (India) De Vecchi, Gp. (Italy)
Boyadjiev, St.G. (Bulgaria) de Waard, D. (USA)
Branch, C.D. (Australia) Dearnley, R. (UK)
Brändle, J.H. (Spain) Deblond, A. (Belgium)
A.2 Participants listed by name 217

Den Tex, E. (Netherlands) Gladkikh, V.S. (Russian Federation)


Deriu, M. (Italy) Gon’shakova, V.I. (Russian Federation)
Dietrich, R.V. (USA) Goodwin, A.M. (Canada)
Dietrich, V. (Switzerland) Gorbatschev, R. (Sweden)
Dimitrescu, R. (Romania) Gorshkov, G.S. (Russian Federation)
Dmitriev, Yu.I. (Russian Federation) Green, D.H. (Australia)
Donaldson, C. (UK) Griffin, W.L. (Norway)
Dons, J.A. (Norway) Grove, T. (USA)
Duchesne, J.-C. (Belgium) Guidotti, C.V. (USA)
Dudek, A. (Czech Republic) Gurulev, S.A. (Russian Federation)
Duffield, W. (USA) Hall, P. (UK)
Earton, R.M. (USA) Hänny, R. (Switzerland)
Edgar, A.D. (Canada) Härme, M. (Finland)
Effimoff, I. (USA) Harris, P.G. (Australia)
Efremova, S.V. (Russian Federation) Harrison, J.E. (USA)
Ekblaw, S.E. (USA) Harrison, R.K. (UK)
Elliot, R.B. (UK) Hawkin, J.W. (USA)
Ellis, S.E. (UK) Hays, J.F. (USA)
Emerson, D.O. (USA) Heiken, G. (USA)
Ernst, G. (USA) Heng Sheng Wang, (China)
Evans, B.W. (USA) Hensel, H.D. (Australia)
Evans, D. (South Africa) Hentschel, H. (Germany)
Ewart, A. (Australia) Hergt, J. (UK)
Exner, C. (Austria) Herz, N. (USA)
Fediuk, F. (Czech Republic) Hobbs, S.W. (USA)
Ferguson, J. (South Africa) Hole, M. (UK)
Fiala, F. (Czech Republic) Hollister, L.S. (USA)
Fisher, R.V. (USA) Honnorez, J. (USA)
Fitch, F.J. (UK) Howells, M. (UK)
Flinter, B. (Australia) Howie, R.A. (UK)
Forbes, R.B. (USA) Huebscher, H.D. (Germany)
Forestier, F.H. (France) Hughes, D. (UK)
Förster, H. (Germany) Hügi, T. (Switzerland)
Francis, E.H. (UK) Hutchinson, C.S. (Malaysia)
Frechen, J. (Germany) Hyndman, D.W. (USA)
Frick, G. (South Africa) Iakovleva, E.B. (Russian Federation)
Frisch, Th. (Canada) Innocenti, F. (Italy)
Frolova, T.I. (Russian Federation) Irdar, E. (Turkey)
Fuster, J.M. (Spain) Ivanov, R. (Bulgaria)
Galli, M. (Italy) Jackson, E.D. (USA)
Gastil, G. (USA) Jakobsson, S. (Denmark)
Georgiev, G.K. (Bulgaria) Joyce, E.B. (Australia)
Gibson, S. (UK) Juan, V.C. (Taiwan)
Gill, R. (UK) Jung, D. (Germany)
Gillespie, M. (UK) Justin-Visentin, E. (Italy)
Giraud, P. (France) Juteau, Th. (France)
Gittins, J. (Canada) Karamata, S. (Yugoslavia)
Giusca, D. (Romania) Katsui, Y. (Japan)
218 Appendix A

Keller, J. (Germany) Martin, H. (Germany)


Kent, R. (UK) Massaitis, V.L. (Russian Federation)
King, B.C. (UK) Mathé, G (Germany)
Knetsch, G. (Germany) Matthes, S (Germany)
Koark, H.J. (Sweden) Matthison, C.J. (Australia)
Kononova, V.A. (Russian Federation) Mattson, P.H. (USA)
Kopecky, L. (Czech Republic) Mazzoni, M.M. (Argentina)
Kraëff, A. (Turkey) McBirney, A.R. (USA)
Kramer, W. (Germany) McCoy, F.W. (USA)
Krauskopf, K. (USA) McCutcheon, S.R. (Canada)
Kräutner, H. (Romania) McHone, J.G. (USA)
Kravchenko, S. (Russian Federation) Mehnert, K.R. (Germany)
Kübler, B. (Switzerland) Menzies, M. (UK)
Kubovics, I. (Hungary) Meyer, H.O.A. (USA)
Kumbazar, I. (Turkey) Michot, J. (Belgium)
Kunz, K. (Germany) Michot, P. (Belgium)
L’vov, B.K. (Russian Federation) Middlemost, E.A.K. (Australia)
Laitakati, I. (Finland) Mihm, A. (Germany)
Lambert, M.B. (Canada) Mikhailov, N.P. (Russian Federation)
Lameyre, J. (France) Miller, T. (USA)
Laurent, R. (Canada) Misch, P. (USA)
Laurin, A.F. (Canada) Mitchell, R.H. (Canada)
Lawson, R.I. (UK) Mittempergher, M. (Italy)
Lazko, E. (Russian Federation) Miyashiro, A. (USA)
Le Bas, M.J. (UK) Mohr, P. (Eire)
Le Maitre, R.W. (Australia) Mohr, P.A. (USA)
Lehmann, E. (Germany) Moore, A.C. (South Africa)
Lensch, G. (Germany) Moore, G.E. (USA)
Leonardos, Jr., O.H. (Brazil) Moore, J.M. (Canada)
Leterrier, J. (France) Morbidelli, L. (Italy)
Lofgren, G. (USA) Morteani, G. (Germany)
Lorenz, V. (Germany) Mourazmiranda, A. (Portugal)
Luchitsky, J. (Russian Federation) Mucke, D. (Germany)
Lundqvist, T. (Sweden) Muir, I.D. (UK)
Lyons, P.C. (USA) Müller, P. (Germany)
Macdonald, G.A. (USA) Muñoz, M. (Spain)
Macdonald, R. (Uganda) Murawski, H. (Germany)
Macdonald, R. (UK) Murray, A.D. (USA)
Mackenzie, D.E. (Australia) Mutschler, F.E. (USA)
MacKenzie, W.S. (UK) Naldrett, A.J. (Canada)
Mädler, J. (Germany) Neal, V.E. (New Zealand)
Maggetti, M. (Switzerland) Neall, V. (Australia)
Majer, V. (Croatia) Nesbitt, B. (UK)
Malaroda, R. (Italy) Neu™ilová, N. (Czech Republic)
Malejev, E.F. (Russian Federation) Nickel, E. (Switzerland)
Malpas, J. (China) Nielsen, T.F.D. (Denmark)
Markovsky, B.A. (Russian Federation) Niggli, E. (Switzerland)
Martignole, J. (Canada) Nockolds, S.R. (UK)
A.2 Participants listed by name 219

Noe Nygaard, A. (Denmark) Savu, H. (Romania)


Nowakowski, A. (Poland) Schaufelberger, P. (Colombia)
O’Connor, J.T. (USA) Schermerhorn, L.J.G. (Portugal)
Obradovic, J. (Croatia) Schmid, R. (Switzerland)
Oen, I.S. (Netherlands) Schmincke, H.U. (Germany)
Oftedahl, C. (Norway) Schtschebakova, M.N. (Russian Federation)
Okrusch, M. (Germany) Scott, R.B. (USA)
Orlova, M.P. (Russian Federation) Scott-Smith, B.H. (Canada)
Pälchen, W. (Germany) Seclaman, M. (Romania)
Palivcova, M. (Czech Republic) Seemann, U. (Switzerland)
Pantó, G. (Hungary) Seim, R. (Germany)
Pascual, E. (Spain) Sen, S.K. (India)
Paulitsch, P.D. (Germany) Sharma, K.N.M. (Canada)
Peck, D.L. (USA) Sharpenok, L. (Russian Federation)
Peltz, S. (Romania) Shemyakin, V.M. (Russian Federation)
Persoz, F. (Switzerland) Sheridan, M.F. (USA)
Persson, L. (Sweden) Shirinian, H.G. (Armenia)
Pertsev, N.N. (Russian Federation) Shurkin, K.A. (Russian Federation)
Peterson, D.W. (USA) Simboli, G. (Italy)
Petrova, M.A. (Russian Federation) Simkin, T. (USA)
Pfeiffer, L. (Germany) Singh, S. (Guyana)
Piccirillo, E.M. (Italy) Smulikowski, K. (Poland)
Pichler, H. (Germany) Snavely, P. (USA)
Pjatenko, I.K. (Russian Federation) Snyder, G.L. (USA)
Ploskonka, E. (Bolivia) Snyman, C.P. (South Africa)
Polunina, L.A. (Russian Federation) Sobolev, N. (Russian Federation)
Presnall, D. (USA) Sobolev, S.F. (Russian Federation)
Preston, J (UK) Sobolev, V.S. (Russian Federation)
Puga, E. (Spain) Soler, E. (France)
Putman, G.W. (USA) Sørensen, H. (Denmark)
Radulescu, D. (Romania) Spalletti, L.A. (Argentina)
Raguin, E. (France) Stefanova, M. (Bulgaria)
Rankin, D.W. (USA) Stengelin, R. (Germany)
Rea, W.J. (UK) Stillman, C.J. (UK)
Reitan, P.H. (USA) Strand, T. (Norway)
Richter, W. (Austria) Streckeisen, A. (Switzerland)
Rittmann, A. (Italy) Styles, M. (UK)
Robinson, P. (Canada) Subba Rao, S. (India)
Rock, N.M.S. (Australia) Subbarao, K.V. (India)
Röllig, G. (Germany) Subramaniam, A.P. (India)
Rollinson, H. (UK) Subramaniam, K.V. (India)
Roques, M. (France) Suk, M. (Czech Republic)
Rost, F. (Germany) Sukheswala, R.N. (India)
Rotman, V.K. (Russian Federation) Sung Shu Ho, (China)
Ruitenberg, A.A. (Canada) Sveshnikova, S.V. (Russian Federation)
Ruminantseva, N.A. (Russian Federation) Széky-Fux, V. (Hungary)
Sabine, P.A. (UK) Taubeneck, W.H. (USA)
Sassi, F. (Italy) Taylor, S.R. (Australia)
220 Appendix A

Tégyey-Dumait, M. (France) Wass, S.Y. (Australia)


Teruggi, M.E. (Argentina) Waters, A.C. (USA)
Thompson, R. (UK) Watznauer, A. (Germany)
Thorarinsson, S. (Iceland) Weaver, S.D. (UK)
Thornton, C.P. (USA) Wedepohl, K.H. (Germany)
Thurston, P.C. (Canada) Wells, A.K. (UK)
Tilling, R.I. (USA) Wells, M.K. (UK)
Tischendorf, G. (Germany) Wenk, E. (Switzerland)
Tobi, A.C. (Netherlands) Westercamp, D. (France)
Torske, T. (Norway) White, A.J.R. (Australia)
Toulmin III, P. (USA) Whitney, J.A. (USA)
Troll, G. (Germany) Whitten, E.H.T. (USA)
Trommsdorff, V. (Switzerland) Wieseneder, H. (Austria)
Tweto, O. (USA) Wilcox, R.E. (USA)
Upton, B.J.G. (UK) Wilkinson, J.F.G. (Australia)
Urbani, F. (Venezuela) Williams, H. (USA)
Uytenbogaardt, W. (Netherlands) Williams, L.A.J. (Kenya)
Vallance, T.G. (Australia) Wilson, A.H. (Zimbabwe)
van Biljon, S. (South Africa) Wilson, A.P. (Australia)
van der Plas, L. (Netherlands) Wilson, J.R. (Denmark)
Vartiainen, H. (Finland) Wilson, M. (UK)
Veichow, C.J. (Taiwan) Wimmenauer, W. (Germany)
Vejnar, Zd. (Czech Republic) Winkler, H.G.F. (Germany)
Velde, D. (France) Wolf, K.H. (Saudi Arabia)
Venturelli, A. (Italy) Wones, D.R. (USA)
Vergara, M. (Chile) Woodsworth, G.J. (Canada)
Vidale, R.J. (USA) Woodtli, R. (Switzerland)
Vieten, K. (Germany) Woolley, A.R. (UK)
Villari, L. (Italy) Woussen, G. (Canada)
Vincent, P.M. (France) Wright, A.E. (UK)
Visentin, E.J. (Italy) Wurm, A. (Germany)
Vitaliano, C.J. (USA) Wyllie, P.J. (USA)
von Eckerman, H. (Sweden) Yagi, K. (Japan)
von Gruenewaldt, G. (South Africa) Yanef, Y. (Bulgaria)
Vorobieva, O.A. (Russian Federation) Yashina, R. (Russian Federation)
Vuagnat, M. (Switzerland) Yoder, H.S.Jr. (USA)
Wadsworth, W.J. (UK) Zanettin, B (Italy)
Walker, G.P.L. (USA) Zeck, H.P. (Denmark)
Wang, B. (China)
221

Appendix B Recommended IUGS names

The 316 rock names and terms that have been Of these names and terms, 179 are strictly
defined and recommended for use by the IUGS speaking IUGS root names; 103 are subdivisons
Subcommission, i.e. all those terms in the of these root names, including 33 specific
Glossary that have been printed in bold capital names for the various “foid” root names, e.g.
letters are listed below. nepheline syenite; and 34 are rock terms.

Acid Beforsite
Afrikandite (Africandite) Benmoreite
Agglomerate Block
Agpaite (Agpaitic) Bomb
Alaskite Boninite
Alkali Calciocarbonatite
Alkali basalt Calcite-carbonatite
Alkali feldspar charnockite Camptonite
Alkali feldspar granite Cancrinite diorite
Alkali feldspar rhyolite Cancrinite gabbro
Alkali feldspar syenite Cancrinite monzodiorite
Alkali feldspar trachyte Cancrinite monzogabbro
Alvikite Cancrinite monzosyenite
Analcime basanite Cancrinite plagisyenite
Analcime diorite Cancrinite syenite
Analcime gabbro Carbonatite
Analcime monzodiorite Charno-enberbite
Analcime monzogabbro Charnockite
Analcime monzosyenite Clinopyroxene norite
Analcime phonolite Clinopyroxenite
Analcime plagisyenite Coarse (ash) grain
Analcime syenite Coarse (ash) tuff
Analcimite Colour index (Colour ratio)
Andesite Comendite
Andesitoid Comenditic rhyolite
Anorthosite Comenditic trachyte
Ash, Ash grain Crystal tuff
Ash tuff Dacite
Basalt Dacitoid
Basaltic andesite Diabase
Basaltic trachyandesite Diorite
Basaltoid Dioritoid
Basanite Dolerite
Basanitic foidite Dolomite-carbonatite
Basic Dunite
222 Appendix B

Dust grain Hornblende pyroxenite


Dust tuff Hornblendite
Enderbite Hyalo-
Essexite Igneous rock
Fergusite Ijolite
Ferrocarbonatite Intermediate
Fine (ash) grain Italite
Fine (ash) tuff Jotunite
Foid diorite Kalsilitite
Foid dioritoid Kamafugite
Foid gabbro Kersantite
Foid gabbroid Kimberlite
Foid monzodiorite Komatiite
Foid monzogabbro Kugdite
Foid monzosyenite Lamproite
Foid plagisyenite Lamprophyre
Foid syenite Lapilli
Foid syenitoid Lapilli tuff
Foid-bearing alkali feldspar syenite Lapillistone
Foid-bearing alkali feldspar trachyte Latite
Foid-bearing anorthosite Leucite basanite
Foid-bearing diorite Leucite phonolite
Foid-bearing gabbro Leucite tephrite
Foid-bearing latite Leucitite
Foid-bearing monzodiorite Leuco-
Foid-bearing monzogabbro Leucocratic
Foid-bearing monzonite Lherzolite
Foid-bearing syenite Limburgite
Foid-bearing trachyte Liparite
Foidite Lithic tuff
Foiditoid Low-K
Foidolite m-Charnockite, m-Enderbite etc.
Gabbro Magnesiocarbonatite
Gabbroid Malignite
Gabbronorite Mangerite
Granite Medium-K
Granitoid Meimechite (Meymechite)
Granodiorite Mela-
Harzburgite Melanephelinite
Haüyne basanite Melanocratic
Haüyne phonolite Melilite leucitite
Haüynite Melilite nephelinite
Hawaiite Melilitite
High-K Melilitolite
Hololeucocratic Melteigite
Holomelanocratic Mesocratic
Hornblende gabbro Miaskite (Miascite)
Hornblende peridotite Minette
B Recommended IUGS names 223

Missourite Pheno-
Monchiquite Phonolite
Monzodiorite Phonolitic basanite
Monzogabbro Phonolitic foidite
Monzogranite Phonolitic leucitite
Monzonite Phonolitic nephelinite
Mugearite Phonolitic tephrite
Natrocarbonatite Phonolitoid
Nepheline basanite Phonotephrite
Nepheline diorite Picrite
Nepheline gabbro Picrobasalt
Nepheline monzodiorite Pitchstone
Nepheline monzogabbro Plagioclase-bearing hornblende pyroxenite
Nepheline monzosyenite Plagioclase-bearing hornblendite
Nepheline plagisyenite Plagioclase-bearing pyroxene hornblendite
Nepheline syenite Plagioclase-bearing pyroxenite
Nepheline tephrite Plagiogranite
Nephelinite Plutonic
Nephelinolite Potassic melilitite
Norite Potassic olivine melilitite
Nosean basanite Potassic trachybasalt
Noseanite Pyroclastic
Obsidian Pyroclastic breccia
Okaite Pyroclastic deposit
Olivine clinopyroxenite Pyroclastic rock
Olivine gabbro Pyroclasts
Olivine gabbronorite Pyroxene hornblende gabbro
Olivine hornblende pyroxenite Pyroxene hornblende gabbronorite
Olivine hornblendite Pyroxene hornblende norite
Olivine melilitite Pyroxene hornblende peridotite
Olivine norite Pyroxene hornblendite
Olivine orthopyroxenite Pyroxene peridotite
Olivine pyroxene hornblendite Pyroxenite
Olivine pyroxenite Quartz alkali feldspar syenite
Olivine websterite Quartz alkali feldspar trachyte
Olivinite Quartz anorthosite
Opdalite Quartz diorite
Orthopyroxene gabbro Quartz gabbro
Orthopyroxenite Quartz latite
Pantellerite Quartz monzodiorite
Pantelleritic rhyolite Quartz monzogabbro
Pantelleritic trachyte Quartz monzonite
Peralkaline Quartz norite
Peralkaline granite Quartz syenite
Peralkaline phonolite Quartz trachyte
Peralkaline rhyolite Quartz-rich granitoid
Peralkaline trachyte Quartzolite
Peridotite Rhyolite
224 Appendix B

Rhyolitoid Tephritic leucitite


Sannaite Tephritic phonolite
Shonkinite Tephritoid
Shoshonite Teschenite (Teschinite)
Silicocarbonatite Theralite
Sodalite diorite Tholeiitic basalt
Sodalite gabbro Tonalite
Sodalite monzodiorite Trachyandesite
Sodalite monzogabbro Trachybasalt
Sodalite monzosyenite Trachydacite
Sodalite plagisyenite Trachyte
Sodalite syenite Trachytoid
Sodalitite Troctolite
Sodalitolite Trondhjemite
Sövite (Soevite) Tuff
Spessartite Tuff breccia
Subalkali Tuffite
Subalkali basalt Turjaite
Syenite Ultrabasic
Syenitoid Ultramafic rock
Syenodiorite Uncompahgrite
Syenogabbro Urtite
Syenogranite Vitric tuff
Tephra Vogesite
Tephriphonolite Volcanic
Tephrite Websterite
Tephritic foidite Wehrlite
225

Appendix C IUGSTAS software package


By R.W. Le Maitre

In response to several requests, this edition If the first row of the table contains a header
includes a description of a collection of C++ row (the oxide names) they can be in any order
routines for implementing the TAS classifica- but they must be spelt as given in Table C.1
tion for volcanic rocks (p.33–39). As parts of from rows 1 to 26. However whether the text is
the TAS classification require the use of the upper or lower case is unimportant. This fea-
CIPW norm calculation, this code is also in- ture is useful for reading data from files in
cluded. which the data is not in the default order
The package is only intended as a basic required by IUGSTAS.
development kit with which to write other If an invalid name is found a warning mes-
programs suited to specific needs. sage is shown and the column is ignored. If a
The source code is not included in the book valid oxide name occurs more than once, an
but can be downloaded from the Cambridge error message will be reported and the program
University Press website – see section C.5, will abort. Any oxides not specified in the
p.236. header row will be set to zero.
If the table does not contain a header row (i.e.
C.1 INTRODUCTION the first row of a table is an analysis) the
package assumes that the oxides will be in the
Wherever possible the code has been written in order shown in Table C.1, but not all of them
a style which is largely self-explanatory so that need be given, i.e. they will be oxides 1 to n
readers who are not experts in programming where n is not greater than 26.
techniques should be able to follow what is
happening and get the package working with- C.1.2 Data output
out too much trouble.
The results are written to files that can be
C.1.1 Data input imported directly back into spreadsheet, data-
base and word-processing programs for fur-
The package expects to read analyses in tab- ther editorial changes. They are of three types:
delimited format in which each item in a row or (1) A simple half-page table containing the
line is separated from the next by a tab charac- analysis and CIPW norm (Table C.3). As
ter (entered by the tab key from the keyboard). the values are spaced with blank characters
Each analysis is then one row of a table. Such this table is not ideally suitable for further
data can easily be produced from virtually all spreadsheet or database work. This is, there-
spreadsheet and word-processing programs, fore, of somewhat limited use except for
by saving the data in text-only format, and demonstration purposes.
database programs by saving the data in tab- (2) A tab-delimited format table with a header
delimited format. The first item of each row row and with the analyses in horizontal
must be the specimen name, which can be up to rows. The order of the items in the row is
128 characters long, followed by up to 26 oxide specimen name, oxides 1 to 29 followed by
values. the normative values 1 to 46 as given in
226 C IUGSTAS software package

Table C.1. List of oxide names and normative values. Normative values preceded by an *
were not included in the original CIPW method of calculation. If the input data does not
contain a header row the oxides are assumed to be in the order given although not all 26 need
be present

Oxide order Normative mineral order and composition

1 SiO2 1 Q Quartz SiO2


2 TiO2 2 C Corundum Al2O3
3 Al2O3 3 Z Zircon Zr02.SiO2
4 Fe2O3 4 or Orthoclase K2O.Al2O3.6SiO2
5 FeO 5 ab Albite Na2O.Al2O3.6SiO2
6 MnO 6 an Anorthite CaO.Al2O3.2SiO2
7 MgO 7 ne Nepheline Na2O.Al2O3.2SiO2
8 CaO 8 lc Leucite K2O.Al2O3.4SiO2
9 Na2O 9 kp Kaliophilite K2O.Al2O3.2SiO2
10 K2O 10 hl Halite NaCl
11 P2O5 11 nc Sodium Carbonate Na2O.CO2
12 H2O+ 12 ac Acmite Na2O.Fe2O3.4SiO2
13 H2O- 13 ns Sodium metasilicate Na2O.SiO2
14 CO2 14 ks Potassium metasilicate K2O.SiO2
15 Other 15 di Diopside CaO.(Mg,Fe)O.2SiO2
16 ZrO2 16 hy Hypersthene (Mg,Fe)O.SiO2
17 Cr2O3 17 wo Wollastonite CaO.SiO2
18 V2O3 18 ol Olivine 2(Mg,Fe)O.SiO2
19 NiO 19 cs Dicalcium silicate (larnite) 2CaO.SiO2
20 CoO 20 cm Chromite FeO.Cr2O3
21 BaO 21 hm Hematite Fe2O3
22 SrO 22 mt Magnetite FeO.Fe2O3
23 Rb2O 23 il Ilmenite FeO.TiO2
24 F 24 tn Sphene CaO.TiO2.SiO2
25 Cl 25 pf Perovskite CaO.TiO2
26 S 26 ru Rutile TiO2
27 Total 27 ap Apatite 3(3CaO.P2O5).CaF2
28 Ox.Eq 28 * hap Hydroxyapatite 3(3CaO.P2O5).Ca(OH)2
29 TAlk 29 fr Fluorite CaF2
30 pr Pyrite FeS2
31 cc Calcite CaO.CO2
32 * mag Magnesite MgO.CO2
33 * sid Siderite FeO.CO2
34 * H2O+
35 * H2O-
36 * Other
37 * Fsd Final silica deficiency
38 * P2O5+ any excess P2O5
39 *CO2+ any excess CO2
40 * Cr2O3+ any excess Cr2O3
41 * F+ any excess F
42 * Cl+ any excess Cl
43 * S+ any excess S
44 Total sum of 1 to 43 above
45 MgFe 100MgO/(MgO + FeO)
46 * SiUnd Silica Undersaturation
C.1 Introduction 227

Table C.1. This is ideal for further spread- code of this task is explained in greater detail in
sheet or database investigation. the next section.
(3) A tab-delimited format table with the analy- It is recommended to run this task after you
ses in vertical columns as shown in Table have installed the package to see that every-
C.4, p. 232. This format is almost ready for thing is working correctly – if it is the name
publication and can be finalized with most given by the task should be the same as that
word-processors. The user has control of already present.
the number of columns per page and whether TASNames() – this is a more flexible version
rows with all zero values are to be included of the previous task as it requests the following
or not. For further details see routine input from the user:
WriteAsVertTable() on p. 233. (1) How the analysis is to be recalculated and
how CO2 is to be handled by the CIPW
C.1.3 Error checking norm calculation. For details of these op-
tions see the description of routines Recal-
A reasonable amount of error checking is built culate() and CalcCIPW() on p. 233.
into the package so that if, for example, you try (2) The name of the file from which to read the
to write to an output file that has not been data.
previous defined an error message is printed (3) What types of table are to be output. This is
and execution aborts (stops). Similarly, at- done by asking the user to enter up to three
tempts to use a file that is already in use characters which must be S for a simple
elsewhere will cause execution to abort. half-page table, H for a table with the
If any of the analytical data contain unex- analyses in horizontal rows or V for a table
pected characters the row and column in which with the analyses in vertical columns. The
the error occurs is output and execution is output files use the same name as the input
aborted. file with the characters “_S”, “_H” or “_V”
appended to the end, but before any exten-
C.1.4 Supplied tasks sion. For example input files “Data.txt”
and “MoreData” will produce output files
Certain built-in tasks are supplied as ready-to- such as “Data_H.txt” and “MoreData_S”,
use routines. These have all been built into an respectively.
interactive program in file “Main.cpp” so that TASNameInteractive() – this is a simple in-
you can experiment with them. The built-in teractive task in which all the data is entered by
tasks are: the user from the keyboard and the result is
TASNamesTest() – this simple task is “hard- output to the computer monitor as a simple
wired” to read from a set of test analyses half-page table. The entered data can then be
supplied in file “TestTAS” which contain ex- edited to see what effect it has on the TAS name
amples of analyses from all the TAS root or the CIPW norm. As in task TASNames(),
names. The specimen name already attached to the user has control over how the analysis is
each analysis is the TAS root name. recalculated and CO2 is allocated during the
When executed the task determines their TAS CIPW norm calculation.
names, and outputs to separate files the results RandomCIPWTest (maxBadTotals) – a fun
with the CIPW norms in the three possible task to test the CIPW norm calculation. It
types of table described above. To help you simple generates random analyses, calculates
become more familiar with the package the their CIPW norms and outputs results only if
228 C IUGSTAS software package

the analysis and normative totals are not the only be familiar with a few of these routines
same. Execution stops when the number of bad which are described in section C.3. Files
totals exceeds maxBadTotals or the user aborts “Task.cpp” and “Task.h” are a set of higher-
execution of the task. level routines built from the routines contained
After you have read the next two sections it is in “IUGSTAS.cpp” for performing the spe-
recommended that you study the code of the cific tasks described in the previous section.
four tasks so that you can modify them to suit File “Main.cpp” contains the main interactive
you own needs. program which will run any of the tasks taken
from “Task.cpp”.
C.2 GETTING STARTED WITH C++ A set of analyses in tab-delimited format is
also supplied in file “TestTAS” for routine
The package consists of six text files, which TASNamesTest() to check that the package is
must be compiled and linked by a C++ com- working correctly.
piler before you can run the program. They are As C++ may be unfamiliar to many petrolo-
“IUGSTAS.cpp” and “IUGSTAS.h” which gists, the way in which it can be implemented
contain the code for the basic low-level rou- is briefly described below using the code from
tines for doing the hard work. The reader need some of the tasks supplied with the package.

Table C.2. Example of the C++ code required in task TASNamesTest() to calculate the TAS
name of a series of volcanic rock analyses stored in tab delimited format in a file called
"TestTAS". The results are output in each of the three available output formats to separate
files named "Table1", "Table2" and "Table3"

void TASNamesTest()
{
IUGSTAS obj1; //line 1

obj1.OpenInputFile("TestTAS"); //line 2
obj1.OpenOutputFile("Table1", 1); //line 3
obj1.OpenOutputFile("Table2", 2); //line 4
obj1.OpenOutputFile("Table3", 3); //line 5

do { //line 6
obj1.Init(); //line 7
obj1.ReadTabDelimitedRow(); //line 8
if(obj1.EndOfFile()) break; //line 9
obj1.GetTASName(true, kCO2AsCaMgFeCarb); //line 10
obj1.WriteTable(1); //line 11
obj1.WriteAsVertTable(2, 7, false); //line 12
obj1.WriteAsHorzTable(3); //line 13
} while(true); //line 14

obj1.CloseInputFile(); //line 15
obj1.CloseOutputFile(1); //line 16
obj1.CloseOutputFile(2); //line 17
obj1.CloseOutputFile(3); //line 18
}
C.2 Getting started with C++ 229

One of the simplest, which can be used as a put files. To change this number see p.231
starting point for many more, is under the description of routine
TASNamesTest(), the code of which is shown OpenOutputFile().
in Table C.2. This simply reads analyses from Reading the Analyses – this is usually done
a tab-delimited file, determines the TAS names within a do loop (lines 6 and 14) which simply
of the analyses, and writes the results in three instructs the computer to repeatedly perform
different formats to separate files. For further all the code between the two lines until in-
details of the routines see section C.3. structed to jump out of the loop (in this exam-
Like many computer languages C++ is case ple the break command). Lines 7 to 9 are nearly
sensitive to all names so that the spelling must always together in a task:
be exactly as shown. Likewise with the various REM,QLW 
types of brackets. REM5HDG7DE'HOLPLWHG5RZ 
Creating an Object – the first thing that has to LI REM(QG2I)LOH EUHDN
be done in writing any task is to create an object and initialize the object, read one analysis, and
of type IUGSTAS, as without it none of the check to see if there is no more data to read
code or storage required can be accessed. This respectively. If no more is present, i.e. routine
is done in line 1 with the instruction: EndOfFile() returns true, the break command
,8*67$6REM is executed which causes control to jump out of
which creates an object named REM. Although the do loop to line 15.
it is possible to create an object in other ways, Doing some Work – the only calculation
this is the simplest as the object is automati- performed in this task is in line 10:
cally destroyed when the task is finished. If REM*HW7$61DPH N:DWHU&2)UHH
appropriate to the task in hand you can create N&2$V1D&DUE 
as many objects as you like but they must all where the TAS name and CIPW norm are
have different names. calculated. See p. 233 for the meaning of the
Defining an Input File – next the input file two parameters under the description of rou-
must be defined from which to read the analy- tines Recalculate() and CalcCIPW().
ses. This can either be from the keyboard Writing the Results – each analysis is then
(tedious and prone to mistakes) or from a file written by lines 11, 12 and 13:
stored on disk. In the example the analyses are REM:ULWH7DEOH  
read from the file “TestTAS” in line 2: REM:ULWH$V9HUW7DEOH IDOVH 
REM2SHQ,QSXW)LOH ´7HVW7$6W[Wµ  REM:ULWH$V+RU]7DEOH  
Note that to use any of the routines in the to the three output files in different table for-
package the object name followed by a “.” mats.
character must precede the routine name as Tidying up – although lines 15 to 18:
shown. As currently written only one input file REM&ORVH,QSXW)LOH 
can be open for each object. REM&ORVH2XWSXW)LOH  
Defining the Output Files – next output files REM&ORVH2XWSXW)LOH  
must be defined to store the results. This is REM&ORVH2XWSXW)LOH  
done in lines 3, 4 and 5 as shown: are not strictly required for a simple task, it is
REM2SHQ2XWSXW)LOH 7DEOH  good practice always to close any files that
REM2SHQ2XWSXW)LOH 7DEOH  have been opened. This enables several tasks
REM2SHQ2XWSXW)LOH 7DEOH  to be executed in succession.
The package currently supports up to six out- Directly Accessing Values – all the 29 oxide
230 C IUGSTAS software package

and 46 normative values shown in Table C.1 for experienced programmers to perform spe-
can be directly accessed with the following cial tasks – such routines are preceded by an
type of syntax: “*”.
REMR[LGHQDPHG0J2
REMQRUPQDPHGDE C.3.1 Input routines
Note that the names used to access oxide or
normative values must be exactly as given in Init() – initializes all the storage required for
the structures named “SOxideNames” and the object and must be called before each
“SNormNames” in file IUGSTAS.h”. For an analysis is read and stored within the object.
example of this see task 5DQGRP&,3:7HVW This is usually done by calling routine
in file “Tasks.cpp” which uses this syntax to ReadTabDelimitedRow().
directly set the oxide values of an analysis. AskForInputFile() – this interactive routine
As another example you could create a task asks the user to enter the name of the file to be
that would write analyses with normative Q > opened for input from the keyboard. If the file
0 to one file, those with normative ne > 0 to cannot be opened, because it does not exist or
another and those with no normative Q or ne to it is already open in another program, the user
another with the following type of code: is asked for another name until a file is opened.
LI REMQRUPQDPHG4! ^ If the user enters the return key before entering
:ULWH$V+RU]7DEOH   any text the program quits.
`HOVHLI REMQRUPQDPHGQH! ^ OpenInputFile(“aInputFile”) – opens for in-
:ULWH$V+RU]7DEOH   put the file named between the pair of quotes,
`HOVH^ which must be present as they are part of the
:ULWH$V+RU]7DEOH   argument. This routine is used internally by
` routine AskForInputFile().
Executing a Task – to use any of the tasks CloseInputFile() – this simply closes the in-
supplied in “Tasks.cpp” or any that you have put file. Although not necessary for many
created, simply place their names into the pro- tasks, it is useful if you wish to use the same
gram main in file “Main.cpp” as shown below: object to read from more than one input file. In
LQWPDLQ other words you can append sets of data
^ sequentially.
0\1HZ7DVN  ReadTabDelimitedRow() – reads one analy-
UHWXUQ sis from the input file and stores it in the object.
` It automatically checks to see if the tab-delim-
If you have closed all the files properly you can ited data has a header row the first time it is
also execute any other tasks by adding them to called after the input file has been opened. If
main. any of the analytical values have any invalid
characters in them, a warning message is shown
C.3 USEFUL ROUTINES together with the row and column in which it
occurs. Execution is then aborted.
The following routines are usually the only EndOfFile() – this should be called immedi-
ones required for most tasks. The others present ately after a call to ReadTabDelimitedRow() to
in “IUGSTAS.cpp” are used internally by these check that an analysis has been read. If it has
routines. Note, however, that several routines the routine returns the value false, but if no
have more than one form which may be useful analysis has been read because the end of file
C.3 Useful routines 231

Table C.3. Example of a simple half-page table output by routine WriteTable(), using
routine CalcCIPW() to calculate the norm of a hypothetical analysis

The specimen name

SiO2 50.00 ZrO2 0.20 Q 1.26 wo 0.00 sid 0.00


TiO2 1.00 Cr2O3 0.10 C 0.00 ol 0.00 H2O+ 0.50
Al2O3 12.00 V2O3 0.10 Z 0.30 cs 0.00 H2O- 0.50
Fe2O3 2.00 NiO 0.10 or 12.17 cm 0.15 Other 0.01
FeO 5.00 CoO 0.10 ab 21.69 hm 0.00 Fsd 0.00
MnO 0.05 BaO 0.10 an 15.22 mt 3.05 P2O5+ 0.00
MgO 10.00 SrO 0.10 ne 0.00 il 1.90 CO2+ 0.00
CaO 9.00 Rb2O 0.10 lc 0.00 tn 0.00 Cr2O3+ 0.00
Na2O 3.00 F 1.50 kp 0.00 pf 0.00 F+ 0.00
K2O 2.00 Cl 0.50 hl 0.82 ru 0.00 Cl+ 0.00
P2O5 0.50 S 0.50 nc 0.00 ap 1.19 S+ 0.00
H2O+ 0.50 Total 99.96 ac 0.00 hap 0.00 Total 99.09
H2O- 0.50 Ox.Eq -0.87 ns 0.00 fr 3.02 MgFe 86.47
CO2 1.00 ks 0.00 pr 0.94
Other 0.01 TAlk 5.00 di 7.70 cc 2.29 SiUnd 0.00
hy 26.39 mag 0.00

has been reached it returns true. C.3.2 Output routines


Note: it is highly recommended that you use
this routine to check for the end of file as it also AskForOutputTables() – this interactive rou-
keeps track of how many analyses have been tine asks the user to enter up to three characters
read and written to the output files. It is also to define the types of tables to be written, i.e. S,
responsible for printing a progress message H or V for the tables written by routines
every time a certain number of analyses are WriteTable(), WriteAsHorzTable() and
read. This number is currently set to 10 but can WriteAsVertTable() respectively.
easily be changed by editing the following line OpenOutputFile(“anOutputFile”, nthFile) –
of code in file “IUGSTAS.h”: this opens the file specified by the first argu-
const double reportEveryNth = 10.0; ment as the nthFile output file. As supplied the
to any other number you prefer. value of nthFile must be an integer between 1
UserAbort() – this routine is useful to include and 6. However, if more (or less) are required
in certain do loops to detect if an abort sequence simply edit the following line of code in file
has been typed on the keyboard, e.g. Command “IUGSTAS.h”:
+ period for the Mac OS, Control + c for const int numOutputFiles = 6;
Windows. It is used in task TASNames() in to reflect the number you require.
case the user wishes to abort before reading to CloseOutputFile(nthFile) – closes the nthFile
the end of the file and in task Random- output file.
CIPWTest() to stop execution – the routine CloseAllOutputFiles() – this closes all output
EndOfFile() cannot be used in this case as no files that have been opened.
data is being read from a file. As it is not *WriteTable(nthFile) – this writes to the
possible to detect abort sequences in standard nthFile output file a single analysis and its
C++ this code is machine dependant. normative values as a simple half-page table as
232 C IUGSTAS software package

Table C.4. Example of a vertical table output by routine WriteAsVertTable() which can be
imported directly into word-processors or spreadsheet programs as tab-delimited text files
almost ready for publication. All the analyses are numbered sequentially. The user controls
the number of columns across a page and whether rows with all zero values are to be
omitted, as specified in this example
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

SiO2 47.37 50.84 53.87 58.70 67.50 73.51 71.35


TiO2 1.69 2.33 1.10 0.88 0.59 0.17 0.61
Al2O3 15.26 14.98 17.59 17.24 16.15 13.97 7.43
Fe2O3 3.60 4.08 3.28 3.31 2.47 0.59 1.96
FeO 6.95 8.32 6.91 4.09 2.33 1.16 6.79
MnO 0.17 0.18 0.43 0.14 0.09 0.05 0.36
MgO 10.85 7.53 3.21 3.37 1.81 0.20 0.00
CaO 9.49 9.59 10.73 6.88 4.38 1.24 0.60
Na2O 3.56 1.75 2.04 3.53 3.85 3.35 6.63
K2O 0.84 0.22 0.86 1.64 0.68 5.64 4.26
P2O5 0.22 0.16 0.00 0.21 0.15 0.12 0.00
Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
TAlk 4.40 1.96 2.89 5.17 4.53 8.99 10.90

CIPW Norm
Q 0.00 7.75 10.54 12.48 30.21 29.17 31.94
C 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.48 0.39 0.00
or 4.99 1.28 5.07 9.70 4.02 33.34 25.19
ab 22.27 14.78 17.24 29.83 32.55 28.34 14.46
an 23.18 32.41 36.31 26.38 20.76 5.35 0.00
ne 4.25 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
ac 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 5.67
ns 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 8.20
di 17.89 11.37 14.05 5.13 0.00 0.00 2.66
hy 0.00 21.68 9.96 9.52 5.95 1.95 10.72
ol 18.48 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
mt 5.22 5.92 4.75 4.80 3.58 0.86 0.00
il 3.21 4.43 2.09 1.67 1.12 0.32 1.16
hap 0.53 0.39 0.00 0.50 0.36 0.28 0.00
H2O+ -0.01 -0.01 0.00 -0.01 -0.01 -0.01 0.00
Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
MgFe 82.92 74.57 53.93 75.48 80.34 31.31 0.00
SiUnd 10.93 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Specimen Names
1) Lava 374 = Basalt (B) [Alkali]
2) Scoria 372 = Basalt (B) [Subalkali]
3) Ash 1956 = Basaltic Andesite (O1) [medium-K]
4) Ash 1873 = Andesite (O2) [medium-K]
5) Dome lava = Dacite (O3) [low-K]
6) Plug 73/43 = Rhyolite (R) [high-K]
7) Obsidian = Rhyolite (R) [Pantelleritic]

Note: because the analyses have been recalulated and printed to only two decimal places,
some totals may not appear to be the sum of their component values, e.g. TAlk in analyses 2,
3 and 7 are not equal to the sum of Na2O + K2O as displayed.
C.3 Useful routines 233

shown in Table C.3. This routine is called internally by routine


*WriteAsHorzTable(nthFile) – this writes to CalcCIPW().
the nthFile output file in a tab-delimited format *CalcCIPW(recalcMode, CO2Usage) – this
the analyses and normative values in horizon- calculates the CIPW norm of the currently
tal rows. The table has a header row and the stored analysis after it has been recalculated by
order of the columns is specimen name, oxides routine Recalculate() using the parameter
1 to 28 followed by the normative values 1 to recalMode. The parameter CO2Usage deter-
46 as given in Table C.1. mines how any CO2 is allocated in the calcula-
*WriteAsVertTable (nthFile, numCols, tion. This can be in one of three ways depend-
printAll) – this writes to the nthFile output file ing upon which of the three built-in constants
in a tab-delimited format the analyses and is specified:
normative values in vertical columns as shown kCO2AsOthers – CO2 is added to Others and
in Table C.4. The parameter numCols defines no carbonates are calculated
the number of columns per page. As supplied kCO2AsNaCarb – CO2 is calculated as Na2CO3
the package has a maximum of 10 columns per (nc). If there is an excess of CO2 this is
page. However, this can be changed by editing allocated as for kCO2AsCaMgFeCarb
the following line of code in file “IUGSTAS.h”: kCO2AsCaMgFeCarb – CO2 is calculated first
FRQVWLQWQXP7DEOH&ROV  as CaCO3 (cc), then if there is CO2 left over
to any suitable number. If the parameter printAll as MgCO3 (mag) and then if necessary as
is true all 29 oxide values and 46 normative FeCO3 (sid). Any excess CO2 (a theoretical
values are output; if printAll is false any row of possibility) is then reported as CO2+.
the table with all zero values is omitted, as in If the analysis total, corrected for oxygen
Table C.4. equivalent if Cl, F or S is present, differs from
WriteTables() – this writes the data to the the normative total by more than 0.0001 the
tables as specified in the call to routine routine returns false, otherwise it returns true.
AskForOutputTables(). *GetTASName(recalcMode, CO2Usage) –
before each analysis is named the CIPW norm
C.3.3 Calculation routines is calculated by routine CalcCIPW() using the
two parameters recalcMode and CO2Usage.
*Recalculate(recalcMode) – this recalculates Note that any specific changes the user wishes
the analysis in a manner which depends upon to make to the analyses, such as adjusting the
which of three built-in constants is specified: ratio of FeO to Fe2O3, must be done before
kWaterCO2Free – H2O+, H2O- and CO 2 are calling this routine.
ignored and set to zero before the analysis It then determines the TAS name for the
is recalculated to 100%. This is the proce- analysis currently stored in the object and
dure recommended by the Subcommission appends it to the user supplied specimen name
to be adopted before determining the TAS in the following format:
name of an analysis ODYD 5K\ROLWH 5 >&RPHQGLWLF@
kWithWaterCO2 – the entire analysis is recal- i.e. the user supplied specimen name = the TAS
culated to 100% root name (the TAS field number) [any op-
kDoNotRecalculate – the analysis is not recal- tional additional name] as can be seen in Table
culated but is left as it is. C.4.
234 C IUGSTAS software package

C.4 THE CIPW NORM CALCULATION the amount of minerals that could theoretically
be present.
The CIPW norm calculation was originally
introduced as a method of classifying igneous C.4.1 Problems
rocks (Cross et. al., 1902) and although the
classification was never widely used the One of the complaints of the original CIPW
calculation became extremely popular. An norm calculation is that the analysis total rarely
excellent review of this classification method agrees with the total of the normative minerals.
and a comparison with many others This is due to several causes:
classifications can be found in Johannsen (1931, (1) The calculation was done manually, often
p.83–99). This also contains an excellent with the aid of tables such as those found in
description of how to perform the calculation Johannsen (1931, p.295–308). This intro–
taken almost entirely from Washington (1917). duced considerable rounding-off errors as
It also contains several worked examples of a the molecular proportions were only car–
wide variety of igneous rock compositions. ried to three decimal places and it was
The basic principles of the method are simple: recommended that values less than 0.002
(1) The weight % oxides are converted to be ignored. Calculating the normative
molecular proportions by dividing them by minerals from their molecular proportions
their molecular weights. then lead to the final values being in fixed
(2) The molecular proportions are then com- increments. For example, orthoclase would
bined into a set of provisional normative appear in increments of 0.556 or 0.001 *
minerals in a specific order. mol. wt. of orthoclase (556). Rounded off
(3) The amount of SiO2 that is required to to two decimal places, this resulted in values
satisfy this allocation of provisional nor- such as 2.22, 2.78, 3.34 etc., but nothing in
mative minerals is then calculated. If enough between. Fortunately this method rarely
is present, the excess is reported as quartz has to be used today.
(Q) and the provisional minerals become (2) Although the molecular weights of Mg and
permanent. If not enough silica is present Fe-bearing normative minerals were ad-
the provisional normative minerals are justed for the amount of Fe2+ replacing Mg,
desilicated into related normative miner- with other substitutions, such as Sr and Ba
als, again in a specific order, until exactly replacing Ca, no such corrections were
enough SiO2 is found to be present. made to the Ca-bearing molecules.
(4) Finally, the proportions of the normative (3) Apatite was calculated in an extremely
minerals are then converted to weight % by loose manner which could result in some
multiplying them by their molecular weight. P2O5 not being allocated if small amounts
Mathematically this procedure is a linear of F were present. If no F was present the
transformation of the analytical data into a new apatite was made only from CaO and P2O5,
set of normative minerals (Le Maitre, 1982). but when the weight % of apatite was
However, the linearity is only true while the set calculated it was treated as if it contained F.
of normative minerals remains the same. Once The normative total was, therefore, in ex-
it changes a new linearity appears. cess by the amount of F that should have
Whereas a mode of a rock is the amount of been present.
minerals actually present in a rock, the norm is (4) If S, Cl or F was present in the analysis, the
C4 The CIPW norm calculation 235

total was rarely corrected for the oxygen minerals are corrected for all substitutions,
equivalent as it should have been. i.e. Rb for K; Sr and Ba for Ca; V for Fe3+;
Mn, Co and Ni for Fe2+; and finally Fe2+,
C.4.2 IUGSTAS CIPW norm with any Mn, Co and Ni, for Mg.
(3) Apatite (strictly speaking fluor-apatite) is
With the advent of computers all these prob- calculated from the appropriate propor-
lems became solvable. Two of the earliest tions of CaO, P2O5 and F. Any P2O5 left
computer programs for performing the CIPW over is later calculated as hydroxyapatite
calculation were written in the early 1960s (hap — not in the original CIPW norm) and
(Kelsey, 1965; Hey & Le Maitre, 1966) which the amount of H2O+ is reduced by the
considerable reduced the tedium of the manual amount that would be required. This can
calculation. Kelsey gives an excellent descrip- lead to negative values of H2O+ if not
tion of the procedures involved and produced enough was originally present (see exam-
a better way of desilicating the normative min- ples in Table C.4). Theoretically P2O5 may
erals when required. also be in excess at this stage and if it is, it
For the first time it also allowed the norm is reported in the norm as P2O5+.
calculation to be performed in a mathematically (4) The user has much more control over how
correct manner. For example, element the CO2 is allocated as explained under the
substitutions were all taken into account when description of routine CalcCIPW() on p.233.
calculating molecular weights. (5) The logic of the original method did not
This resulted in the analysis total and normative allow for the excess of certain other (usu-
total always being exactly the same. Note, ally minor) molecular proportions which
however, that if you add up all the normative can occasionally occur. These are CO2,
minerals (reported to two decimal places) you Cr2O3, F, Cl and S which are reported in the
will often find that this total is not the same as the norm as CO2+, Cr2O3+, F+, Cl+ and S+,
total displayed by the computer because of respectively.
rounding-off errors (e.g. see Table C.4). (6) No other oxides can be in excess. What can
The main differences between the CIPW happen, however, is that the amount of
norm code presented here and the original available SiO2 may not be sufficient to
version are as follows: make all the normative minerals required.
(1) Only the atomic weights of the elements If this happens a final silica deficiency
are defined and the values used are not (Fsd) is reported in the norm.
rounded off to the nearest integer. All the (7) If the analysis contains S, Cl or F the
required molecular weights and correction oxygen equivalent, reported as Ox.Eq in
factors are calculated from the atomic the Tables, is calculated. For an example
weights to minimize rounding-off errors. see Table C.3 in which the sum of the
Mathematically it also means that if the analysis total less the oxygen equivalent is
atomic weights are given random values equal to the normative total.
and the norm calculation has been pro- (8) Finally, an extremely useful parameter
grammed correctly, the analysis total will called SiUnd (silica undersaturation) is
still be the same as the total of the norma- given. This is the weight % of SiO2 that
tive minerals. would have to be added to the analysis to
(2) The molecular weights of the normative make quartz (Q) just appear in the norm –
236 C IUGSTAS software package

remember that mathematically analyses do code for implementing an abort.


not have to add up to 100%. In other words
SiUnd can be thought of as negative C.6 REFERENCES
normative quartz which makes it an ideal
parameter for plotting the status of silica CROSS, W., IDDINGS, J.P., PIRSSON, L.V. & WASH-
saturation among any series of rocks which INGTON, H.S., 1902. A quantitative chemico-
transgress over the boundaries of sets of mineralogical classification and nomencla-
normative minerals, e.g. a series a basaltic ture of igneous rocks. Journal of Geology.
rocks which move from Q-normative space, Chicago. Vol.10, p.555–690.
through ol-hy space, to ne-normative space. HEY, M.H., L E MAITRE , R.W. AND BUTLER,
Note that SiUnd is not an essential part of B.C.M., 1966. A versatile computer pro-
the normative calculation. gram for the recalculation of rock and min-
The code in IUGSTAS has evolved from the eral analyses. Mineralogical Magazine and
original version written in 1963 in Mercury Journal of the Mineralogical Society. Lon-
Autocode through Fortran and Basic to C++. don. Vol. 35, p. 788.
As would be expected the execution speed also JOHANNSEN, A., 1931. A Descriptive Petrogra-
increased dramatically from over 5 hours for phy of the Igneous Rocks. Chicago Univer-
1000 calculations on the Ferranti Mercury com- sity Press. Vol. 1, 267pp.
puter to about 1 second on a Power Macintosh KELSEY, C.H., 1965. Calculation of the C.I.P.W.
G3. norm. Mineralogical Magazine and Journal
This code has been used extensively in the of the Mineralogical Society. London. Vol.
CLAIR data system (Le Maitre, 1973, 1976) 34, p. 276-282.
and was instrumental in the original develop- LE MAITRE, R.W., 1973. Experiences with
ment of the TAS classification. CLAIR: a computerised library of analysed
igneous rocks. Chemical Geology. Vol. 12,
C.5 DOWNLOADING IUGSTAS p. 301-308.
LE MAITRE , R.W., 1976. Chemical variability
The IUGSTAS package can be downloaded of some common igneous rocks. Journal of
from the Cambridge University Press website Petrology. Oxford. Vol. 17, p. 589-637.
whose URL is given in the footnote below.† LE MAITRE, R.W., 1982. Numerical Petrology.
Two version of the source code and compiled Elsevier, Amsterdam. 281pp.
programs are available; one for the Mac OS W ASHINGTON, H.S., 1917. Chemical analyses
and the other for Windows. The only differ- of igneous rocks. Professional Paper. United
ences are the machine-dependent UserAbort() States Geological Survey. Washington. No.
routine in file “IUGSTAS.cpp” and the key 99, p.1–1201.

† The Cambridge University Press URL from which to download IUGSTAS is:
KWWSZZZFDPEULGJHRUJUHVRXUFHV;