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HOUl!NALOF GEOPHYSICALRESEARCH VOL. Y2, NO.

2 HANUARY15, 1967

Effects of the Intermediate Principal Stress


on the Failure of Limestone, Dolomite, and Glass
at Different Temperatures and Strain Rates
JOHN HANDIN,x H. C. HEARD,ANDJ. N. MAGOUIRK
Shell Development Company? Houston, Texas

Strength and ductility of ordinarily brittle substancesare commonly observed to increase


with mean pressure.However, since the pioneeringwork of yon K/•rm/m and of BSker fifty
years ago, it has been recognizedthat the effects differ from compression(•x > •. _-- •a) to
extension (•3 < •. -- •) tests, where subscriptsdenote maximum, intermediate, and mini-
mum principal (compressire)stresses. This differencehas been ascribedto the influenceof
but, to our knowledge,it has not previously been quantitatively demonstrated.By subject-
ing jacketed cylinders to combined triaxial compressionor extension and torsion, one can
obtain relative values of •.othat lie between the limits •. --_ • and •. _-- •8; in torsion alone
• lies midway between.The data from different types of test are convenientlycomparedby
plotting octahedralstressroet against mean pressurep,• at fracture or yielding. Tests have
been done at temperatures of 25 to 500øC, confining pressure to 10 kb, and different strain
rates (10'• to 10-7 per second) on 1- by 2-cm solid cylinders and 1.2- by 2.5-cm hollow
cylinders (0.7-mm wall) of homogeneous,statistically isotropic Solenhofenlimestone, Blair
dolomite, and glass.At strain rates near 10-• per secondat 25øC, the roet versus p,• curves
for limestone are essentially linear and reflect brittle behavior at relatively low pressures.In
compression,failure occurs by shear fracturing; in extension and torsion, tensile fracture
dominates.The shear strength is dependentupon mean pressurebut tensile breaking strength
is not. At intermediate pressuresthe curves become concave toward the pm axis. This is
associatedwith transitional behavior, faulting in all three types of test. This brittle-ductile
transition occursat 2.7 and 5.4 kb in compressionand extension,respectively; in torsion it is
near 4.0 kb. This stronglysuggeststhat ductility is a linear function of the relative magnitude
of the intermediate principal stress.At high pressuresall curves tend to approach the same
asymptote, •o•t -- constant. The results for dolomite and glass are similar. Increasing the
temperature or decreasingthe strain rate tends to lower the transition confiningpressuresfor
all states of stress.

INTRODUCTION fact, significant effects of (r•. on the deforma-


tional behaviorof rockshave long been recog-
The mechanicalpropertiesof a given material
nizedfrom the very differentresultsprovidedby
(e.g., ultimate strength, brittle-ductile transi-
the triaxial compression tests ((r• >
tion, and fracture angle) are functionsat least
and extensiontests ((r• < (r, = (r•) of yon
of state of stress,temperature,and strain rate.
Current failure criteria are based on the as- Kdrmdn [1911], BSker [1915], Handin and
Hager [1957], Heard [1960], and Paterson
sumption that at constant temperature and
[1964], among others. Data from these two
strain rate these propertiesdependonly on the
types of test--uniaxial compressionor tension
state of stressin the material. This can always
superimposedon hydrostatic pressure--cannot
be specifiedby the three principal stresses,(r•
be correlatedsatisfactorily.Thus the effectof
(maximum), (r•. (intermediate), and (r, (mini-
is an important unresolvedproblem in failure
mum, compressivestressescounted positive).
theory; much of this report is devotedto this
However, most criteria are incompleteowing to
problem.
the assumption(often implicit) that the inter-
In this work an advantageof the torsiontest
mediate principal stressis without influence.In
has beenexploited,namelythat all three prin-
cipal stressescan be made to differ from one
x Now at College of Geosciences,Texas A&M another ((r• > (r•.> (r,). In pure torsion• lies
University, College Station.
'-A Division of Shell Oil Company. Explora-
midwaybetween(r• and (r•, but, by combining
tion and Production ResearchDivision, Houston, torsionwith triaxial compression or extension,
Texas. EPR Publication 4671 onecanvary the relativemagnitudeof (r, any-
611
612 HANDIN, HEARD, AND MAGOUIRK

where betweenthe two extremes,• -- • and (r2 the materials tend to behave similarly under all
systems of loading under conditions favoring
The apparatusrequiredto measureaccurately nearly ideal plasticity.
the stressand strain in cylinderssubjectedto
STR•,ss•,s AT FA•LVRE
torsion and triaxial compressionat the same
time is necessarilycomplex.The chief disad- Convenient for purposesof comparisonis a
vantage,however,is that the stressesin twisted graphical representationof the state of stress
solidcylindersare not uniform; the shearstress at failure--fracture, faulting, or yielding. Let
developedunder the appliedtorque variesradi- us construct a Cartesian coordinate system in
ally from zero at the center to a maximum at which the x axis is parallel to the longitudinal
the periphery. Hence the data are not directly axis of the cylindrical specimenand the y and z
comparablewith those derived from tests in axes lie in the circular section. In general, the
which the stressfield is homogeneous. An alter- principalstresses at are [Jaeger,1962]
native is to twist thin-walled hollow cylinders
in which all stressesare nearly uniform. This - + + + +
leads to the difficult and time-consumingtask 2 2 T• )ffi
of preparinghollowcylindersof ordinary brittle 2 2

material and effectively jacketing them inside


2
and out against the fluid confiningmedium. - + = 0 (1)
Furthermore, when the material is granular, where the usual convention is followed. The
like most rocks, the maximum grain size and
quantities a•, a•, a• are normal stressesacting
any imperfectionsmust be small relative to the
wall thickness if measurements are to be statis-
parallel to the x, y, z directions. The symbol
ß denotes a shear stress; the first subscript
tically valid. Sincethis thicknessis only 0.7 mm
identifiesthe nodal to the plane in which the
in our experiments,the material must be very
shear stressacts; the seconddenotesthe di-
fine-grainedas well as homogeneous and iso-
rection• that plane.
tropic. These considerations,among others,
The coe•cients of (1) are the stress •-
dictated our choiceof experimentalmaterials--
variants. When the coordinate system corre-
Solenhofenlimestone,Blair dolomite,and Pyrex
sponds to the orthogonal principal stress di-
glass.
rections,aH the shear stressesvanish,and the
Our primary purposewas to developa quan-
invariantsare simply
titative macroscopicfailure criterion that could
adequately account for all three principal
stresses.This has not been achieved, but we
have greatly increasedthe qualitative under- Is = •. + •2•3 + • (2)
standing of the influencesof g•.. A secondary 13 • •1•2• 3
purposewas to discovera valid empirical re-
lation between the data for solid and hollow To account for all three principal stresses
but avoid three-dimensional
diagraming, we
cylinders that. would allow direct comparison
elected to plot the stressesat failure in terms
between the much more easily prepared and
of octahedral shear stress •o•t and octahedral
not necessarily extremely fine-grained solid
normal stress or mean pressure p•. These
cylindersand triaxial test specimens.
parametersare functionsonly of the invariants
In addition, the previous work of Handin
L andL whichare physicallysignificant.
and Hager [1958] and Heard [1960] on tem-
perature effectsand of Heard [1962] on strain-
rate effects has been extended through new = + + =
triaxial experiments. The aim was to assess
the influence of g• under conditions beyond
room temperature and ordinary strain rates
(about 10-' per second).The importanceof the Mean pressureis related to dilatational stra•
stress state tends to decreasewith increasing energy, and octahedral shear stressis related
temperatureor decreasingstrain rate; that is, tO •tortional stra• ener•.
EFFECTS OF INTERMEDIATE PRINCIPAL STRESS ON FAILURE 613

TABLE 1. Oomponents of Stress Tensor for Homogeneous Elastic Test Specimens

Principal Stresses Mean


Pressure

Type of Test

Uniaxial compression
•y --- •z -- Txy -- 0 0 •x/3
Uniax• tension
o o -•= -•:/3
•ax•l compression
p = •y = •z p +A•x/3
T•x• extension
a: = p -- A•: p -- A•z/3
Pure torsion
Tzy -- Txy 0
Torsion + confining pressure
p + •-•y P -- •'xy P
Torsion + t•xial •yx •
uompress•on
• -- 2 + •'xy2 P + A•/3
Braz•
variable p --•'•, variable

* p = confining pressure.

The states of stress obtainable in homo-


geneouselastic specimensare summarizedfor
eight differenttypesof testsin Table 1.

EXPERIMENTAL METHODS
PACKING
The nomenclature,theory, and techniqueof
experimental rock deformation have been
thoroughly discussedin previous publications
PRESSURE
[Handin, 1953, 1966; Handin and Hager, 1957, CONFININ
'•--UPPER
LOADING
PISTON
1958; Handin et al. 1960; Griggsand Handin., ,PRESSURE
K• '•--SPECIME
N
1960; Griggs et al., 1960; Heard, 1960, 1962;
Paterson,1964]. Here they are reviewedbriefly.
,••/••LOWER PISTON
FORCE.
GAGE
(CLUTC
Triaxial tests. In our so-called 'triaxial' ex-
periments, cylindrical specimensabout 0.5 to
1.0 cm in diameter and 1.0 to 2.0 cm in length
are sheathed in thin impermeable copper or
lead jackets,placedin a high-pressurechamber,
and surroundedby a fluid confiningmedium.
The state of stressis initially hydrostatic, a• --
(r2-- (rs-- p, wherep is confiningpressure.
The specimens are then loaded axially
:--•,
ll-:;•-DIFFE
Ill 6 TRANSFORMERS-•

through a pistonwhich emergesfrom the cham-


ber through a suitable seal. In tIandin's ap- Fig. 1. Internal force-torque gage coupled to
the torsion test chamber. One linear variable dif-
paratusthe load is applied hydraulically through ferential transformer is mounted coaxtally with
a low-friction packing and is measuredby an the rod; it actually measuresthe compressionof
external force gage [Handin, 1953; Handin and the column but is calibrated in terms of axial
Hager, 1957, 1958; Griggs' et al., 1960]. In force (dynes) on the specimen. The other is
mounted perpendicular to the rod; it actually
tIeard's apparatus the specimenis loaded by measures the deflection of the arm fixed to the
a motor-driven ball-bearing screw assembly rod but is calibrated in terms of torque (dyne-
through a leaklesspacking and is measuredby cm) on the specimen.
614 HANDIN, HEARD, AND MAGOUIRK

an internal force gage similar to that shown yield stress,which is definedas the differential
in Figure 1 [Heard, 1963, 1965]. stressat somearbitrary small permanentstrain
The measurements of force,displacement,and and is usually of the order of 1-2% for rocks.
confining pressurehave a sensitivity of 0.1% The deformational behavior is described in
and an accuracy of 0.5%. For high-tempera- terms of relative ductility as previouslydefined
ture experiments,both internally and externally by Griggs and Handin [1960, Figure 1] and
heated test chambersare used; regulation is Heard [1960, p. 206]. The rock is regarded as
within ñ2øC for temperatures up to 500øC. brittle, transitional, or ductile when the total
In all tests the confining pressureis main- longitudinal strains before fracture or faulting
tained constant.When the axial pressureis in- are 1-3, 3-5, and 5% or more, respectively.The
creased(compressiontest), the specimenshort- correspondingmaximum shear strains would be
ens, and ax 2> a•. -- as -- p. When the axial 2-6, 6-10, and 10% or more.
pressure is decreased,the specimenelongates, Torsion tests. The apparatus,togetherwith
and a, <C a• -- a•. -- p. In any singletest the the theory, technique,and procedureof testing
rate of shortening or elongation is constant. rocks under torsion combined with triaxial
The ordinary strain rate is about 10-• per sec- compression, has already been describedin de-
ond. During the test we record the differential tail [Handin et al., 1960]. In brief, the appa-
force on the piston and the relative dis- ratus consistsof a double-actinghydraulic press
placement of the piston with respect to the coupledthrough a thrust bearingto a rotatable
chamber. From the predetermined initial triaxial test chamber,the fixed loading piston
cross-sectionalarea of the specimen and the of which bearsagainsta force-torquegage.This
displacementscorrected for apparatus distor- is a steel column to which two sets of four foil
tion, we can calculatethe new area at any given strain gages are bonded. For force measure-
strain by assumingthat volume is conserved ments these resistance elements are mounted
and that deformation is homogeneousalong parallel and perpendicular to the axis of the
the gage length. Dividing force by this area column, and for torque measurementsthey lie
then givestrue differentialstress,a• -- as.This at 45 ø to the axis. Each set forms a Wheat-
is plotted versus conventional longitudinal stone bridge, the output of which is fed to a
strain (shorteningor elongation) in the stress- strip-chart recorder. Also recorded are axial
strain curve, which reflects the deformational displacement of the press, rotation of the
behaviorof the specimen. . cylinder,and confiningpressure.All thesemeas-
Ultimate strength is definedas the maximum urementshave a sensitivityof 0.1% and an ac-
ordinate of the stress-strain curve. For brittle curacy of at least 0.5%. The chamber can be
materials which rupture after an essentially heated externally to 400øC with regulation of
elastic deformation, ultimate and breaking ñ2øC for high-temperaturetests.
strengthscoincide.For materials which deform Although piston friction is relatively low in
permanentlybeforerupturing, ultimate strength our controlled-clearance packing,externalmeas-
correspondsto the maximum ordinate of the urementsof axial force and torque are subject
stress-straincurve and is unambiguouswhen to some uncertainty, especiallyat small values
this curve is peaked. For ductile materials of these variables. We have therefore built an
which strain-harden,we prefer to specify the internal force-torquegagewhich eliminatesthe
problem of friction. This gage consistsof a
hollow steel column to which the base of the
TABLE 2. Full-Scale Readings
in Torsion Testing specimenis fixed, and it simply replacesthe
presentlower plug in the test vessel[seeHandin
Axial load, external 10•ødynes et al., 1960, Figure 6]. A rod extendsthrough
Axial load, internal 5 X 109dynes the columnfrom a fixed point near the end in
Torque, external 2 X 109dyne-cm contact with the specimento the outside of the
Torque, internal 109 dyne-cm vesselwhere the axial displacementand twist of
Axial displacement 2 cm
Rotation I radian the rod are measuredwith respectto the col-
Confiningpressure 4.5 kb umn by meansof two very sensitivedifferential
transformers(Figure 1). Thesetransducers give
EFFECTS OF INTERMEDIATE PRINCIPAL STRESS ON FAILURE 615

EPON 815
CEM *'NT STEp•.LLuGEND
OUTSIDE
COPPER
dACKET INSIDE
COPPER
LET STEEl
PLUGEND

UPPER •O•JDRUFF HOLLOW MESTONE WOODRUFF LOWER


PISTON KEY SAMPLE CYLINDER KEY PISTON
(CLUTCH)

I I
.50 INCH

Fig. 2. Schematicdiagram of the jacketing techniquefor hollow torsion,specimens.

rectified voltage outputs which can be coupled jacketinghollowcylindersboth externallyand


directly to the strip-chart recorders.The device internally turned out to be digcult and time
resemblesthe one already used successfullyby consuming. The designfinally adoptedis illus-
Heard [1963, p. 166] and earlier suggestedin trated in Figure 2.
principle by Robertson [1955, p. 1278]. The The outer sleeveof thin, seamless, annealed
full-scalereadingsof all recordedvariablesare copper is applied as usual; mechanicalseals
given in Table 2. are made at the tapered ends of the loading
Solid cylindricalspecimens,about 0.9 cm in piston and the clutch assembly.The inside
diameter and 1.9 cm in gagelength, are held in jacket is made by drilling out a solid copper
tapered steel grips and jacketed as previously rod, leavingone end closed.It is then soldered
described [Har•din et al., 1960, p. 258]. Ap- to a drilled steel end plug. This is insertedinto
parently no important stressconcentrationsare the hollowspecimen,and the solidend plug is
introducedby this procedure;Figure 6 shows firmly cementedto it. The confiningfluid enters
that failure does not occur in the vicinity of a hole through a small brass screw,which is
thesegrips. cementedto the outer jacket, and the fluid then
With regard to hollow cylinders, the wall passesthrough one end plug. This arrange-
thicknessesshouldbe made as small as possible ment denies access of the fluid to the surface
in order that the stressfield will remain nearly betweenthe plug and the piston. Thus, under
constant, but three problems immediately be- pressure,the friction on this surfaceis so high
come apparent: (1) The preparation of thin- that the Woodruffkey need not support all the
walled cylinders of ordinary brittle rock by applied torque. Premature failure due to un-
coringand grindingis not easy. (2) The results wanted stress concentrations does not seem to
are not meaningfulunlessthe size of the poly- occur.

crystallinespecimenin bulk is large relative to In a pure torsion test the specimenis twisted
the maximumsizeof the constituentgrains. (3) at a constantrate, ordinarily 0.1 rad/min under
Less torque is required to achieve the same constant confining pressure. The shear strain
shear stress,and this, of course,reducesthe rate is then about 10-' per second.In combined
sensitivity of the measurements. loading tests, an axial load below the yield
We have beenable to make uniform cylinders stressis first applied.Torqueis then applied,
with the following dimensions' outside diam-and the specimenis twisted at constant values
of • and of •, = 0'6= p = •.
eter, do -- 0.500 inch (1.270 cm); insidediam-
eter, d, -- 0.445 inch (1.130 cm); wall ratio,The stress distributions in permanently
d,/do -- 0.89. The wall thicknessof 0.028 inch
twisted solid specimensare unknown, but the
(0.070 cm) is more than 100 times greater stress-strainrelations for twisted cylindersare
than the grain size (5 X 10-• cm) of Solenhofen
easily computed when the deformation is
limestone. elastic.Thus the yield stressfor a ductile ma-
Developmentof a techniquefor effectively terial and the breaking stressfor a brittle ma-
616 HANDIN, HEARD, AND MAGOUIRK
terial can be determined with little error radius, its value at the inner wall will differ
(-----3%).The relationspreviouslywritten for a from the maximum value by 11%. The mean
solid cylindrical bar, damped at one end and deviation from the average r•, will be about
twisted by a eouple applied at the other end, 5%.
also apply to a hollow right-eircular eylinder If we had assumedthat r•, was uniform
[seeHandin. et al., 1960, pp. 246-248]. The as- acrossthe thin wall,
sumptionsare (1) that the material is uniform,
isotropic,and perfectly elastieand (2) that the
strain is homogeneous and constitutesa pure
M = 2•rr•
Jr

r•'dr
i

shear. In consequence, circular sectionsremain 3M


circular, the length and all radii remain un-
changed,and the strain (and stress) varies di-
r•,= 2•r(ro
a_ ria)= 6.3X 10-øM
rectly with the radius from zero at the center Thus, for a given torque, (9) yields a value of
to a maximum at the periphery of the bar, rx, that is about equal to the average value
where computedfrom (7). This factor, 6.3 X 10-6,
will be ugedin our computationsof the shear
stress(bars) from recordedvaluesof M (dyne-
cm) in hollowcylinders.
rx, is shear stressin the eireular section,y is
shear strain, G is the shear modulus (of ri- Twists (radians) are correctedfor the elastic
distortion of the apparatus and convertedto
gidity), ro is the outer radius, and •o is the
angleof twist per unit length. twists per unit length •o over the gagelength.
For any element of area dA -- 2=rdr in the The deformational behaviorcan be assessed by
plotting torque-twistcurvesor, if the deforma-
circularsection,the shearingforceis r,,dA and
the twistingmomentabout the cylinderaxis is tion is small, by plotting shear stress(equa-

r•,rdA = Gw• dA (5)


The total moment, M, taken over the entire
crosssectionof the bar, is

• 2
where the limits of •tegration are the inner
and outer radii of the hollowcylinder.
Substitutionof (5) into (6) gives

(Txy)max
= 2M/•o3(1 -- ri4/Wo
4) (7) •'2 ---O'y
which reduces to
FRACTURE

= (8) OR
FACTj
for solid cylinderswhere r• -- 0. Our standard
diameter is 0.894 em; aeeordingly, the maxi-
mum value of r•, (in bars) is 7.14 X 10-6M
(in dyne-em) for solidcylinders.
For the hollow cylinderswith the dimensions
adopted (ro = 0.635 era, r• = 0.565 em), equa-
tion 7 gives the maximum r•, -- 6.70 X 10-øM.
Thus, for a given shear stress, the twisting Fig. 3. Angular relations of fractures or faults
moment required is about the same as before in torsion specimens. The angle a is measured
because ro is larger and becausemost of the from the circular section.The angle B is between
the x axis and the maximum principal stress •.
torque is taken up by the outer fibers of the The fault or fracture angle 0 is given with respect
cylinder. Since r,, varies directly with the to the • direction.
EFFECTS OF INTERMEDIATE PRINCIPAL STRESS ON FAILURE 617

TABLE 3. Summary of Triaxial CompressionTests on SolenhofenLimestone


at Room Temperatureand Strain Rates of the Order of 10-4 per Second

Ultimate Principal Stresses, Fracture


Confining Strength kb Mean Octahedral Angle
Exp. Pressure •, - •3, Pressure Shear Stress to •,
Block* No. p, kb kb • •. •a Pro,kb roet,kb deg

1183 0.35 3.68 4.03 0.35 0.35 1.62 1.74 24


1184 0.69 4.44 5.13 0.69 0.69 2.17 2.10 26
1185 1.03 4.90 5.93 1.03 1.03 2.66 2.32
1186 1.38 5.25 6.63 1.38 1.38 3.13 2.48 26

1278 0.35 4.30 4.65 0.35 0.35 1.78 2.03 16


1283 O. 69 4.40 5.09 O. 69 O. 69 2.16 2.08
1277 1.03 4.60 5.63 1.03 1.03 2.56 2.26 17

144 0 3 47 3.47 0 0 I 16 I 63
28 0.76 4 75 5.51 0.76 0.76 2 34 2 25 25
24 1.03 4 85 5.88 1.03 1.03 2 65 2 28 30,32
116 1.03 4 63 5.66 1.03 1.03 2 57 2 18 3O
115 1.27 5 03 6.30 1.27 1.27 2 75 2 37 3O
27 1.53 5 O7 6.60 1.53 1.53 3 22 2 39

1708 1. O0 4.65 5.65 1.00 1.00 2.55 2.19


1712 3. O0 4.76 7.76 3.00 3.00 4.92 2.24
1709 5. O0 7.64 12.64 5.00 5.00 7.55 3.60

GT-117 0 3 98 3.98 0 0 I 33 I 97
GT-122 0 4 09 4.O9 0 0 I 36 I 93
GT-123 0 3 98 3.98 0 0 I 33 I 87
GT-116 0.20 4 73 4.93 0.20 0.20 I 78 2 23
GT-118 0.40 4 93 5.33 0.40 0.40 2 04 2 32 20
GT-119 0.60 4 85 5.45 0.60 0.60 2 22 2 29 22
GT-120 0.80 5 14 5.94 0.80 0.80 2.51 2 42
GT-121 1.00 5.35 6.35 1.00 1.00 2.78 2 52

S-99 0 2.75 2.75 0 0 0.92 I 29


S-83 0.30 3.53 3.83 0.30 0.30 1.48 I 61 25
S-86 0.98 3.92 4.90 0.98 0.98 2.29 i 84 t
S-89 1.96 5.98 7.94 1.96 1.96 3.95 2 81 t
S-87 2.94 5.98 8.92 2.94 2.94 4.93 2 81 t
S-88 3.92 7.94 11.86 3.92 3.92 6.57 3 74 t

0 2.72 2.72 0 0 0.91 1.28


639 0.35 3.71 4.06 0.35 0.35 1.59 1.74 25
587 0.69 3.93 4.62 0.69 0.69 2.00 1.85 26
652 1.04 4.27 5.31 1.04 1.04 2.46 2.02
628 1.38 4.59 5.97 1.38 1.38 2.91 2.16 •

* Data for blocks1, 2, and4 arefromunpublished


testsin •andin's [1953]apparatus.
Block4 provided
by E. C. Robertson,June 1963.Block 3 testedby Heard [1960]and usedfor all our torsionteststhrough
G-60. Block 5 usedfor all torsiontestsfrom G-69 on; thesecompression testsmade in the torsionapparatus.
Block 6 tested by Robertson [1955]. Block 7 tested by Serdengecti
and Boozer[1961].
• Ductfie;no faulting.Ultimate strengthis minimumvalue;stress-strain curveis still risingat termination
of test.
618 HANDIN, HEARD, AND MAGOUIRK

COMPRESSION EXTENSION
o BLOCK 5 "BLOCK 5
ß BLOCK 1,2, 4 ß BLOCK 3 (HEARD, 1960)

ß BLOCK $(HEARD, 1960)


ß BLOCK6 (ROBERTSON,
1955)
13 BLOCK 7 (SERDENGECTI, 1961)
'roct= • (o-I- o'3)

- Z'oc,
=--.*/:5":53•
(o-i
-o-
$) ! Pm=
-'•'-
[$o-I-
pm=+[(o'l-o'3)+ (o-,
3 3]-o-$)]_

•' OCTAHEDRAL SHEAR


PRESSURE FOR STRESS
TRIAXIAL VERSUS MEAN
COMPRESSIONANb--

' EXTENSION
OFSOLENHOFEN
LIMESTONE
0 I 2 $ 4 5 6

PB(kb)
Fig. 4. Octahedral shear stressversus mean pressurefor failure of Solenhofen limestone in
compressionand extensionat room temperature and strain rate of 10-' per second.

tion 7) versus shear strain (7 = toro). For axis, which coincideswith •. In twisted cylin-
brittle materials the torque (or shear stress) ders, however,the principal axes do not coin-
at fracture is unambiguouslydetermined. For cide with the coordinate axes.
ductile materials the torque at failure is taken In a specimenunder combinedtorsion and
at the knee of the torque-twist curve. For rocks triaxial compression,the shear stress ß and
this occursat about 0.1 rad?cm, or 5% shear normal stress• on a plane inclinedat an angle
strain. fi with respect to the x axis are given by
Fractures and [aults. The operational defi- Handinet al. [1960,p. 251]:
nitions of Griggs aad Handin [1960, p. 348]
are adopted. Fracture implies separation into
two or more parts and total lossof cohesionand
•-= «(•r•
-- •r•)sin
2•q-•-•cos
2• (10)
resistanceto differential stress.Exteasion [rac-
= 1 o' + - -
ture involvesseparationacrossa surfacenormal cos 2• q- •'• sin 2•
to the direction of minimum principal stress.
There is no offset.parallel to this surface. A To find the angle for which the normal stress
[ault is a localized offset along a more or less is a maximum,we can differentiate(10) with
plane surface of nonvanishing shear stress. respect to fi and equate to zero; whence,for
O'max• O'1,
Total loss of cohesionmay or may not occur.
If it does,onecanproperly
speakof shea•[rac-
Gan2•S= q-2•x•/(•r• - •r•) (11)
ture as a special case. Uai[orm flow denotes
macroscopically homogeneouspermanent de- In torsionalone,•, - • = 0 andfi = 45ø. In
formation without fracturing or faulting. torsion and triaxial compression,
when •, --
The angle betweena fracture or fault and the • • 0, the maximumprincipalstressdirection
direction of maximum principal compression liesbetweenthe limits0 < fi < 45ø. For tri-
can be denotedby 6. In a compressed specimen axial extensionand torsion,the maximumprin-
this angle is measuredfrom the longitudinalx cipal stressdirection will lie betweenthe limits
EFFECTS OF INTERMEDIATE PRINCIPAL STRESS ON FAILURE 619

45ø < • < 90ø, althoughnoneof thesetests selected because its tensile strength is high
wasattempted duringthis study. relative to those of the rocks.
In twisted specimensthe orientationsa of
SOLENHOFEN LIMESTONE
fractures and faults are measuredwith respect
to the circular section. The relations between Triaxial compressiontests,room temperature.
a,/•, and 0 are shownin Figure3. The material used in our first 68 experiments
Selectiono• materials. If the resultsof many was cored from block 3, which was used by
different experimentsare to be validly com- Heard [1960]. When this material was ex-
pared, the test material must be homogeneous hausted, we made a cursory survey of the
within any singlespecimenand also from sam- properties of several different samples. The
ple to sample.The material must also be sta- available data of several investigators have
tistically isotropicif its deformationalbehavior been tabulated (Table 3) and plotted (Figure
is to be independentof the orientationsof prin- 4), along with our recent results (experiments
cipal stresses with respectto fabric. Becauseof GT-116 to 123). The octahedral shear stress-
the small sample size, especiallyof thin-walled mean pressure curve is drawn through the
hollowcylinders,the materialmustbe very fine- points for these latter experiments because
grained.The minimumdimensionshouldprob- most of our other tests, including all those on
ably be no lessthan 10 grain diameters.Finally, hollow cylinders,were done on specimenscored
the material should pass through the brittle- from block 5. The spread among the data de-
ductile transition at available mean pressures rived from seven different samplesof the rock
and temperatures. is evidently large. This is due in part to the
SoIenhofenlimestonemeets all these require- differencesin mechanicalpropertiesof the sev-
ments and has the additional advantage that eral blocks and in part to the different experi-
its behavior under triaxial loading has already mental techniquesof the severalworkers,but
beencarefullystudiedby Heard [1960]. Indeed, the reproducibility of tests on the same block
many of our specimenswere cored from the in the same apparatus is good (compare ex-
sameblock that providedthosetested by him. periments 24 and 116, block 3, and GT-117,
Blair dolomiteis also satisfactoryand is brittle 122, 123, block 5). The uniaxial compresslye
over a wider range of mean pressures.Brace strength is taken as 4.0 kb, the brittle-ductile
[1964] measuredthe propertiesof this block transition occurs at a mean pressureof about
under several states of stress. Pyrex glass was 2.7 kb [Heard, 1960, Figure 10], and the fault

TABLE 4. Summaryof Triaxial ExtensionTestson Solenhofen


Limestoneat RoomTemperature
and Strain Rates of the Order of 10-4 per Second .

Ultimate PrincipalStresses, Fracture


Confining Strength kb Mean Octahedral Angle
Experi- Pressure (• - (•3, Pressure ShearStress to
Block* ment p, kb kb • • •3 p•, kb ro•t,kb deg
No.

10 4.06 4.02 4.06 4.06 0.04 2.72 1.90 10


9 5.08 4.66 5.08 5.08 0.42 3.53 2.20 25
124 7.10 5.84 7.10 7.10 1.26 5.15 2.76
125 7.62 6.30 7.62 7.62 1.32 5.52 2.98 22

GT-541 1.00 1.11 1.00 1.00 -0.11 0.63 0.52 0


GT-542 1.00 1.15 1.00 1.00 -0.15 0.62 0.54 0
GT-539 2.00 2.12 2.00 2.00 -0.12 1.29 1.00 0
GT-540 2.00 2.11 2.00 2.00 -0.11 1.30 0.99 0
GT-543 3.00 3.05 3.00 3.00 -0.05 1.98 1.44 0
GT-544 3.00 3.14 3.00 3.00 -0.14 1.95 1.48 0

* Block3 testedby Heard[1960].Block5 testedin Heard's[1963]apparatuswith internalforcegage


and used for all our torsion tests from G-69 on,
620 tIANDIN, tIEARD, AND MAGOUIRK
TABLE $. Summary of Torsion Tests on Sol•d Cylinders of Solenhofen Limestone
at Room Temperature and Strain Rate of 10-4 per Second

Principal Stresses, Major Major


M, Txy kb (Minor) (Minor)
Exp. a.• - ay, p = a2 - dyne-cm max., a, B, #,
No. kb (Ty = •z X l0 s kb • •2 •3 deg deg deg kb kb

G-27 0 0 0 50 0.35 0.35 0 -0.35 48 45 -3 0 0.29


G-102 0 0 0 23 0.17 0.17 0 -0.17 * 45 * 0 0.14
G-112 0 0 0 25 0.18 0.18 0 -0.18 45 45 0 0 0.15
G-12 0 0.50 I 90 1.36 1.86 0.50 -0.86 48 45 -3 0.50 1.11
G-3 0 1.00 2 40 1.72 2.72 1.00 -0.72 24(33) 45 21(12) 1.00 1.40
G-4 0 1.00 2 50 1.78 2.78 1.00 -0.78 21(33)(46) 45 24(12)(-1) 1.00 1.45
G-2 0 2.00 3 35 2.40 4.40 2.00 -0.40 20, 15 45 25, 30 2.00 1.96
G-210 0 2.00 2.40 2.74 4.74 2.00 -0.74 21 45 24 2.00 2.24
G-1 0 3.00 4.27 3.05 6.05 3.00 -0.05 15(34)(58) 45 30(11)(-13) 3.00 2.49
0-95 0 3.00 5.56 3.97 6.97 3.00 -0.97 19 45 26 3.00 3.24
G-211 0 3.00 3.37 3.86 6.86 3.00 -0.86 20 45 25 3.00 3.15
G-241 0 3.50 2.65 5.24 8.74 3.50 -1.74 15(70) 45 30(-25) 3.50 4.26
G-94 0 4.00 6.16 4.40 8.40 4.00 -0.40 16 45 29 4.00 3.59
G-125 0 4.50 6.12 4.38 8.88 4.50 0.12 I 45 * 4.50 3.58
G-101 0.45 0 0.24 0.17 0.51 0 --0.05 45 19 26 0.15 0.25
G-111 0 40 0 0.65 0.46 0.70 0 --0.20 55, 73 33 2, -16 0.17 0.39
G-28 1 15 0 1.27 0.91 1.66 0 -0.50 * 29 * 0.39 0.92
G-100 0 85 0 1.06 0.76 1.30 0 --0.44 50(65) 30 10(-5) 0.29 0.74
G-110 0 94 0 0.65 0.47 1.13 0 -0.19 62 23 5 0.31 0.58
G-26 0 95 0.50 2.03 1.45 2.51 0.50 -0.55 27(56) 36 27(-2) 0.82 1.27
G-5 0 88 1.00 2.99 2.14 3.63 1.00 -0.75 27 39 24 1.29 1.80
G-22 0 90 1.00 2.74 1.95 3.45 1.00 -0.55 32 39 19 1.30 1.65
G-23 0 85 1.00 2.38 1.70 3.18 1.00 -0.32 28(72) 38 24(-20) 1.29 1.44
G-24 0 85 1.00 2.25 1.60 3.09 1.00 -0.23 37 38 15 1.29 1.37
G-108 0.90 1.50 4.07 2.91 4.90 1.50 -1.00 32(52) 41 17(3) 1.80 2.42
G-7 0.90 2.00 4.04 2.88 5.47 2.00 -0.47 16(73) 68(45) 41 33(-24) -19(4) 2.33 2.44
G-96 0.90 2.00 4.60 3.29 5.77 2.00 -0.87 24(31) 41 25(18) 2.30 2.72
G-10 0.90 3.00 5.58 3.98 7.46 3.00 -0.56 15(70) 42 33(-22) 3.30 3.28
G-11 0.90 3.00 5.37 3.83 7.31 3.00 -0.41 16 42 32 3.30 3.16
G-114 0.95 4'.00 6.52 4.66 9.17 4.00 -0.21 64 42 -16 4.32 3.84
G-13 1.80 0.50 2.15 1.54 3.19 0.50 -0.39 54 30 6 1.10 1.52
G-6 1.75 1.00 2.90 2.07 4.13 1.00 -0.37 24 34 32 1.59 1.71
G-8 1.75 2.00 4.33 3.09 6.09 2.00 -0.33 24(75) 37 29(-22) 2.58 2.65
G-97 2.04 2.00 5.93 4.23 7.37 2.00 -1.33 21(31)(68•:) 38 31(21)(16) 2.68 3.59
G-98 1.72 2.00 5.08 3.63 6.59 2.00 -0.87 34 38 18 2.57 3.07
G-103 1.68 2.00 4.60 3.29 6.23 2.00 -0.55 25 38 27 2.56 2.80
G-19 1.75 3.00 5.91 4.21 8.18 3.00 -0.42 27 39 24 3.58 3.54
G-124 1.76 4.00 3.37 3.86 8.84 4.00 0.92 61 39 10 4.58 3.26
G-109 2.25 1.00 3.71 2.65 5.01 1.00 -0.75 40(65) 34 16(9) 1.75 2.41
G-113 2.32 1.50 4.00 2.86 5.75 1.50 -0.45 51 34 5 2.26 2.59
G-30 3.00 0 1.90 1.35 3.52 0 -0.52 * 21 * 1.00 1.79
G-14 2 80 0.50 2.18 1.56 4.00 0.50 -0.20 50 24 16 1.43 1.84
G-15 2 85 1.00 3.29 2.35 5.18 1.00 -0.32 33 29 28 1.95 2.35
G-17 2 70 2.00 5.40 3.85 7.43 2.00 -0.73 32 35 23 2.90 3.39
G-99 2 86 2.00 6.15 4.38 8.04 2.00 -1.18 75(23) 36 -21(31) 2.95 3.82
G-33 2 70 3.00 5.10 3.64 8.23 3.00 0.47 * 35 * 3.90 3.22
G-106 2 85 1.00 3.48 2.48 5.29 1.00 -0.43 35(18)(72) 30 25(42)(-12) 1.95 2.43
G-107 3 70 1.00 3.43 2.45 5.92 1.00 -0.22 50(35) 27 13(28) 2.23 2.65
G-16 3 70 1.00 2.90 2.07 5.63 1.00 0.07 I 24 * 2.23 2.43
G-18 3 70 2.00 5.91 4.20 8.44 2.00 -0.74 11 33 46 3.23 3.85
G-105 3 80 2.50 4.90 3.50 8.38 2.50 0.42 • 31 * 3.76 3.37
G-32 4.00 3.00 6.26 4.47 9.90 3.00 0.10 • 33 * 4.33 4.11
G-104 3.78 3.00 5.08 3.63 8.98 3.00 0.80 • 31 * 4.26 3.46

* Indeterminate.
I Ductile, no faulting.
:[:Apparently an extensionfracture.
EFFECTS OF INTERMEDIATE PRINCIPAL STRESSON FAILURE 621

ß PURE TORSION
--ß TORSION + UNIAXIAL COMPRESSION
o TORSION + CONFINING PRESSURE
[3 TORSION+ TRIAXIAL COMPRESSION

.. 0 O..• •------' • )-- --


0 0

• 00 0
TO.S,O.
so = - + ST.SS
V.SUS - +(•2-
//•
ß Pm =
•1+•2+•5
3
I
o I 2 $ 4 5 6

Pm(kb)
Fig. 5. Octahedralshearstressversusmean pressurefor failure of solid cylindersof Solen-
hofen limestonetwisted at room temperatureand shearstrain rate of 10-• per second.

anglesvary from 16ø to 30ø at mean pressures A(• must be negative to obtain a tensile stress,
in the range of 1.5 to 3 kb. The slopeof the A, < A•. For the ordinary ratio A•/A, = 2, a
short linear segmentof the curve is 0.75. Points 2% error in the differential force on the speci-
at highermeanpressures have not beenplotted men due to piston friction would lead to an
becausethe rock is strain-hardeningin the duc- error in --as of 0.2 kb at p = 5 kb. This is
tile state and the ultimate strength is not enormouswhen one is attempting to measure
unambiguously
specified. . a quantity of the same order of magnitude, a
Triaxial extension tests, room temperature. few tenths of a kilobar at most.
We first attemptedto measuretensilebreaking The previousresultsof Heard [1960] at high
stressesin Itandin's apparatus (experiments confiningpressures
are tabulated(Table 4) and
GT-20, 21, 25, 31, 46, and 47; block 3) at con- plotted (Figure 4) together with measurements
finingpressures of 2 to 5 kb. Thesetestsyielded on block 5 from Heard's apparatusequipped
unreasonably high (as muchas 0.8 kb) and sub- with an internalforcegage.The linear part of
sequently unconfirmedtensile strengths.They the octahedralshearstress-mean
pressurecurve
were done in an apparatus with a controlled- is describedby
clearancepiston packing in which friction is
relatively low. I-Iowever, an undeterminable 'ro•t = 0.17 4- 0.65p,•
variation of friction of only 2% during an ex- The brittle-ductile transition occurs at about
periment can result in a large error in meas- 5.4 kb, and the fractureanglesrangefrom zero
urement of tensile strength. In an extension (tensile fracture normal to as) at low mean
test the differentialforce AF on the piston can pressuresin the brittle state to 25 ø near the
be reduced to zero, but the piston cannot be transition. The tensile strength (--a• at rup-
pulledin tension.On a pistonof area A•, there- ture) is of the order of 0.15 kb and is inde-
fore, the maximumAF -- pA•, and in a speci- pendentof meanpressure.
men of area A, the differential stress Aa -- Torsiontests,solidcylinders,room tempera-
F/A, -- pA•/A,. Sincethe quantity •, -- p -- ture. Theseincludepuretorsion(o-,,-- (• -- 0,
622 HANDIN, HEARD, AND MAGOUIRK
rected for the contributions of the copper
jackets.Thesehave a wall thicknessof 0.02 cm
and the same diameter as the piston (1.3 cm).
The maximum specimendiameter is only 0.9
cm, however,sothat the jacket collapses around
the specimenwhen confining pressure is ap-
plied, and longitudinalribs developfrom buck-
ling of the thin shell (Figure 6). The strength
of the jacket cannotbe predictedfor this con-
figuration, but it has been measured inde-
pendently by identically jacketing very weak
lead of known strength and determining the
proportionsof axial load and torque borne by
the copper.
Three types of failure at ultimate stressare
observed. At low confining pressure, helical
tensilefracture occursas in specimensG-12 and
G-27. The fracture surface is everywhere in-
clined at nearly 45ø to a radius. At intermedi-
ate pressuresand axial loads, faulting with or
without total loss of cohesionoccursat angles
of less than 45ø with respect to (r,. :Figure 6
clearly showsthe offset along the fault in speci-
men G-14 (still in its copper jacket). At high
pressurescombined with high axial loads, the
specimens(G-16, 32, 33) are ductile and con-
tain no faults. The large permanent twist oc-
G14 G32 curs uniformly throughout the specimen (for
example, G-32, Figure 6). The brittle-ductile
Fig. 6. Photographsof twisted solid cylinders
of Solenhofen limestone. G-14 (still in its copper transition seemsto occur at a mean pressureof
jacket) is faulted. G-32 has floweduniformly. about 3.5 kb. Thus specimen G-211 is transi-
tional at 3, and G-241 is certainly ductile at 3.5
p -- 0), torsionplusuniaxialcompression (•, -- kb.
•, -7• 0, p -- 0), torsionplusconfining pressure Note the very high values of tensile stresses
(•, -- •, -- 0, p -7• 0), and torsionplustri- (--a3) attained in many of the tests in Table
axialcompression (•, -- •, -7• 0, p -7• 0). Table 5--for example, 1.33 kb in G-97. The calcula-
5 lists the axial differential stress (•, -- •,); tions, however,are basedon valuesof maximum
the confiningpressure(p); the maximumshear shear stressdevelopedat the periphery of the
stress (½.,) developedby the applied torque; specimens.Stressesin the central region must
the principalstresses;
the majorandminorob- be much lower. This anomalouslylarge tensile
served fracture or fault anglesmeasuredfrom strength and the heterogeneity of the stress
the circular sections (a); the angle between field in solid cylindersprompted the tests on
•, and •,(/•); the inclinationsof major and hollowspecimens.
minor faults or fractures with respectto •, (0 Torsion tests, hollow cylinders, room tem-
-- 90ø -- a -- /•); the mean pressure(p.,); perature. The same types of torsion tests have
and the octahedral shear stress (•o•,). From a been repeatedon hollow cylinders (Table 6).
plot of the last two parameters(Figure5) the The linear segment of the octahedral shear
linearsegmentof the curveis foundto be stress-meanpressurecurve in :Figure7 is given
by
foot - 0.52 -I- 0.90p.,
for torsion and torsion plus confiningpressure. •'oot= 0.12 + 0.70p,,,
The axial loads and torques have been cot- We first. tried to jacket the hollow specimens
EFFECTS OF INTERMEDIATE PRINCIPAL STRESSON FAILURE 621

ß PURE TORSION
--ß TORSION + UNIAXIAL COMPRESSION
o TORSION + CONFINING PRESSURE
n TORSION + TRIAXIAL COMPRESSION

E n O

o o.....• • -'-'-l:)----
o•E-'
ø
o o o
,

o o AL SHEARSTRESSVERSUSMEAN
PRESSURE FOR TORSION OF SOLID CYLINDERS
OF SOLENHOFEN LIMESTONE

//
•l
f Pm=
•1+•2+• - `3+(•i• +(•-
I ,
0 I 2 .3 4 5 6
Pm(kb)
Fig. 5. Octahedralshearstressversusmean pressurefor failure of solid cylindersof Solen-
hofen limestonetwistedat room temperatureand shearstrain rate of 10-' per second.

anglesvary from 16ø to 30ø at mean pressures A(r must be negative to obtain a tensile stress,
in the range of 1.5 to 3 kb. The slope of the A, < A•. For the ordinary ratio A•/A, = 2, a
short linear segmentof the curve is 0.75. Points 2% error in the differential force on the speci-
at highermeanpressures have not beenplotted men due to piston friction would lead to an
because the rock is strain-hardeningin the duc- error in --(rs of 0.2 kb at p -- 5 kb. This is
tile state and the ultimate strength is not enormouswhen one is attempting to measure
unambiguously specified. ß a quantity of the same order of magnitude, a
Triaxial extensiontests, room temperature. few tenths of a kilobar at most.
We first attemptedto measuretensilebreaking The previousresultsof Heard [1960] at high
stressesin Handin's apparatus (experiments confiningpressures are tabulated(Table 4) and
GT-20, 21, 25, 31, 46, and 47; block 3) at con- plotted (Figure 4) togetherwith measurements
finingpressures of 2 to 5 kb. Thesetestsyielded on block 5 from I-Ieard'sapparatusequipped
unreasonably high (as muchas 0.8 kb) and sub- with an internal force gage.The linear part of
sequentlyunconfirmedtensile strengths.They the octahedralshearstress-mean pressurecurve
were done in an apparatus with a controlled- is describedby
clearancepiston packing in which friction is
relatively low. However, an undeterminable •'o•t = 0.17 -{- 0.65pro
variation of friction of only 2% during an ex- The brittle-ductile transition occurs at about
periment can result in a large error in meas- 5.4 kb, and the fracture anglesrangefrom zero
urement of tensile strength. In an extension (tensile fracture normal to (rs) at low mean
test the differentialforce AF on the piston can pressures in the brittle state to 25 ø near the
be reducedto zero, but the piston cannot be transition.The tensilestrength (--(rs at rup-
pulledin tension.On a pistonof area A•, there- ture) is of the order of 0.15 kb and is inde-
fore, the maximumAF -- pA,, and in a speci- pendentof meanpressure.
men of area A, the differential stress A(r = Torsiontests,solidcylinders,roomtempera-
F/A, -- pA•/A,. Sincethe quantity •r, -- p -- ture. Theseincludepuretorsion((r, -- (r, = 0,
-.0;-::':4'
.....- ' '••i•:---'*---*""•:•-*"•.
:':--".-;.
",i':': .........
::i•c.../-
-.•s . •.--:?:
..

..
*.4: ::::i:.•
......
".'--:•::- ":.•
...•-
..
-* :-.-;'t.
':?:-..

:--.:::. ;.4

....................

½ s
P"!i!i*t•!}'½::.:.;.'"::':*
........
:':x'**:i:2?:*a2"

G75 G 76

G 127 G 115 G 126

Fig. 8. Photographsof twisted hollow cylindersof Solenhofenlimestone,showingincreaseof duc-


tility with mean pressure.G-76 (p• ---- 1.6 kb) is brittle and containshelical extensionfracture. G-75
(p• -• 2.0 kb) containsboth faults and extensionfractures.G-83 (p• -- 3 kb) is only faulted. G-127
and 115 (p• _-- 3.6 and 4.0 kb) are transitional; fault zonesare broad. G-126 (p,, _• 4.6 kb) is fully
ductile and has flowed uniformly.
EFFECTS OF INTERMEDIATE PRINCIPAL STRESS ON FAILURE 625

Stage
1j Stage
2 Stage
3
Fig. 9. Ex•en•on œra½•urh•g
œoilo•eclb• œm•lfing
in •i•Lecl hollow ½•lh•der•oœSolenhoœen
•me•one unde• •x• lo•cl.

Although the copper sleevesare quite thin, no offsetparallelto the fracturesurfaceis evi-
the combined thickness of the external and dent. In the central sectors the surface is heli-
internal jackets (0.05 cm) is nearly as large as cal and is everywhereinclinedat 45ø ñ 1ø to
the wall thicknessof the specimen(0.07). The the radius--that is, normalto the least princi-
contribution of the jackets to the total axial pal stressa3as closelyas we can measure.Near
load and applied torque is therefore large, rang- the constrainedends of the specimensthese
ing from nearly 25% at low mean pressuresto fracture•tend to becomeparallelto the longi-
about 10% at the highest pressures.As noted tudinalaxisof twist (Figure9), whichno doubt
above, all reported data were corrected for reflectsa changein the imposedstressfield at
the strengthof the copperjackets.The strength the ends.
of annealed copper in torsion was determined Extensionfracturesof similar appearancealso
by twisting a hollow cylinder to a shear strain occurin axially loaded,twisted cylinders,as in
of about 0.2. The maximum shear stress-strain G-76, 77, 79, and 89 alone, or as in G-80, 90,
curve agreeswell with those measured previ- and 84 along with faults. The helical fracture
ously in compressionand extension [Handin surfacesare very nearly parallel to the pre-
and Hager, 1958,p. 2917]. dicted directionsof a• (0 -- 1ø to 4ø) in the
At axial differential stresses above 3 kb the central sectors (except.in G-80 where the dis-
hollow cylinders buckle before torque can be crepancyis not understood).Offset doesoccur
applied. To achieve higher mean pressures,we parallel to these extensionfractures.This hap-
elected to raise the confining pressure to 4.5 pensbecause,the instant the break occurs,the
kb. For tests above 3 kb the torsion test cham- torque but not the axial load vanishes,and the
ber was temporarily coupled to the pressure- average principal stressdirectionssuddenlyro-
generating and recording system of Handin's tate (Figure 9). In effect, the specimenenters
triaxial equipment. a state of triaxial compression,and shear oc-
At relatively low mean pressures(0 to about curs on the favorably oriented,already formed,
1.5 kb), the principal failure mechanismis ex- cohesionlessextension fracture. However, the
tension fracturing (for example, G-76, Figure surface is helical, not plane, and it affords in-
8). These fractures appear as open breaks, at terference to slip under axial compression.
least as observed after all constraints have been Crushing occurs, and minor, apparently con-
removed. The surfaces are smooth and undulat- jugate shear fractures may develop at high
ing on a smallscale.In pure torsionspecimens, anglesto the circularsection.
696 tIANDIN, tIEARD, AND MAGOUIRK

G-127, p, = 3.6 kb). At still higher pressures


only uniform flow occurs,and the rock is clearly
ductile (G-126, p, = 4.6 kb).
This transition from brittle to ductile be-
havior, as well as an increasein strength,is also
reflected by the torque-twist curves (Figure
10). Note that the twist attained before rup-
ture in G-69, 75, 76, 80, and 83 is lessthan 0.1
tad cm-•; that is, the shear strains are small,
of the order of 5%. G-90, 115, and 127 exhibit
transitionalbehavior; that is, larger strainsare
achieved,but no important strain hardeningis
obvious from the curves, in contrast to the
data of Heard [1960, Figure 3] and Robertson
[1955, Figure 3]. This apparent lack is prob-
0.[ 0.2 0.•
ably relatedto the obviousbucklingin the more
TWIST (rad/cm) ductile, highly twisted samples (e.g., G-126,
Figure 8). The limestoneis probably work-
Fig. 10. Torque-twist curves for hollow cyl-
inders of Solenhofen limestone twisted at room hardening,but bucklinglowersthe externally
temperature and shear strain rate of 10-• per measured loads and hence the torque-twist
second. curvesdo not alwaysshowa monotonicallyin-
creasingslope.
At intermediate pressuresextensionfractur- 'Brazil' tests. These tests give an inde-
ing and faulting occur together (G-75, p, = pendentmeasureof tensilebreakingstressesfor
2 kb), or faulting occursexclusivelyat 0 = comparison with those determined in torsion
25ø to 30ø (G-83, p, = 3 kb). The traces of and extensiontests. Disks are compresseddia-
faults appear as narrow zonesof shear along metrally betweenfiat steel platens (Figure 11).
which parallel offsetis obvious.The faults are If the specimenbehavespurely elasticallyand
closed,and cohesion appearsto havebeenmain- the load is essentiallyconfinedto a line along
tained. At higher pressuresthe fault zone the periphery (contactstressesare negligible),
broadens in the transitional region between theory, confirmedby photoelasticexperiments,
brittle and ductile states (G-115, p, = 4 kb; predicts a constant tensile stress along the
median diameter normal to the applied force

.-•oo[ I TABLE 7. Results of Brazil Tests on Solenhofen


Limestone at Room Temperature

• •oo
i

Experiment
Confining
Pressure,
Minimum Principal
(Tensile) Stress •3,
•r 5 =p-
No. kb kb

- SS GB-3$ o -o .2o5
GB-35 o -o 195
GB-36 o -o 215
GB-37 2. oo -o 220
GB-38 2. oo -o 235
GB-39 5 oo -o 250

-t o
o
i
2
'1
8
GB-40
GB-4I
G B-42
GB-43
5
5
8
8
oo
oo
oo
oo
-o
-o
-o
-o
270
260
420
715
G B-44 8 oo -o 355
Fig. 11. Tensile strength of Solenhofenlime- 635
GB-45 8. oo -o
stone versus confining pressure as measured in
Brazil tests at room temperature.
EFFECTS OF INTERMEDIATE PRINCIPAL STRESS ON FAILURE 627

TABLE 8. Summary of Torsion Tests on Solid Cylinders of Solenhofen Limestone


at High Temperatures and Strain Rate of 10-• per Second

Principal Stresses, Maj or Maj or


M, r• kb (Minor) (Minor)
Exp. • = • •., dyne-cm max., Temp., Relative •Pm, •oct,
No. kb X10 s kb øC Ductility • • •3 deg deg deg kb kb

G-220 0.50 0.54 1.07 300 B 1.57 0.50 --0.57 42 45 3 0.50 0.88
G-208 0.50 0.39 1.14 400 B 1.64 0.50 --0.64 40 45 5 0.50 0.93
G-214 1.00 0.95 1.88 200 B 2.88 1.00 --0.88 •0' 45 •5 1.00 1.53
G-215 1.00 0.75 1.49 300 B 2.49 1.00 --0.49 8, 20 45 •7,25 1.00 1.22
G-207 1.00 0.83 1.65 400 T 2.65 1.00 --0.65 40 45 5 1.00 1.35
G-203 1.50 1.53 3.02 200 B 4.52 1.50 --1.52 • 45 • 1.50 2.47
G-221 1.50 1.10 2.18 300 B 3 68 1.50 --0.68 45, •5 45 0, •0 1.50 1.78
G-223 1.50 1.16 2.30 300 B 3 80 1.50 --0.80 45, • 45 0, • 1.50 1.88
G-206 1.50 0.75 1.49 400 B 2 99 1.50 0.01 40 45 5 1.50 1.22
G-222 1.50 1.06 2.09 400 B 3 59 1.50 --0 59 45, $5 45 0, $0 1.50 1.71
G-224 1.50 1.16 2.30 400 B 3 80 1.50 --0.80 48 45 --3 1.50 1.88
G-212 2.00 1.39 2.74 200 T 4.74 2.00 --0 74 • 45 • 2.00 2.24
G-233 2.00 1.34 2.65 300 B 4.65 2.00 -0.65 $0, (49) 45 $5, (-4) 2.00 2.16
G-226 2.00 1.30 2.57 400 T 4.57 2.00 -0.57 45, •3 45 0, • 2.00 2.10
G-213 2 50 1 60 3 16 100 T 5.66 2.50 --0.66 18 45 •? 2.50 2.58
G-200 2 50 1.64 3 25 200 D 5.75 2 50 --0.75 45 2.50 2.65
G-238 2.50 1.51 2.99 300 D 5.49 2.50 --0.49 $0 45 •5 2.50 2.44
G-236 2.50 1.01 1.99 400 I) 4.49 2.50 0.51 45 2.50 1.63
G-239 3.00 1.62 3.21 200 D 6.21 3.00 --0.21 45 3.00 2.62
G-237 3.00 1.80 3.57 300 D 6.57 3.00 --0.57 45 3.00 2.91

* Angles in italics definitely identified as faults.

TABLE 9. Summary of Triaxial Compressionand ExtensionTests on SolenhofenLimestone


at the Strain Rate of 10-? per Second

Exp. p = a•., a•, -- a,, Temp., Relative a,, as, 0, pro, •'oct,
No. kb kb øC Ductility kb kb deg kb kb

Compression*
GT-248 0 4.35 225 B 4.35 0 30 1.45 2.05
GT-247 0 3.85 300 D 3.85 0 1.28 1.81
GT-245 0.30 3.80 150 B 4.10 0.30 26 1.57 1.79
GT-246 0.30 4.50 300 D 4.80 0.30 1.80 2.12
GT-243 0.40 4.35 150 D 4.75 0.40 26 1.85 2.05
GT-244 0.40 4.00 300 D 4.40 0.40 2.06 1.88
GT-241 0.50 4.30 150 D 4.80 0.50 1.93 2.02
GT-242 0.50 4.05 300 D 4.55 0.50 1.85 1.91
GT-240 0.75 4.85 25 T 5.60 0.75 31 2.36 2.29
GT-237 0.75 4.85 150 D 5.60 0.75 2.36 2.29
GT-236 1.00 4.80 25 D 5.80 1.00 27 2.60 2.26

Extension
GT-288 2.00 1.26 450 B 2.00 0.74 0 1.58 0.59
GT-287 2.00 0.48 500 D 2.00 1.52 1.84 0.23
GT-283 2.50 2.06 400 B 2.50 0.44 0 1.81 0.97
GT-279 3.00 2.83 400 T 3.00 0.17 0 2.06 1.33
GT-281 3.00 2.67 400 B 3.00 0.33 0 2.11 1.26
GT-284 3.50 3.26 400 D 3.50 0.24 0 2.41 1.54
GT-285 4.00 3.92 300 B 4.00 0.08 0 2.69 1.85
GT-286 4.00 4.04 300 B 4.00 -0.04 0 2.65 1.91
GT-671 5.90 4.95 25 B 5.90 0.95 19 4.25 2.33
GT-670 6.40 5.45 25 T 6.40 0.95 22 4.58 3.01

* From Heard [1962].


628 ttANDIN, HEARD, AND MAGOUIBK
TABLE 10. Summary of Torsion Tests on Solid Cylinders of Solenhofen Limestone
at a Strain Rate of 10-• per Second

Principal Stresses, Major Maj or


M, T•y kb (Minor) (Minor)
Exp. O'y -- O'z, dyne-cm max., Temp., Relative a, f/, /•, Toot,
No. kb X 10s kb øC Ductility • •2 •8 deg deg deg kb

G254 1 50 0.62 1.23 400 T 2.73 1.50 0 27 45 45 0 1 50 1.00


G252 2 00 1.21 2.39 200 B 4.39 2.00 --0 39 •5, (45)* 45 •0, (0) 2 00 1.95
G261 2 00 1.27 2.51 400 D 4.51 2.00 --0 51 45 2 00 2.05
G249 2 50 1.60 3.16 25 B 5.66 2.50 --0 66 •5, (45) 45 •0, (0) 2 50 2.58
G251 2 50 1.75 3.47 25 B 5.97 2.50 --0 97 18 45 •7 2 50 2.84
G253 2 50 1.54 3.06 200 D 5.56 2.50 --0 66 67, (45) 45 --23, (0) 2 50 2.52
G250 3 00 2.14 4.25 25 T 7.25 3.00 --1 25 15 45 3O 3 00 3.47
G256 3 00 1.$9 3.74 25 T 6.74 3.00 --0 74 15 45 30 3 00 3.06

* Angles in italics definitely identified as faults.

F [Timoshenko,1934, p. 104; Frocht, 1941, p. Torsiontests,'solid cylinders,high tempera-


145]. Hence tures. These tests involved torsion under con-
fining pressure(0.5 to 3.0 kb) alone in the
(rs= p- 2F/•-td rangeof 100 to 400øC.No axial loadswere ap-
wherep is confiningpressure(-- a2), t is thick- plied.Brittle, transitional,and ductiledeforma-
ness,and d is diameter.The maximumprincipal tions are all observed(Table 8). The transition
stress is pressuredrops from about 3.5 kb at room
temperatureto about 2.0 kb at 400øC. The
• = p-•- 6F/•-td slopeof the linear octahedralshearstress-mean
Disks of Solenhofen limestone 1.3 cm thick pressurecurve, however,only decreases from
and 1.3 cm in diameterwere jacketedby epoxy about 0.9 to 0.8.
cement and loaded under confiningpressurein Triaxial tests, low strain rate. The brittle-
Handin's triaxial apparatus. The breaking ductile transition at the ordinary strain rate
stresses(Table 7) appear to increaseslightly (10-• per second) had already been estab-
from about 200 bars at atmospheric pressure lishedfor both compression and extensionfrom
to about 260 bars at 5 kb confining pressure. 25 to 600øC [Heard, 1960]. The compression
At 8 kb the valuesare much higher. transition had also been worked out at 10-• per
Theseresults(Table 7) suggestthat the lime- second[Heard, 1962]. This thousandfoldreduc-
stone could support a stressdifferenceof more tion of rate lowers the transition from about
than 30 kb and that the brittle-ductile transi- 2.7 to 2.4 kb mean pressureat room tempera-
tion would occur above 15 kb mean pressure. ture and 2.0 to 1.4 at 270øC. Ultimate strength
However, we doubt their validity for two rea- at the transition remains nearly constant' 5.0
sons. Jaeger and Hoskins [1966], who have compared with 4.9 kb at 25øCand4.2 compared
done Brazil tests under confining pressuresto with 4.1 kb at 270øC (Table 9).
about 1 kb, point out that 'as confiningpressure In extension,a decreasein strain rate from
is increased,somepoint will be reachedfor each 10-' to 10-• per secondlowers the mean pres-
type of rock where the stressdifferencesin the sure at the transition from 5.4 to 4.6 kb at
neighborhoodof the platen will be great enough 25øC and 2.8 to 1.8 kb at 500øC, respectively.
to cause plastic flow in this region, rendering This loweringof strain rate decreases the ulti-
the strictly elastic solution for the stresses mate strengthfrom 6.2 to 5.5 kb at 25øC. At
meaningless.'Judging from experience with 500øC the reduction is more dramatic: 2.6
epoxy-coated torsion specimens, we suspect comparedwith 0.5 kb.
jacket failure and doubt that the effective con- Torsiontests,solid cylinder, low strain rate.
fining pressures were as high as assumedin the The brittle-ductile transition has been deline-
calculations for Table 7. The extension frac- ated at 25, 200, and 400øC for the tenfold
tures observed at 5 and 8 kb are almost cer- lower strain rate of 10-• per second(Table 10).
tainly of the intrusiontype. The transitiondrops from about 3.5 to 3.0 kb
EFFECTS OF INTERMEDIATE PRINCIPAL STRESS ON FAILURE 629

TABLE 11. Summary


of TriaxialCompression
andExtension TestsonBlairDolomiteat Room
Temperature
andStrainRatesof the Orderof 10-4 perSecond

Exp. p -- (r•.• (rx-- (ry, (rl• (ra• •, Pm•


No. kb kb kb kb deg kb kb

Compression
GT-169 o 4.82 4.82 0 1 61 2.27
GT-171 o 5 66 5.66 0 1 88 2.67
GT-182 o 4.38 4.38 0 1 46 2.07
GT-189 o 6 O2 6.02 0 2 01 2.84
GT-191 0.50 4 99 5.49 0 5O 37 2 16 2.35
GT-195 0.75 8 93 9.68 0 75 32 3 72 4.21
GT-173 1.oo 9.10 10.10 1 00 26 4 03 4.29
GT-193 1 oo 9.91 10.91 1 00 24 4 31 4.67
GT-194 1 50 10.34 11.84 1 50 24 4 95 4 79
GT-175 2 oo 10.46 12.46 2 00 27 5 48 4 93
GT-190 2 oo 10.88 12.88 2.00 18 5 63 4 93
GT-192 2 oo 11.45 13.45 2.00 30 5 82 5 38
GT-178 3 oo 13.07 16.07 3.00 34 7.35 6 16
GT-181 3. oo 11.98 14.98 3.00 32 6.99 5 65
GT-184 4.00 13.24 17.24 4.00 38 8.41 6 24
GT-185 4.5o 13.67 18.17 4.5O 30 9.06 6.44
GT-240 4.5o 13.10 17.60 4.5O 31 8.87 5.35

Extension
GT-590 1.00 1.37 1.00 -0.37 0 0.55 0.65
GT-592 2.00 2.16 2.00 -0.16 0 1.28 1.02
GT-594 3.00 3.15 3.00 -0.15 0 1.95 1.49
GT-596 4.00 4.30 4.00 -0.30 0 2.57 2.03

mean pressureat 25øC and from about 2.0 to curve for compressionis linear over a much
1.5 kb at 400øC. The octahedral shear stresses wider range than that for limestone(Figure
at failure of 2.7 kb at a mean pressureof 2.5 12), and
kb and at a temperatureof 25øC and 2.1 kb' root = 1.20 q- 0.80p•
at 2.0 kb and 400øC do not differ greatly from
The extensioncurveis entirely linear, and
those measuredat 10-• per second(Tables 5
and 8). root = 0.30 + 0.67p•
B,,A•R DO,,O•IT•,

Triaxial compressionand extension tests, 6

room temperature. In triaxial compression


(Table 11) the brittle-ductiletransitionseems
_ oso(OL,
)---/• Ik"-COMPRESSIO
to occurat confiningpressureof about4.5 kb,
where the octahedral shear stress versus mean
pressurecurve clearly tends t0 becomehori- _ I.,.•TORSION
(HOLLOW)
zontal above p• -- 7 kb (Figure 12). In every
specimen,failureoccursby shearfracturing.No
consistentrelationshipbetweenfracture angle
(0) and meanpressureis apparent.
In triaxial extension the dolomite is brittle øo 2 4 6 8 I0
Pm(kb)
over the entire rangeof confiningpressurefrom
1 to 4 kb. Failure occursby tensile fracturing Fig. 12. Octahedral shear stress versus mean
at. uniaxial tensile stresses of 150 to 370 bars pressurefor failure of solid cylindersof Blair
dolomite in compression,extension, and torsion
(Table 11). and hollow cylinders in torsion at room tempera-
The octahedral shear stress-mean pressure ture and strain rate of 10-• per second.
630 HANDIN, HEARD, AND MAGOUIRK
TABLE 12. Summary of Torsion Tests on Blair Dolomite at Room Temperature
and Strain Rate of 10 -4 per Second

Principal Stresses, Maior Maior


i• --at -- M, rx• kb (Minor) (Minor)
Exp. • • •z, dyne-cm max.,
No. kb X 10• kb •x • • deg deg deg kb kb

Solid
G-132 0 0.42 0.30 0.30 0 --0.30 42 45 3 0 0.25
G-144 0 0.52 0.37 0.37 0 --0.37 45 45 0 0 0.30
G-134 1.00 2.86 2.05 3.05 1.00 --1.05 45(30) 45 0(15) 1.00 1.67
G-136 2.00 4.39 3.14 5.14 2.00 --1.14 29, 36(20, 43) 45 16, 9(25, 2) 2.00 2.56
G-138 3.00 6.14 4.38 7.38 3.00 --1.38 20, 30(69) 45 25, 15(-24) 3.00 3.57
G-139 4.00 6.93 4.95 8.95 4.00 --0.95 25, 15(45) 45 20, 30(0) 4.00 4.04
G-165 4.00 7.15 5.10 9.10 4.00 --1.10 1/•, •6(35)* 45 $0, 19(10) 4.00 4.16
G-186 4.00 2.61 5.17 9.17 4.00 --1.17 6(30, 37) 45 $9(15,8) 4.00 4.17
G-159 4.50 7.14 5.10 9.60 4.50 --0.60 /•(26, 19, 33) 45 40(19,26, 12) 4.50 4.16
G-188 4.50 3.11 6.16 10.66 4.50 --1.66 •(21, 27) 45 •0(24, 18) 4.50 5 .O3

Hollow
G-142 0 0.29 0.18 0.18 0 -0.18 45 45 0 0 0.15
G-145 0 0.33 0.21 0.21 0 -0.21 43 45 2 0 0.17
G-162 0 0.37 0.23 0.23 0 --0.23 45 45 0 0 0.19
Go163 0 0.33 0.21 0.21 0 --0.21 45 45 0 0 0.17
G-146 1.00 2.17 1.36 2.36 1.00 --0.36 45 45 0 1.00 1.11
G-147 2.00 3.19 2.01 4.01 2.00 -0.01 42 45 3 2.00 1.64
Go153 2.00 3.33 2.10 4.10 2.00 -0.10 45, 26 45 0, 19 2.00 1.71
G-166 3.00 4.75 2.99 5.99 3.00 0.01 11, •(60) 45 $4, 23(-15) 3.00 2.44
G-152 4.00 5.72 3.60 7.60 4.00 0.40 •, 33(76, 16) 45 •$, 12(--31, 29) 4.00 2.94

* Anglesin italics definitely identified as faults.

BLAIR DOLOMITE PYREX

I 3 4 3

MEAN PRESSURE (KB)


Fig. 13. Photographs
of twistedhollowcylindersof dolomiteand glassat differentmean
pressures.
Noteswarmof helicaltensilefractures
in theverybrittleglass.
EFFECTS OF INTERMEDIATE PRINCIPAL STRESS ON FAILURE 631

TABLE 13. Summaryof Triaxial Compression Testson Blair Dolomiteat


High Temperaturesand Strain Rate of 10-4 per Second

Exp. p -- •2, • - •, Temp., Relative •,, •,, O, p.,, toøt,


No. kb kb øC Ductility kb kb deg kb kb

GT-217 1.00 4.37 400 B 5.37 1.00 25 2.69 2.05


GT-225 2.00 4.78 300 B 6.78 2.00 28 3.59 2.25
GT-227 2.00 5.15 300 B 7.15 2.00 28 3.71 2.43
GT-228 2.00 5.93 400 B 7.93 2.00 27 3.97 2.80
GT-234 2.50 3.90 400 B 6.40 2.50 3.80 1.59
GT-229 3.00 5.63 200 B 8.63 3.00 30 4.87 2.65
GT-205 3.00 10.37 300 B 13.37 3.00 36 6.47 4.89
GT-257 3.00 9.15 400 D 12.15 3.00 33 6.05 4.31
GT-242 3.50 11.67 100 B 15.17 3.50 25 7.39 4.75
GT-243 3.50 10.69 200 B 14.19 3.50 32 7.06 4.36
GT-244 3.50 9.95 300 D 13.45 3.50 30 6.82 4.06
GT-230 4.00 12.56 100 T 16.56 4.00 29 8.18 5.92
GT-199 4.00 12.11 200 D 16.11 4.00 40 8.05 5.71
GT-202 4.00 12.03 200 D 16.03 4.00 38 8.03 5.67
GT-204 4.00 11.91 250 D 15.91 4.00 37 7.97 5.62

Torsiontests,room temperature. Testing of 4 to 5 kb (Figure 12). For solid and hollow


both solid and hollow cylindersinvolved pure cylinders,respectively,
torsion or torsion under confining pressure
only; no axial loadswereapplied.All specimens •'o• = 0.74 --{- 0.94p,,,
fail at negative (tensile) values of (rs except
root = 0.18 -]- 0.80p,,
hollowspecimens at 3 and 4 kb confiningpres-
sure (Table 12). At I and 2 kb the failure is Triaxial tests, high temperature. Compari-
due predominantlyto tensilefracture. Definite son between compressiontests at elevated tem-
faulting is identifiable in solid specimensat 4 peratures(Table 13) and similardata in Figure
and 4.5 kb and in hollow specimensat 3 and 12 reveals that the brittle-ductile transition
4 kb (Figure 13). However,in all instancesthe drops from about 7 to 4 kb mean pressure
total maximum shear strains are less than 5 over the range 25 to 400øC. The ultimate
or 6%, and the behavior is regarded as es- strengthat the transitiondropsabout 10%.
sentially brittle. The octahedral shear stress- Because the C0.• vapor pressure becomes
meanpressurecurvesshowlittle departurefrom appreciableat 400øC and thus will lower the
lineartryevenat the highestmean pressures of effective confining pressure,experiments GT-

TABLE 14. Summary of Torsiou Tests on Solid Cylinders of Blair Dolomite


at ttigh Temperaturesand Strain Rate of 10-4 per Second

Principal Stresses, Maj or Maj or


p -' 0'2 -" M, •'xy kb (Minor) (Minor)
Exp. 0'y = 0'z, dyne-cm max., Temp., Relative or, fi, O, pro, •oct,
No. kb X 10s kb øC Ductility 0'• 0'' 0'3 deg deg deg kb kb

G-219 2.00 1.61 3.19 400 B 5.19 2.00 --1.19 25 45 20 2.00 2.60
G-216 3.00 2.02 3.99 300 B 6.99 3.00 --0.99 27, •0' 45 18, •5 3.00 3.26
G-218 3.00 2.08 4.11 400 B 7.11 3.00 --1.11 22 45 23 3.00 3.35
G-201 4 •00 2.36 4.67 200 B 8.67 4.00 --0.67 •4(72) 45 •1(-27) 4.00 3.81
G-209 4.00 1.81 3.59 300 B 7.59 4.00 0.41 0 45 45 4.00 2.91
G-246 4.00 3.02 5.99 400 B 9.99 4.00 --1.99 17 45 •8 4.00 4.88
G-247 4.00 2.62 5.19 400 B 9.19 4.00 --1.19 lS 45 •7 4.00 4.24
G-258 4.00 2.42 4.80 400 B 8.80 4.00 --0.80 45 •$ 4.00 3.92
G-248 4.50 2.24 4.44 200 B 8.94 4.50 0.06 15, (35) 45 $0, (10) 4.50 3.62

* Anglesin italics definitely identifiedas faults.


632 HANDIN, HEARD, AND MAGOUIRK
TABLE 15. Summaryof Triaxial Compression and ExtensionTests on Blair Dolomite
at the Strain Rate of 10-? per Second

Exp. p -- a2, a, - ay, Temp., Relative 7'oct ,


No. kb kb øC Ductility kb kb deg kb kb

Compression
GT-271 1.50 7.92 300 B 9.42 1 5O 27 4.14 3.73
GT-272 1.50 10.03 400 T 11.53 1 50 4.84 4.72
GT-275 2.00 8.89 300 T 10.89 2 00 32 4.96 4.19
GT-276 2.00 8.48 400 D 10.48 2 00 27 4.83 3.99
GT-277 2.50 9.53 100 B 12.03 2 50 34 5.68 4.49
GT-270 2.50 9.24 200 T 11.74 2 50 30 5 58 4.35
GT-273 3.00 8.02 25 B 11.02 3 00 21 5 67 3.78
GT-274 3.00 10.48 100 T 13.48 3 00 31 6 49 4.77
GT-282 3.00 8.88 200 D 11.88 3.00 •-•23 5 96 4.19
GT-278 3.50 8.94 25 B 12.44 3.50 22 6 48 4.21
G T-280 3.50 10.10 100 T 13.60 3.50 31 6 87 4.73
Extension
GT-672 8.90 7.35 300 B 8.90 1.55 0, •-•14 6.45 3.46
GT-673 10.00 7.65 300 B 10.00 2.35 0 7.45 3.51
GT-674 10.00 7.50 400 B 10.00 2.50 21 7.50 3.53

217, 228, 234 may not realistically reflect true 400øC, respectively (Tables 11, 13, and 15).
strength and ductility. Experiment GT-257 Ultimate strengthat the transitiondropsabout
was done with a hollow piston which allowed 30% at room temperature but remains about
any fluid phase to escapeto the atmosphere. constant at 400øC. In extension at 400øC and
This specimenis both ductileand strongand 10-7 per secondstrain rate, the mean pressure
seemsmore consistentwith the remainingdata. at the transitionis at least7.5 kb. At 10-' per
Torsion tests, high temperature. The brit- second,the meanpressureis expectedto be still
tle-ductile transition in torsion can be reached higher.
only at the highestpressure-temperature con- Torsion tests, low strain rate. Torsion tests
ditions in our apparatus, about 400øC and on solid cylindersat 10-• per seconddisclose
4 kb. Specimens G-246 and 247 barely show that the tenfold reduction in strain rate has
transitional behavior (Table 14). The octa- loweredthe transitionmean pressureat 400øC
hedral shearstressat the transition (about 4.5 from about4.4 to 3.8 kb. However,the rockis
kb) seemsto exceedthat (about4.2 kb) at the still brittle at 300øCand 4 kb (Table 16). The
samemeanpressureat 25øC (Table 12). octahedralshear stressat 400øC drops from
Triaxial tests,low strain rate. Compression about 4.2 to 3.5 kb at 4 kb mean pressure
tests at the thousandfold lower strain rate of (Tables12 and 16).
10-7 per secondreveal that the mean pressure
of the britfie-ductile transition is lowered from PYREX GLASS
about 8.7 to 7.0 and 6.0 to 4.2 kb at 25 and Triaxial compression
and extensiontests,

TABLE 16. Summaryof TorsionTestson Solid Cylindersof Blair Dolomite


at Strain Rate of 10-5 per Second

P•incipal Stresses, Mai or Maj or


p --0'2 -- M, •'xy kb (Minor) (Minor)
Exp. 0'., = 0'2, dyne-cm max., Temp., Relative e•, /•, •, P"', %ct,
No. kb X l0 s kb øC Ductility 0'• 0', 0'8 deg deg deg kb kb

G260 3.50 2.21 4.37 400 B 7.87 3.50 --0.87 20 45 25 3.50 3.57
G263 4.00 3.18 5.33 300 B 9.33 4.00 --1.33 45 45 0 4.00 4.22
G259 4.00 2.20 4.36 400 T 8.36 4.00 --0.36 21 45 24 4.00 3.52
G262 4.00 2.23 4.41 400 T 8.41 4.00 --0.41 22 45 23 4.00 3.44
EFFECTS OF INTERMEDIATE PRINCIPAL STRESS ON FAILURE 633

TABLE 17. Summaryof Triaxial Compressionand ExtensionTests on Pyrex Glassat Room


Temperature and Strain Rates of the Order of 10-4 per Second

No. kb kb kb kb deg kb kb

Compression
GT-168 0 11.41 11.41 0 3.80 5.38
GT-170 0 10.68 10.68 0 3.56 5.03
GT-172 1.00 19.34 20.34 1.00 7.44 9.12
GT-174 2.00 24.12 '26.12 2.00 10.03 11.37
GT-183 4.00 26.52 30.52 4.00 12.84 13.50

Extension
GT-591 1.00 1.29 1.00 -0.29 0 0.57 0.61
GT-593 2.00 2.26 2.00 -0.26 0 1.25 1.07
GT-595 3.00 3.17 3.00 -0.17 0 1.95 1.50
GT-597 4.00 4.32 4.00 -0.32 0 2.56 2.06

room temperature. In triaxial compressionthe 320 bars (Table 17). The linear relations for
glass is brittle at all confining pressures,and compressionand extension,respectively,are
it becomes enormously strong. The ultimate
strength is 26 kb at 4 kb pressure(Table 17). •'o• = 1.50 -]- 1.01pm
The octahedral shear stress-mean pressure •'o• = 0.20 -]- 0.72p,•
curve (Figure 14) is nearly linear to the highest
value of p• -- 12.8 kb. The shear fracture is Torsion tests, room temperature. Testing of
both solid and hollow cylinders involved pure
catastrophic; the specimensshatter, and no
torsion or torsion under confining pressure
fault anglescan be measured.
In triaxial extensionthe glass is also brittle
only; no axial loadswere applied. All specimens
at all pressures,and failure is due to tensile
fail at negative (tensile) values of a8 by tensile
fracture at uniaxial tensile stresses of 170 to fracturing at small total maximum shear strains
(Table 18). No faulting is observed;all speci-
mensare regardedas brittle. The deformedglass
typically shows closely spaced parallel helical
-- PYREX
GLA!S tensile fractures (Figure 13). The octahedral
shear stress-mean pressure curves are nearly
ICom
PR
ESSI•
/ linear (Figure 14), and for solid and hollow
cylinders,respectively,
.. ION {SOLIDI
6
•'o•t - 0.76 -]- 1.13p,,
•-o•t = 0.50 -]- 0.81p,,
The highest tensile stress measured (650
-- o bars) exceedsthat observedin extension (320
bars) by a factor of 2. The reason for this is
not understood.W. F. Brace (personal com-
munication,June 1966) has suggestedthe pos-
sible importance of stress gradients to the
• •,, I I ...... I I I
apparent tensfiestrengthsof very brittle ma-
00 2 ß 4 6 8 10 terials.
Pm{kb}

Fig. 14. Octahedral shear stress versus mean DISCUSSION


pressure for failure of solid cylinders of Pyrex
glass in compression, extension, and torsion and
Effectsof state of stress. Yiavingrecognized
hollow cylinders in torsion at room temperature that the mechanicalproperties of a material
and strain rate of 10-• per second. differ widely as they are measuredin acom-
634 I{ANDIN, I{EARD, AND MAGOUIRK
TABLE 18.
Summary
ofTorsion
TestsonPyrexGlass
at RoomTemperature
and StrainRate of 10-4 per Second

PrincipalStresses,
p =if2 = M, r=y kb Major Major
Exp. % -- •, dyne-cm max, (Minor) •, (Minor)
No. kb X l0 s kb • •. a8 a, deg deg 0,deg
Solid
G-131 0 0.85 0.61 0.61 0 -0.61 45 45 0 0 0.50
G-143 0 1.18 0.84 0.84 0 -0.84 45 45 0 0 O. 60
G-133 1.00 3.22 2.30 3.30 1.00 -1.30 45 45 0 1.00 1.87
G-135 2.00 5.21 3.72 5.72 2.00 -1.72 45 45 0 2. O0 3.04
G-137 3.00 6.77 4.84 7.84 3.00 -1.84 45 45 0 3. O0 3.95
G-164 4.00 9.27 6.62 10.62 4.00 -2.62 45 45 0 4. O0 5.41
G-151 4.50 10.09 7.20 11.70 4.50 -2.70 43 45 2 4.50 5.88
Hollow
G-160 0 0.99 0.62 0.62 0 -0.62 45 45 0 0 0.51
G-161 0 0.97 0.61 0.61 0 -0.61 45 45 0 0 0.50
G-154 1.00 2.62 1.65 2.65 1.00 -0.65 47 45 -2 1.00 1.35
G-155 2.00 4.19 2.64 4.64 2.00 -0.64 45 45 0 2.00 2.16
G-176 2.00 3.69 2.33 4.33 2.00 -0.33 43, 0 45 2, 45 2.00 1.90
G-157 3.00 5.50 3.47 6.47 3.00 -0.47 43 45 2 3.00 2.83
G-lB0 3.00 5.57 3.51 6.51 3.00 -0.51 45 45 0 3.00 2.87
G-196 3.00 5.69 3.59 6.59 3.00 -0.59 45 45 0 3.00 2.94
G-158 4.00 7.00 4.41 8.41 4.00 -0.41 44 45 1 4.00 3.60
G-167 4.00 7.19 4.54 8.54 4.00 -0.54 42 45 3 4.00 3.71
G-197 4.50 7.43 4.68 9.18 4.50 -0.18 45 45 0 4.50 3.84

pressiontest ((r• > (rs= (rs) or an extension under different states of stress and to account
test ((r8 < (rs = (r•) under otherwiseidentical for all three principalstresses, we can plot
conditions,we would like to assessthe influence oetahedralshearstressversusmean pressure
of •r•, the intermediateprincipalstress.This (equation 3). Thereare,of course,manyother
will
canbelie done
midway
by twisting
between athe
cylinder
extreme
in principal
which(r, waysto displaythesedata, but we are awareof
no scheme that hasa clearadvantage overthe
stresses(Table 1). To comparedeformations methodwe have adopted.Suchplots for ex-
tension,compression,and torsionof Solenhofen
SOLENhOFEN'
LIME'STONE limestonearecollected
in Figure15.
The curvefor hollowcylindersin whichthe
stresses
are nearly uniform can be compared
directly with those derived from triaxial tests.
3
TORSION
(SOLID).--.,•
/ It lies above the extensioncurve and below the
i compressioncurve.This is the tendencythat
COMPRESSlON-•
• -TORSION
(HOLLOW) wouldbe expected if the relativemagnitude
of
// /,,•//•-EXTENSION (rsis important.However,we wonderwhy it
doesnot lie midwaybetween.
/ // To meanpressures
of the orderof 3 kb, the
failure mechanismboth in hollowtorsionand
o
in extensionspecimens is tensilefracturing.In
o
I 2 Pm•kb) 4 5 6 extensionthe tensilebreakingstrength,--•r• --
0.15kb, is essentially
constantandindependent
Fig. 15. Summary of octahedral shear stress- of mean pressure(Table 4). In torsionthe
mean pressure relations for failure of Solenhofen
extension,and torsion maximum
limestonein compression, tensilestressachieved
at ruptureis
(solidand hollowcylinders)at 25øCand 10-• per aboutthe same(Table6), and Braziltestsalso
second. disclose
a constanttensilestrengthof the same
EFFECTS OF INTERMEDIATE PRINCIPAL STRESS ON FAILURE 635

friction. In this senseat least, the mechanism


3 CONFINING
PRESSURE
=p f __ is fundamentallydifferent from tensilefracture,
' I /
) TORSION and attempts to correlate the linear segments
of the compression,torsion, and extension
-,-oct
=--•
,•,+o.,5)
pm=p curves would be fruitless.
In compressionand extension,the brittle-

,-oc,: ductile transition occurs at mean pressuresof


about 2.7 and 5.4 kb, respectively.In torsion
the transition must be near 4.0 kb because
oc,. specimenG-115 is nearly ductile, to iudge from
• 2p-0.15 its torque-twist curve (Figure 10) and its
•'•=l Pm=
0 // Toct
=0.11+0.71Pm microscopicappearance (Figure 8). Thus the
2 3 4
torsiontransition lies midway betweenthosefor
pm{kb) compressionand extension,just as •2 in torsion
Fig.16. Theoretical
octahedral
shearstress- liesmidwaybetween
its relativevalues
in corn~
mean pressurecurvesfor failure in extensionand pressionand extension.Superposedcompression
torsionby tensilefracturingat constant
tensile on torsionclearlytendsto shift the transition
breaking
stress,
--•8-- 0.15
kb. downward
in meanpressure
toward
2.7 kb,
since the behaviorof G~127at 3.6 kb is nearly
order (Table 7). When tensilefracture occurs identicalwith that of G-115 at 4.0 kb (Figure
at an invariable tensile stress,the curvesare 8).
fixed by the formal relationsbetween•-oetand With the notable exceptionof G~77, whose
p• (Figure 16). The empiricaland theoretical jacket probably leaked, most points repre-
extension curves agree rather well, but the senting tests in torsion combinedwith com-
slope of the observedtorsion curves (0.7) is pression(G-76, 80, 84, 89, 90, 127, and 128)
clearlylow relative to the predictedslope(0.8). lie well abovethe torsioncurve (Figure 7). This
This discrepancyis due to the fact that ex~ is consistentwith the fact that (•2 lies closer
tensionfracturing in torsion specimensoccurs to •8 than to •, so that the points tend to
at small positive (compressive)values of (rs, move upward toward the compressioncurve.
exceptin G-56 and G~128which were uncon- This trend is also observedin solid cylinders
fined.In thesethe tensilestrengthis alsoabout (Figure5).
--0.15 kb. In all the others,we must ascribethe At the brittle-ductile transition the octa~
premature failure to stress concentrationsthat
can develop local tensile stressesto initiate
fracture propagation [Griggs and Handin, 1960,
p. 351]. The most probable sourcesof these
failures are surface flaws into which the weak
jackets can be intruded by the confiningpres-
sure.Brace[1964,p. 147] hasappropriately
given this phenomenonthe name 'intrusion ,

fracture' and has demonstratedits inhibition


by strong but thin (steel) jackets in extension
tests.Thusoneshouldthink of the true torsion
,

SOLENHOFEN LIMESTONE
25øC, • =10'4/ sec
curve as lying a little above its observed
counterpart because•oet should be somewha•
larger at a given p,• (greater than zero). How-
ever, the conclusionswill not be significantly
modified.
O0 2 3 4
At mean pressuresin the linear range of the NORMALSTRESS,kb
compressioncurve (1 to 2 kb), failure which is
Fig. 17. Mohr envelopes for failure of Solen-
duetoshear
fracturing
orfaulting
isnotinde- hofenlimestone
underdifferent
loading
condi-
pendentof meanpressure,
and it depends
on tions.Heavylinesindicate
regions
of faluting.
636 HANDIN, HEARD, AND MAGOUIRK
TABLE 19. Coefficients
for the LinearOctahedral The angle 0 appears to approachabout 30ø
Shear Stress-Mean PressureRelations at the brittle-ductile transition for all states of
root= a q- bp,•. stressat roomtemperature.
The oetahedral shear stress-mean pressure
Solenhofen Blair Pyrex
Limestone
Dolomite Glass curves
forBlairdolomite
andPyrex
glass
under
the samethree statesof stress(Figures12 and
Experiment a b a b a b 14) are qualitativelysimilar to the limestone
curves. At room temperature, however, the
Compression
0.82 0.75 1.20 0.80 1.50 1.01 brittle-ductile
transitionin the dolomitecanbe
Extension 0.17 0.65 0.30 0.67 0.20 0.72 reachedonly in triaxial compression under
Torsion
(hollow) 0.12 0.70 0.18 0.80 0.50 0.81
available
mean
pressures,
andtheglass
isbrittle
Torsion in alltypesoftests.
(solid) 0.52 0.90 0.74 0.94 0.72 1.13 The linearoetahedralshearstress-mean
pres-
sure relations for all three materials are col-
lected in Table 19. The slopesb for extension
hedral shear stress-meanpressure curves are and for torsion of hollow cylinders all agree
concavedownward, and all seem to be ap- with the predicted values of 0.7 and 0.8, re-
proachingthe same limiting value of roet of speetively,for failure due to tensile fracture
about 2.5 to 3.0 kb. This is consistentwith the at constant tensile strength (Figure 16). The
fact that the yield stressfor flow in the due- compression coefficientsfor limestoneand dolo-
tile state is essentiallyindependentof mean mite are about the same (b = 0.8), but the
pressure;the curvesbecomehorizontalat about compressire strengthof glassis somewhatmore
the samevalue of root,which impliesthat yield- sensitive(b ----1.0).
ing is governedby the yon Mises condition,in- Comparisono/ solid and hollow cylinders.
dependentlyof the meanpressure. The torsion curves for solid cylindersevery-
The same mechanism,namely faulting, op- where lie abovethosefor hollowcylinders,pre-
crates in all three types of test only over a sumably becausethey representthe maxim'urn
narrow range of mean pressure,about 2 to 3 values of r•, at the periphery. Thus, for ex-
kb. Even here,however,no manipulationof the ample, in G-27 (Table 5), ,, -- --0.35 kb at
data reveals any stress-dependent failure eri- p• = 0, which is more than twice the highest
terion that successfullycorrelates the tests probable tensile strength; even higher values
under different loading conditions. The Cou- are recordedin other specimens.These impossi-
lomb-Mohr criterion dearly fails becausethe bly high apparent tensilestrengthsare ascribed
envelopesdiffer widely (Figure 17). Account- to the support of less highly stressedrock in
ing for the third stressinvariant doesnot help the centralregion.
[see, for example, Bresler and Pister, 1955]. One objective has been to find a consistent
Griftith'sfracturetheoryextended
to threedi- empiricalrelationship
betweentorsioncurves
mensionsis alsoinadequate[Jaeger,1966]. for solid cylinders in which the shear stress
At the same mean pressure,say 2.7 kb, the varies and hollow cylinders in which the
fault angle 0 is 10ø in extensionand 30ø in stressesare nearly uniform. This relationship
compression, so that 0 alsoseemsto dependon would eliminate the test limitation to very
the relative magnitudeof ,•. In torsion,fault- fine grain size and the costly sampleprepara-
ing first occurs (with extensionfracturing) at tion of hollow cylinders.Comparingthe linear
2.0 kb where the average 0 ----24ø. At 3.0 and curves showsthat for both limestone (Figure
4.0 kb the average angles are about 27ø and 15) and dolomite (Figure 12) the hollow-eyl-
28ø, respectively.Thus at the same pressures, inder curves can be predicted by dividing the
faulting in torsion occursat inclinationsthat intercept a of the solid-cylindercurvesby 4
are lower than thosein compression and higher and reducingthe slope b by a factor of 0.8
than thosein extension,
thoughnot midwaybe- (Table 19). For glassthe ratio of the slopesis
tween. To establisha full functional relation- slightly less,about 0.7, but the ratio of inter-
ship between0 and ,•, further tests would be eepts 0.72/0.50 is only 1.4. However, we are
required in torsion combinedwith extension. fairly confidentthat data from a solidcylinder
EFFECTS OF INTERMEDIATE PRINCIPAL STRESS ON FAILURE 637

of any homogeneous,statistically isotropic


coarse-grainedrock could now be qualitatively
comparedwith data from compressionand ex-
tension tests on the same rock because we would
expect the stressdistributionsin twisted cylin-
dersto be the samein the elasticrange.
Effects ol t•emperature. Heard [1960, Figure
8] has shownthat the ultimate strengthof Sol-
enhofen limestone at the brittle-ductile transi-
BRITTLE DUCTILE
tion (3 to 5% total strain) is loweredabout 30%

I
BRITTLE-DUCTILE TRANSITION
ß

SOLENHOFEN LIMESTON E

ß DUCTILE
0 TRANSITIONAL
x BRITTLE
.x

I _© ßDUCTIL
o TRANSITIONAL

x BRITTLE

_
• DUCTILE

- x >•COMPRE
h ,

--ß BRITTLE
•DUCTILE
-- BRITTLE

0 200 400 600


TEMPERATURE, øC

Fig. 19. Confining pressureversustemperature


•,,,•UCTIL_
Bx
RITTLE
0 •. E i. • of the brittle-ductile transition of solid cylinders
of Blair dolomite in compressionand torsion at
10'• per seeon&

for both compressionand extensionby heating

- i xi
from 215 to 400øC. He has also found that the
transition confiningpressureover the range of
215to 1500øCdrops from 1 to 0 and from 7.15to
2.8 kb in compressionand extension,respec-
tively [Heard, 1960, Figure 7]. Torsional
' • BRIT•DUCTILE strengthis also reducedby heating (½f. Tables
O0 200 400 600 6 and 8), but, since high-temperature tests
TEMPERATURE, øC
were not doneon hollowcylinders,the stresses
Fig. 18. Confining pressureversus temperature developedin twistedspecimens
are not directly
of the brittle-ductile transition of solid cylinders
comparablewith those measuredby Heard.
of Solenhofen limestone in compressionand ex-
tension [after Heard, 1960] and torsion at 10-• per However, the brittle-ductile transitionsat 215øC
second. occur at about the same mean pressures(3.5
638 HANDIN, HEARD, AND MAGOUIRK
from 3.5 to 2.0 kb over the interval 25 to

--
I
BRITTLE-DUCTILE TRANSITION
400øC and to remain more or less midway be-
tween the higher extension and lower com-
pression curves. This effect strongly suggests
that relative ductility is a nearly linear function
of the relative magnitude of (r, over a wide
temperature interval.
Figure 19 showsa similar plot of compression
and torsion data for Blair dolomite from Tables

II

i\ DUCTILE
I

BRITTLE

•=10 /sec

•EXTEN•ION

.• y- \• ,o•,•ec
BRITTLE- DUCTILE TRANSITION
BLAIR DOLOMITE

ß DUCTILE

-
_ • ?DUCTIL
I
BRITTLE
I •,O'•/sec
200
• ,;"/secI 400 600

TEMPERATURE, øC

Fig. 20. Confining pressureversus temperature


of the brittle-ductile transition of solid cylinders
of Solenhofen limestone at different strain rates.
Data for compressionand extension at 10-• per
second are from Heard [1960] and for compres-
sionat 10-7 per secondfrom Heard [1962].

to 4.0 kb) in solid and hollow cylinders,so that


comparisonsof this parameter should be sig- I ,o '
nificant.
Figure 18 showsthe torsion data from Table
8. Confiningpressure(equal to mean pressure
,J ,
TEMPERATURE, •C
, ""' ,I
in torsion) is plotted versus temperature, and Fig. 21. Confining pressureversus temperature
of the brittle-ductile transition of solid cylinders
tteard's extension and compressiontransition
of Blair dolomite in compression and torsion at
curves are reproduced for comparison.The different strain rates and in extensionat 10-' per
torsion transition appears to decreaselinearly second.
EFFECTS OF INTERMEDIATE PRINCIPAL STRESS ON FAILURE 639

11, 12, 13, and 14. The compression transition brittle region as observed in compression,ex-
confiningpressuredecreaseslinearly from about tension,and torsion tests. However, we regard
4.5 kb at room temperature to about 2.5 kb the followingobservationsas significant.
at 400øC. In torsion the transition occurs at
1. Tensile breaking strengih is essentially
slightly greater than 4 kb at 400øC; it could
constant and equal to the value of --(r, at
not be traced to higher pressuresat lower tem- fracture.
peraturesbut certainly lies well abovethe com-
2. In the brittle state, the shearstrengthof
pressiontransitionas expected.
the material doesdependon the relative magni-
For all states of stress the fault angles 0
tude of the intermediate principal stress
tend to increasewith increasingtemperature--
Over the region of mean pressurein Solenhofen
that is, to approachpositionsof maximumshear
limestone where faulting occurs in all three
stressat 45øC to •.
tests (2 to 3 kb), the ultimate octahedralshear
Effects o• strain rate. Heard [1962] had al-
strength is greater in torsion than in extension
ready studied the influenceof a thousandfold
((r• = (r,) and lessthan in compression((r2 =
changeof strain rate on the triaxial compres-
sion of Solenhofen limestone. The variation
3. The fault angle measuredwith respectto
from 10-' to 10-7 per secondlowers the transi-
(r• also dependson (r•: about 30ø, 20ø, and 10ø
tion confiningpressurefrom 1.0 to 0.8 kb at
25øC and from 0.7 to 0 kb at 270øC. His com-
in compression, torsion, and extension,respec-
tively, in the limestone.
pressioncurvesand his extensioncurve at 10-•
4. The brittle-ductiletransition in limestone,
are reproducedin Figure 20. Shown are the
torsion curves at 10-' and 10-' from the data of
for example,also dependson (r•. At room tem-
Tables 8 and 10.
perature the mean transition pressureis about
2.7, 4.0, and 5.4 kb in compression, torsion,and
In extension,a drop of transition confining
extension,respectively.
pressurefrom about 7.4 to 6.6 kb at 25øC and
5. In the fully ductile region the octahedral
from 2.8 to 1.5 at 500øC accompanies the
shearstressfor yieldingis about the samein all
thousandfoldlowering of strain rate. In torsion
three testsand is independentof meanpressure
the effectsof only a tenfold rate reduction are
--that is, the von Mises yield conditionholdsat
significant.Transition pressuresare 15% lower
leastapproximately.
at 25øC and 25% at 400øC. Again, the torsion
6. At a given strain rate an increase in
transition remainsmore or lessmidway between
temperature or at a given temperature a de-
thosefor compressionand extensionat the same crease in strain rate lowers the transition con-
strain rate.
finingpressure(-- (r•) in all three tests.
Similar plots for Blair dolomite (Figure 21)
alsoreveallarge effects.The compression transi- Acknowledgments. Discussions with Professors
tion curve at 10-7 from data of Table 15 is about D. T. Griggs, W. F. Brace, and M. S. Paterson
have most helpful.
10% below the curve at 10-• at room tempera- This research was supported by the Air Force
ture and about 40% lower at 400øC. The tor- Cambridge Research Laboratories under contract
sion transition curve appearsto be appreciably AF19(628)-2784 in connection with project Vela-
loweredby the tenfold drop of shearstrain rate Uniform of the Advanced Research Project
Agency.
even though the data (Table 16) are sparse.In
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