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ANALYTIC GEOMETRY 2

Conic Section

ENGR. REYNILAN L. DIMAL


CONIC SECTIONS
Conics is the locus of a point which
moves in such a way that the ratio of
its distance from a fixed point (focus)
and a fixed line (directrix) is constant.
The constant ratio is called
eccentricity.
CONIC SECTIONS
Circle

Cutting plane
parallel to t he
“base”
CONIC SECTIONS
Ellipse

Cutting plane not


parallel to any
element of the
circular cone
CONIC SECTIONS
Parabola

Cutting plane
parallel to slant
height of the circular
cone
CONIC SECTIONS
Hyperbola

Cutting plane parallel to


the axis
General Equation of the Second
Degree Curves
Ax2 + Bxy + Cy2 +Dx + Ey + F = 0
Relationship of A and C Type of Conic Section
A=C, B=0 Circle
A  C, but the same sign Ellipse
If either A or C is zero Parabola
A and C are opposite in signs Hyperbola
General Equation of the Second
Degree Curves
Ax2 + Bxy + Cy2 +Dx + Ey + F = 0
B2 – 4AC →Discriminant (D)
Behavior of Discriminant (D) Type of Conic Section
D<0 Ellipse
D=0 Parabola
D>0 Hyperbola
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. What conic section is represented by
the equation 4x2 + 8x – y2 + 4y – 15 = 0

a. Circle c. Parabola

b. Hyperbola d. Ellipse
REVIEW QUESTIONS
2. What conic section is represented by the
equation x2 + 4y2 + 4xy + 2x – 10 = 0?

a. Circle c. Parabola

b. Hyperbola d. Ellipse
REVIEW QUESTIONS
3. Determine the nature of the curve:
4x2 + 3y2 – 8x + 16y + 19 = 0.

a. Circle c. Parabola

b. Hyperbola d. Ellipse
CIRCLE
The plane figure
obtained as a
locus of a point
whose distance
from a fixed point
called the center
is constant.

Eccentricity is 0
CIRCLE
General Equations:

Ax 2  Ay 2  Dx  Ey  F  0

x  y  dx  ey  f  0
2 2
CIRCLE
Standard Equations:

Center at Any Point (h,k)


( x  h) 2  ( y  k ) 2  r 2
Center at Origin
x y r
2 2 2
CIRCLE
Standard Equations:
x 2  y 2  dx  ey  f  0
Coordinate of the center
d e
h k 
2 2
Length of the Radius:
r  h k  f
2 2
CIRCLE
Standard Equations:
Given Ends of Diameter

Equation
( x  hx1))(
2 x  x )  2( y  2y )( y  y )  0
 ( y 2 k )  r 1 2
REVIEW QUESTIONS
4. Find the equation of the circle whose
center is at (3, -5) and whose radius is 4.

a. x2 + y2 -6x + 10y + 18 = 0
b. x2 + y2 -6x - 10y + 18 = 0
c. x2 + y2 +6x + 10y + 18 = 0
d. x2 + y2 +6x - 10y + 18 = 0
REVIEW QUESTIONS
5. What is the center of the curve
x2 + y2 -2x - 4y - 31 = 0.

a. (-1, -2) c. (1, -2)

b. (-1, 2) d. (1, 2)
REVIEW QUESTIONS
6. What is the equation of a circle whose
ends of diameter are (10, 2) and (6, -4).

a. x2 + y2 -16x + 2y + 52 = 0
b. x2 + y2 -8x + 2y - 48 = 0
c. x2 + y2 +16x - 12y + 52 = 0
d. x2 + y2 +26x - 2y + 48 = 0
(10, 2)

(6, 4)
REVIEW QUESTIONS
6. What is the equation of a circle whose
ends of diameter are (10, 2) and (6, -4).

a. x2 + y2 -16x + 2y + 52 = 0
b. x2 + y2 -8x + 2y - 48 = 0
c. x2 + y2 +16x - 12y + 52 = 0
d. x2 + y2 +26x - 2y + 48 = 0
REVIEW QUESTIONS
7. Find the value of k for which the
equation x2 + y2 + 4x - 2y - k = 0
represents a point circle.
ECE Board Apr. 1998

a. 5 c. -6
b. 6 d. -5
PARABOLA
Is the locus of a point which moves so that it is
always equidistant from a fixed point called focus
and a fixed line called directrix
Eccentricity is equal to 1
PARABOLA
General Equations:
Axis Parallel to the y-axis
Ax 2  Dx  Ey  F  0

Axis Parallel to the x-axis

Ay 2  Dx  Ey  F  0
PARABOLA
Standard Equations:
Axis Vertical: Vertex (h,k)
( x  h) 2  4a( y  k )

Axis Horizontal: Vertex (h,k)


( y  k ) 2  4a( x  h)
PARABOLA
Length of Latus Rectum
Latus Rectum
- line that runs
parallel to
directrix and
passes through
the focus
REVIEW QUESTIONS
8. The parabola y=-x2 +x +1 opens:

a. to the left c. to the right


b. upward d. downward
REVIEW QUESTIONS
9. Compute the focal length and the
length of latus rectum of parabola
y2 + 8x – 6y +25 = 0

a. 2, 8 c. 4, 16
b. 16, 64 d. 1, 4
REVIEW QUESTIONS
10. A cable suspended from supports that
are the same height and 600 feet apart
has sag of 100 feet. If the cable hangs
in the form of a parabola, find its
equation.

a. y2 = 900x c. x2 = 400y
b. y2 = 400x d. x2 = 900y
(300,100)

100

(0,0)

600
REVIEW QUESTIONS
10. A cable suspended from supports that
are the same height and 600 feet apart
has sag of 100 feet. If the cable hangs
in the form of a parabola, find its
equation.

a. y2 = 900x c. x2 = 400y
b. y2 = 400x d. x2 = 900y
REVIEW QUESTIONS
11. An arch 18 m high has the form of
parabola with a vertical axis. The length
of a horizontal beam placed across the
arch 8 m from the top is 64 m. Find the
width of the arch at the bottom

a. 86m c. 96m
b. 106m d. 76m
8
(32, 8)
18
32 32

(X, 18)
x x
REVIEW QUESTIONS
11. An arch 18 m high has the form of
parabola with a vertical axis. The length
of a horizontal beam placed across the
arch 8 m from the top is 64 m. Find the
width of the arch at the bottom

a. 86m c. 96m
b. 106m d. 76m
ELLIPSE
Is the locus of a point which moves so that the
sum of its distance from two fixed points (foci) is
constant and is equal to the length of the major
axis
ELLIPSE
ELLIPSE

Standard Equations:
General Equation
( x2
 h ) 22
( y 
Ax  Cy  Dx  Ey  F  0
k ) 2

2
 2
1
a b
Major Axis Horizontal

( x  h) ( y  k )
2 2

2
 2
1
b a
Major Axis Vertical
ELLIPSE
Key Formulas

Length of Major Axis 2a


Length of Minor Axis 2b
ELLIPSE
Key Formulas
Length of Latus Rectum
2b 2
LR 
a

Eccentricity
c For an ellipse, eccentricity is
a lesser than 1
ELLIPSE
Key Formulas
Focal Distance (c)
c  a 2  b2 c  ea

Distance From Center


to Directrix (d)
a
d
e
REVIEW QUESTIONS
12. Find the major axis of the ellipse
x2 + 4y2 -2x – 8y + 1 = 0.

a. 2 c. 10
b. 4 d. 6
REVIEW QUESTIONS
13. The semi-major axis of an ellipse is 4
and its semi-minor axis is 3. The
distance from the center to directrix is:
ECE Board Nov. ‘95

a. 6.047 c. 6.614
b. 6.532 d. 6.222
REVIEW QUESTIONS
14. An ellipse has an eccentricity of 1/3.
Compute the distance between the
directrices if the distance between foci
is 4.

a. 18 c. 32
b. 36 d. 38
REVIEW QUESTIONS
15. The major axis of the elliptical path in which
the earth moves around the sun is
approximately 186, 000, 000 miles and the
eccentricity of the ellipse is 1/60. Determine
the apogee of the earth.
a. 93, 000, 000 miles
b. 94, 335, 100 miles
c. 91, 450, 000 miles
d. 94, 550, 000 miles
REVIEW QUESTIONS
15. The major axis of the elliptical path in which
the earth moves around the sun is
approximately 186, 000, 000 miles and the
eccentricity of the ellipse is 1/60. Determine
the apogee of the earth.
a. 93, 000, 000 miles
b. 94, 335, 100 miles
c. 91, 450, 000 miles
d. 94, 550, 000 miles
HYPERBOLA
Is the locus of a
point which
moves so that the
difference of the
distances from
two fixed points
(foci) is constant
and is equal to
the length of the
transverse axis
HYPERBOLA

General Equations
Transverse
Ax  Cy  Dx  Ey  F  0
2 2
axis horizontal

Transverse
Cy  Ax  Dx  Ey  F  0
2 2
axis vertical
HYPERBOLA

Standard Equations
( x  h) 2 ( y  k ) 2 Transverse
2
 2
1 axis horizontal
a b

( y  k ) 2 ( x  h) 2 Transverse
 1
a 2
b 2 axis vertical
“a” is always the denominator of the positive term
HYPERBOLA

Coordinate of the Center (h,k)


D E
h k
 2A  2A
HYPERBOLA
Key Formulas
Length of Latus Rectum
2b 2
LR 
a

Eccentricity
c For a hyperbola, eccentricity
a is greater than 1
HYPERBOLA
Key Formulas
Focal Distance (c)
c  a 2  b2 c  ea

Distance From Center


to Directrix (d)
a
d
e
HYPERBOLA
HYPERBOLA
Key Formulas
Equation of Asymptotes
y  k   m( x  h )
b Transverse
m
a axis horizontal

m
a Transverse
b axis vertical
REVIEW QUESTIONS
16. Find the eccentricity of the curve
9x2 – 4y2 -36x +8y = 4

a. 1.80 c. 1.90
b. 1.70 d. 1.60
REVIEW QUESTIONS
17. Find the length of the latus rectum of
9x2 – 4y2 -36x +8y = 4

a. 5 units c. 9 units
b. 6 units d. 8 units
REVIEW QUESTIONS
18. The distance between foci of a
hyperbolas is 18 and the distance
between directrices is 2. What is the
eccentricity of the hyperbola?

a. 0.19 c. 2
b. 3 d. 1.6
REVIEW QUESTIONS
19. Find the eccentricity of a hyperbola
whose transverse and conjugate axes
are equal in length?

a. 0.82 c. 1.52
b. 1.41 d. 1.73
REVIEW QUESTIONS
20. Find the equation of the asymptote of
the hyperbola 4x2 – 9y2 = 36.
y  k   m( x  h )
a. x+3y=0
b. 3x+2y=0
c. 2x-3y=0 m
b
m
a
d. x-3y a b
TO GOD BE THE
GLORY!!!

THANK YOU VERY MUCH


GOD BLESS