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1ST REPORTER- Elysse Aubrey B. Amlog
2nd REPORTER- Theresa Mae S.M Baluyot
3rd REPORTER- Devie Mae Sario
4th REPORTER- John Paul Bigcas
5th REPORTER- Jennifer Mendes Bornia
6th REPORTER- Curtney Jane Balagulan
7th REPORTER- Jenny Rose Argam
The setting
The Philippine is located within the Pacific seismic belt which consequently experienced severe earthquake
over the years that destroyed many lives, structures, and caused of money loss. Its coastline is contoured
irregularly has numerous of fine harbours and landlocked traits.
Philippine is well known for its rich natural resource. The product was exported and produced for local
consumption from the fertile plains and rich valleys diverse crops. Despite of having rich natural resources
the Philippines was still primitive in area of agriculture which was one of causes of failure to produce
enough exports especially rice.
However, there are still products have risen for exports abroad such as lumbers, minerals, metals.
Meanwhile in Mining which is a basic industry, produces worth of large amount of peso of minerals.

The people
The Philippines was greatly influenced and commercially contacted with the countries of Asia and was
dominated by the westerns which made the Filipino mixed with races, basically called as Malays. These
races mostly came from Spaniards, Americans, Japanese and Chinese.
The Filipinos are known for being hospitable. Also, their ties with their family in Filipinos are very
important. The father and the mother are ruler and governor respectively in the family. Meanwhile, the
grandparents’ opinions and decisions are the most sought in all matters. The “tyranny” of the elders has
remained the same in spite of the inroads of modern civilizations.
Respect for the elders is one of the Filipino traits. The parent exercises almost absolute powers over the
children. A Filipino can’t start an important thing without consulting their parents. Parents do not condone
their children to talk back or disrespect the people who are older than them. They practice their children to
use the words of respect like using the particle ‘po’ and ‘opo’ and kissing or touching their forehead with
elders hands, which Filipino called ‘bless’, as a sign of respect. Moreover, the elders believe and demand
that they have to be obeyed whether it is right or wrong. Aside the elders, the older brother and sisters have
to be respected as well. They are responsible to perform the duties of their parents to the younger member
of their family.
One of the characteristics of Filipino family is being collective. It follows that the better of members has to
take care not only his immediate family but also the other relatives.
The Filipino is naturally fatalistic. They believe that whatever happens to him is a work of Fate. This
fatalism is the best symbolized in the phrase “Bahala na”, a phrase that defies translation but which may
rendered loosely as “come what may”. This is a sense of resignation. It is thus he faces disaster or tragedy
with resignation.
Loyalty to a friend or to a benefactor is one trait that is very strong in the Filipino. For the Filipino,
friendship is sacred and implies mutual help under any circumstances. For the Filipino to betray his friend,
he becomes a marked man and experience ostracism.
Filipinos are sensitive. They would not tolerate anyone berating his countryman even on the small things.
The Anglo-Saxon frankness is something the Filipino seldom appreciates.
Another trait of the Filipino is ‘the tendency to be indolent’. Rizal explained this tendency as the result of
the tropical climate which makes even the westerner indolent in these parts of paradise. But aside for this
explanation, there is a fact which makes the Filipino exert less effort in the belief that he does not have to
work hard to make both ends meet. Because of the close family and personal ties.
Side by side with indolence is lack of initiative. This trait is explained by a natural fear of competition, for
Filipino society is cooperative, not competitive. This doesn’t just apply on the student who don’t persuade
to get higher grades but also to the businessmen who craves a huge profit out of a small investment but
would not think of think putting in more capital to expand his business. This person is called segurista in
Spanish parlance which means a man who wants to be sure that he does not lose. For this reason Filipino
trader o businessman is almost always an underdog in relation to his alien competitors.

Filipinos are sensitive

• Similar Incidents happened twice in the University of the Philipppines a year or two before and in
1931. (American Lady Professor with a Russian surname).
• Second case, an Australian professor of English who was an Oxonian, said 90% of the Filipino
Students were cheating in the examinations.

Filipinos are Indolent

• Rizal explained this tendency as the result of the tropical climate.
• Abundance with which Nature has endowed the country.
• Because of the close family and personal ties.

Lack of Initiative
• Natural fear of competition.
• Why exerted so much effort and spend so much time when one can pass through college with a
grade of “3”?
• More capital to expands the investments.
• Filipino is a “segurista”.

The Filipino, being childlike

• Naturally curious.
• “Poco mas o menos, how much do you make?”
• The Filipino is solicitous and if ever he asks too many questions about another’s life and mode of
Helpful and cooperative,respectful and generous
• The Filipino is nevertheless individualistic.
• Story of poor cochero

Filipinos are Jealous

• He does not look with a favor on a woman who flirts with several men.
• His/her sweetheart is only for him/her.
• Even the closest friend cannot kiss his wife.
• Requires complete faith and loyalty of his wife or sweetheart.
• Corrals
• Fish Poison
The Filipino, too, is regionalistic
• He does not think in terms of national boundaries but in regional oneness.
• This feeling is an extension of the closeness of family ties.
• The Filipino believes that the person known to him, no matter how bad, is better than the
one unknown to him no matter how good.

The most discussed trait of the Filipino

• This Filipino trait has not been fully understood ,especially in its connotations.
• It may be translated loosely as the intensive signification of camaraderie or spirit of comradeship
• It refers to a person’s way of dealing with his fellowmen
• if he is selfish, or if he is incapable of empathy.(Reverse)
• If he considers himself “an island entire of itself”
• An understanding man, unselfishly helpful, and participates cheerfully in any community

Regional traits

Ilocano or Samtoy
• Spilled in provinces of Abra, Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, northen Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan,
Zambales, and a part of Tarlac.
• Opportunities are limited.
• Environment produce adventurous, industrious, hardy, patient, and frugal people.
• Economic prsssure force them to migrate to some greener valleys either in Mindanao or in
Hawaii and continental United States.

Developed poetry
• Biag ni Lam-ang (life of Lang)

Famous Samtoys
• Salvador P. Lopez
• Leopoldo Y. Yabes
• Manuel E. Arguilla
• Concorcio Borje


 Tradition of Philippine History writing which Spaniards chronicles originated and which
American and Filipino Writers followed later had the Spaniards, more specifically
Ferdinand Magellan, who discover the Philippines.

 Up to earl y1970s, it had been assumed that the Philippines was a part of Mainland China.
 Theorized during Pleistocene or Ice Age, the waters surrounding what is now the
Philippines fell about 156 feet below the present levels.
 February 1976, this theory of the “Land Bridges” to Asia was disputed by Dr. Fritjof Voss
– a German Geologists who studied the geology of the Philippines.
 According to him, Philippines was never a part of the mainland of Asia but that it rose from
the bottom of the sea and continues to rise as the thin pacific crust moves below it.
 Filipino Anthropologists, F. Landa Jocano of the University of the Philippines, dispute the
assumption of Prof. H. Otley that the Malays migrated to the Philippines and now constitute
the largest portion of the population.
 BEYER – who theorized that the present Filipinos had a Malayan culture.
 JOCANO – believes that fossil evidences of ancient men show that they came not only in
the Philippines but to New Guinea, Java, Borneo and Australia.
 1962 – Discovery in a Tabon Cave in Palawan of a skullcap and a portion of a jaw,
presumed to be those of a human being.

Summarization of Jocano’s Findings:

1. The peoples of prehistoric Islands Southeast Asia belonged to the same population. It
grew out of the combination of human evolution which occurred in Island Southeast
Asia about 1.9 million years ago, as evidenced by the fossil materials recovered from
different parts of the region and of the movements of other peoples from the Asia
mainland during historic times.
2. This core population shared a common cultural orientation that included both flake
and core implements and their complex ceramic industries… Other shared cultural
elements consist of similar ornaments, pendants, house types, belief systems, ritual
complex, and funerary practices.
3. The configuration of these shared elements into a common way of life is what we call
the base culture. It emerged from similar responses people made to similar
geographical conditions, climate, fauna, and flora.
4. None of these ancient men could be categorized under any of the historically identified
ethnic groups today. The western colonizers were the ones who fragmented the
population into ethnic groups as they partitioned the region into their respective
colonies. The British popularized, in scholarship, the term Malay to characterize the
group of people they encountered in the Malay Peninsula. The Portuguese, the
Germans, and the Dutch introduced the Indonesians to the western world. The
Spaniards strongly worked for the conversion of Filipinos to Christianity. Later on the
Americans came and further differentiated the Filipinos form their Southeast Asian
5. …the explanations of the peopling of the Philippines through a series of waves of
migration, as documented by folk history like the Maragtas, has to be reconsidered.
The undue credit given to the Malays as the original settlers of the region and dominant
cultural transmitter must be corrected. Emerging from a common population with the
same base culture, the Malays, the Filipinos, and Indonesians are coequal as ethnic
groups in the region of Island Southeast Asia, without any one of them being racially
or culturally dominant.


 The spread of Islam to old Malaysia was brought about by the activities of the Arab
Traders, missionaries, and teachers who introduced their religious beliefs among Malays.
 MUDUM – Arabian Scholar, the foundation of Islam that was laid in Malaysia in 14th
 He succeeded in establishing in Malacca a Rathor Tencious Foothold for Islam
 1380 – he preceded to Sulu and preached the doctrine of Mohammed
 1390 – RAJA BAGINDA, one of the petty rulers of Menang Kabaw, Sumatra, arrived in
Sulu and promptly converted some of the natives to Islam.
 In Mindanao, SERIF KABUNGSUAN, immediately began laying foundations of Islam.
He converted any tribes to his religion and having married into an influential family, made
himself the first Sultan of Mindanao.


 Orang Dampuans or Men for Champa, immigrants came to the Philippines between 900
and 1200 A.D from southern Annam.
 They established trading posts in Sulu, resulting in a flourishing trade between Sulu and
Southern Annam.
 The Orang Dampuans were not politically minded and had no intention of dominating the
people of Sulu, who were called Buranuns.


 The frame of Sulu reached as far as Northern Borneo and soon Barjarmasin and Brunei,
two important sub-state of the Empire of Sri Vijaya, sent traders to Sulu.
 The latter’s famous pearl beds drew the interest of the Barjamasin merchants and
 Thus, regular trade relations were established between the people of Sulu and the men of
Banjar, as the men of Banjarmasin were called.


 Trade relations with the latter started in the 9th century when some Arab traders who were
barred from the Central China coast found an alternative route starting from Malacca and
passing through Borneo, the Philippines and Taiwan.
 During the rule of Sung Dynasty (960-1127) in China, Chinese goods began to flow in a
continuous stream into the Philippines.
 By the idle of the 14th century, other countries of Asia had begun to take an active interest
in Philippines’ trade.
 CAMBODIA & CHAMPA (in Indo-China) – trade their porcelain products
 ANNAM, SIAM & TONKIN – began to trade with the Philippines.
 KEEN COMERCIAL rivalry lasted up to the Javanese or Madjapahit Period (1377-1478)
 YUNG LO – Ming emperor (1402-1424), regained control of the Philippine trade. He sent
a large fleet consisting of more than 60 vessels of the Philippines under the command of
Admiral Cleng Ho.


 In 13th century about the time that Sulu was undergoing a transformation owing to the
paramount influence of Banjarmasin, Borneo was seething with discontent.
 SULTAN MAKATUNAW was mistreating his subjects, with their families, Datus Puti,
Bangkaya, Dumalugdog, Sumakwel, Lubay, Paiburong, Dumangsil, Balensusa, Paduhinog
and Dumangsol decided to leave for unknown parts in search of freedom.


 1433, the third Chief of Panay, DATU KALANTIYAW, probably a descendant of Datu
Sumakwel, issued orders for the guidance of his people.


Ye shall not kill; neither shall ye steal; neither shall ye do hurt to the aged; less ye incur the danger
of death. All those drowned with stones in the river, in boiling water.


You shall obey. Let all your debts with the headman be met punctually. He who does not obey shall
receive for the first time one hundred lashes. If the debt is large, he shall be condemned to thrust his
hand in boiling water thrice. For the second time, he shall be beaten to death.


Obey you: let no one have women that are very young nor more than he can support; nor be given to
excessive lust. He who does not comply with, obey, and observe this order shall be condemned to
swim for three hours for the first time and for the second time, to be beaten to death with sharp

Observe and obey; let no one disturb the quiet of the graves. When passing by the caves and trees
where they are, give respect to them. He who does not observe this shall be killed by ants, or beaten
to death with thorns.


You shall obey; he who exchanges for food, let it be always done in accordance with his word. He
who does not comply, shall be beaten for one hour, he who repeats the offense shall be exposed for
one day among ants.


You shall be obliged to revere sights that are held in respect, such as those of trees of recognized
worth and other sights. He who fails to comply shall pay with one month's work in gold or in honey.


These shall be put to death; he who kills trees of venerable appearance; who shoot arrows at night at
old men and women; he who enters the houses of the headmen without permission; he who kills a
shark or a streaked cayman.


Slavery for a doam (a certain period of time) shall be suffered by those who steal away the women of
the headmen; by him who keep ill-tempered dogs that bite the headmen; by him who burns the fields
of another.


All these shall be beaten for two days: who sing while traveling by night; kill the Manaul; tear the
documents belonging to the headmen; are malicious liars; or who mock the dead.


It is decreed an obligation; that every mother teach secretly to her daughters matters pertaining to lust
and prepare them for womanhood; let not men be cruel nor punish their women when they catch
them in the act of adultery. Whoever shall disobey shall be killed by being cut to pieces and thrown
to the caymans.


These shall be burned: who by their strength or cunning have mocked at and escaped punishment or
who have killed young boys; or try to steal away the women of the elders.

These shall be drowned: all who interfere with their superiors, or their owners or masters; all those
who abuse themselves through their lust; those who destroy their anitos (idols) by breaking them or
throwing them down.


All these shall be exposed to ants for half a day: who kill black cats during a new moon; or steal
anything from the chiefs or agorangs, however small the object may be.


These shall be made slave for life: who have beautiful daughters and deny them to the sons of chiefs,
and with bad faith hide them away.


Concerning beliefs and superstitions; these shall be beaten: who eat the diseased flesh of beasts which
they hold in respect, or the herb which they consider good, who wound or kill the young of the
Manaul, or the white monkey.


The fingers shall be cut-off: of all those who break idols of wood and clay in their alangans and
temples; of those who destroy the daggers of the tagalons, or break the drinking jars of the latter.


These shall be killed: who profane sites where idols are kept, and sites where are buried the sacred
things of their diwatas and headmen. He who performs his necessities in those places shall be


Those who do not cause these rules to be obeyed: if they are headmen, they shall be put to death by
being stoned and crushed; and if they are agorangs they shall be placed in rivers to be eaten by
sharks and caymans.

 In recent study; Professor W. Henry Scott disputed the authenticity of the Kalantiyaw

CHINESE INFLUENCE – the long contacts of Filipinos with Chinese, beginning with the tenth
century of the Christian era.
INDIAN INFLUENCE was also present in ancient religious beliefs of Filipinos
(Among the Muslims)
Indra Batara - prominent mythological figure, Indian king of heaven
It is therefore probable that the ancient paganism of Filipino’s which amounted to demon and spirit worship
came from India through Old Malaysia.
Some of ancient customs which have the inroads of western imperialism find their counterparts in India.
• Waist loom worked by Igorot is identical with the looms, cloth, color schemes woven by woman
in the hill tribes of Assam and northern India.
• Filmy textiles of Iloilo resemble the silky gauze fabric woven in Benares, India
Check cottons and brocades of Mindanao resemble the handicrafts of Indonesia, Malaysia and Bengal
• The modern Philippine Barong Tagalog is the same cut and embroidery as the “kurta” of Lucknow,
• Cord and the Veil at the weddings which is the remains of ancient symbolism practiced in both
Hindu and Muslim weddings


Before the coming of the Spaniards the Filipino’s had a civilization of their own which came partly from
the Malays
Male attire composes of the upper and lower parts. The upper is called kanggam it was a black or blue
colorless jacket with short sleeves
The color of the jackets represents the rank of the wearer
• Red jacket- chief
• While those below wear blue or black according to their position in society
Male headgear is called putong the color of putong showed the manliness of the wearer
• Red color represents the wearers already killed a man in a war
• A man that killed at least seven has the privilege to wear an embroidered putong
The lower part attire is called bahag which the dressing naturally exposes one’s thigh
Woman’s dress composes of the upper and lower parts. The upper is called baro or camisa while the lower
part is called saya (patadyong in Visayas) with tapis usually wrapped around the waist.

The early Filipino’s had a weakness for personal adornment for both men and woman. Burndened
themselves with such trappings as armlets called kalumbiga, pendants, bracelets, rings, earings etc. which
is made of gold
The adornment of early filipinos is not only by wearing jewels but also through tattooing even woman
tattooed themselves for their masked ball etc. tattooing is not only for the essence of beauty it is also to
exhibit a mans war record in short tattoo is a mans medal
Visayans is the most tattooed people which Spaniards called pintados and their island, islas del pintados.

Ancient house was made of wood, bamboo, and nipa palm
ANTONIO DE MORGA a Spanish jurist and chronicler described the average house
Among the descendants of the Indonesians such as the Ilonggo’s and Kalinga’s of Northern Luzon and
Mandayas and bagobos of Mindanao live on tree tops
Bajaos or sea Gypsies of sulu made their house in boats

Philippine society was divided into 3 classes
• The nobles – consisting of chiefs and their families in tagalog region they usually carried the title
Gat or lakan as in lakan dula or gat maitan
• The freemen – the maharlika who earned their freedom
• The dependents – known as alipin
Alipin acquired his low status in society by inheritance, captivity in war, depts, by purchase, or by
committing crime
*Aliping namamahay- has family and house and served his master
*Aliping sagigilid- no property on his own, lived with his master and could not marry without the
latter’s consent
In Visayas Dependents has three kinds
• Tumataban- worked for master when summoned
• Tumarampuk- worked one day for his master
• Ayuey- worked three days for his lord

Before Spaniards woman has equal rights with men for, they could inherit properties etc.
Tatas- consisting of a blade to be given to the girl’s uncle
Lankad- consisting a of a special sum of money to be given to the girl’s parents
Lekat- consisting of an amount equivalent to ten or more pesos to be given to the girl’s attendant
In dowry is resolved in the satisfaction of the girl’s parents and relatives
The wedding festival is known as pegkawing
Hadji- judge

The barangay was the unit of government and consisted of 30 to 100 families.
• Barangay- was derived from the malay “balangay”, a boat which transported them to these shores.
• Chieftain- the more powerful who ruled the barangay.
• buwis- paid tributes from the citizen of the barangay in the form of crops.
• sanduguan- a treaty of friendship and alliance by means of blood compact.
It was made by the chieftain and approved by the elders.
*umalohokan- public announcer who ordered to go arround the baranggay to announce the promulgation
of the new rules and regulation.
Two types of law:
• Written law- those that the chieftain and his elders promulgated from time to time as necessity
• Customary law- laws that handed down orally from generation to generation and constituted the
bulk of the laws of the barangay.
 Judicial process
-conflicts arising between subjects of different barangays were resolved by arbitration in which a board
composed of elders from neutral baranggays acted as arbiter.
• To show honesty and sincerity, they took an oath
“may the crocodile devour me if i tell any falsehood”, “may the lighting strike me if i don’t
tell the truth and nothing but the truth”, “may i die here or now if i tell lie”, “may the sun and the
moon frown upon me”

 Trial by ordeal
Ancient filipinos practiced it under certain circumstances to determine the guilt of a person. The trial by
ordeal was resorted to in order to show that god in his infinite wisdom always took the side of the innocent.
*bultong and alaw – the ordeal by combat that is common in the ifugaos of northern luzon
Religious beliefs
-the ancient filipinos beieved in the immortality of the soul and in life after death.
Bathala- the equivalent of spanish dios, was supposed to be the creator of the earth and man
therefore superior to all other deities.
• Other dieties:
 Idiyanale- god of agriculture
 Sidapa- god of death
 Balangaw- god of rainbow
 Mandarangan- god of war
 Agni- god of fire
 Magwayen- god of the other world
 Lalahon- god of harvest
 Siginarugan- god of hell
 Diyan masalanta- god of love

Anito and diwata- adored idols by the ancient filipinos.

Baylana- priest or priestesses that performed sacrifices.
-belief in life after death and in the relation between the dead and the living made the ancient filipino
respectful of their dead.
 Laraw- mourning of the dead chief.
 Morotal (before) /maglahi (after)- mourning of a women from that of man.
 Sipa- fasting of tagalogs
 Balata- act of vengeance
 Pasiyam- the ninth night after the death of a person
 Tibawan-staging a play in honor to the dead
 Tibaw- the play

Divination and magic charms

 Asuwang
- poltergeist in the europeans, who could change his forms from man to dog to horse to pig.

 Mangkukulam
-who could injure any man whose face he did not like by the expendient.

 Manggagaway
-who had such power as to bring harm to anybody he wanted to destroy.

 Tiyanak
-who took pleasure in sucking the blood of unborn babies.

 Tikbalang
-could assume different form in order to mislead a traveler at night.

 Anting anting or agimat

-insured a man against weapon of every kind.

 Gayuma
-made a man lovable to all the girls




Abundance of:
• Poultry
• Rice • Stock-raising
• Coconuts • Fishing
• Sugar cane • Mining
• Cotton • Lumbering
• Hemp • Shipbuilding
• Bananas • Weaving
• Oranges
• Many species of fruits They raised:
and vegetables
Two ways of Land Cultivation: • Chickens
• Kaingin sytem • Pigs
• Landholding • Goats
• Carabaos
• Small or native ponies
• Elephants called gadya (malay)
• Bass
FISHING • Sea Breams:
• Dace Cels
• Good sardines • Bicuda
• Tánguingé • Paracale, In the Province
• Flounders Camarines
• Marine Crabs • Ilocos
• All kinds of Mollusks • Butuan River in Mindanao
• Cebu


• Use of Fishing Nets •Commerce
• The Bow and Arrow • Spaniards called:
• Fishing Spear • Bangca
• Wicker Basket • Balangay
• Hooks and Lines • Lapis
• Corrals • Caracoa
• Fish Poison • Virey
• Vinta
• Prau

Using crude wooden looms,

they wove textiles:
MINING • Sinamáy from hemp
MINES: • Medriñaque from banana
• Cotton, linen and silk
• Legazpi


Many boats from Luzon sailed to the Visayas and Mindanao laden with goods to be bartered for those
necessities not found in the Luzon barangays.
There was foreign trade, too with China, Japan, Siam, Cambodia, Borneo, Sumatra, Java, and other
islands of the old Malaysia.


PP. 54-57

1. Tagalog 4. Pampangan
2. Iloko 5. Sugbuhanon
3. Pangasinan 6. Hiligaynon
7. Samarnon or Samar-Leyte 8. Maguindanao


• Writing at the beginning of the 17th century
• Found the four qualities of the four greatest languages of the world:
• Hebrew
• Greek
• Latin
• Spanish


• Sabi (maxim) • Dupayinin and Hiliraw (war songs)
• Sawikain (saying) • Uyayi and Hele (lullabies)
• Bugtong (riddle) • Ihiman (bridal song)
• Suliranin and Indulanin (street songs) • Tagulaylay (mournal song)
• Talindaw (boat songs) • Tigpasin (rowing song)
• Diyuna (song of revelry) • Tingad (household song)
• Kumintang (war song which involved • Kutang-kutang (couplets usually
into a love song) chanted by the blind)
• Dalit and Umbay (dirge) • Kundiman
• Tagumpay
• Balikungkong

Literature- is a written or spoken works such as poems, plays, novels and songs that passes through saling
wika in Filipino and floating or oral literature in English term.

Kutang-kutang – is a literature that is humorous and shows the light-heartedness of the singer.
Play- ancient tagalog is also used in the drama. Settings are open spaces, houses of nobles and places of
worship or sambahan.

Karagatan – is a sort of debate in verse in which a problem is solved by men and women. It was develop
by Spaniards “duplo” which turn into “balagtasan” in 1924 by American Regime.
Maxims – a well-known phrase that expresses a general truth about life or a role about behavior

Filipino Folk songs and folk tales shows collective moods:

 Bontok song expresses wonder and nostalgia

 Igorot Ballad shows humor, a rare commodity among the Filipinos

Igorot wedding song “chu-ay” counter part of the Tagalog song “ihiman”

 Maranaw Literature it has been largely floating and was deeply inspired by Islam.It was
consists of: tutul (folktale), tubad-tubad ( short love poems ) , panangro-on ( sayings and
proverbs) , sowa-sowa i ( drama ) , antoka ( riddle / puzzle ) , darangan ( epic poetry )
 Ancient Literature of Ilocano
Ilocano War Song expresses vigor and joy of the warriors coming from the battle
Dal-ot popular among the peasants and was sung in baptismal part, wedding and feast
Pamulinawen – expresses a longing for a love one with whom serenador had cast his fate
Dung-aw the lyrics and the music shows the sadness that gripped the mother who had lost another child

 Folk Epics
Ifugao “ Hudhud Alim ”
Ilocano ” Biag ni Lam-ang ”
Muslims “ Bantugan , Indarapatra and Sulayman , and Bidasari”

 Music and Dance

Cebuano had percussion instruments timbal (timbrel) and cymbal (kind of drum)
Negritos of Bataan and Zamboangas – their favourite musical instruments are Jew’s harp made of
bamboo, bansic (bamboo violin with abaca string) and gagsa (sort of guitar); Negritos
dance are potato dance(their favorite),Torture Dance, Duel Dance, Lover’s Dance
Bantok Igorots of Northern Luzon music instruments are brass, abafil (bamboo flute) , gangs and their
tunes are Mang-ay-u-weng (labourer song)
Tagbanos of Palawan – Jew’s Harp, drum with sharkskin heads, bamboo flutes, guitar with abaca strings
and brass gongs;Dance- Macasla and performed in Macasla Festival
Ilocanos song- “kutibeng “ is a sort of guitar with 5 strings, flute and kudyapi ; dances are “Kinnotan or
ant’s dance” and “Kinnallogong”
Visayans are good folk dances and musicians, instruments “drum, timbrel, violin like instruments with
metallic string and flageolets”; dances are “Balitaw and Dandansoy”
Tagalog – Kumintang, a characteristic of Batangueño
Tinguians- instrument are “kalaleng (nose flute), diwdiw-as(a panpipe musical instrument made of five or
seven bamboo reeds”

 Arts
Pritive Inhabitants-tools and weapons
New Stone Age- beads, amulets, bracelet
Bronze Age – Bello, drums and gongs are made of bronze and body ornaments made of attractive stones
Early Iron Age- ornaments like tattoos, metals and glass came out to use, woven textiles of various designs
are worn and embroided garments, carving and pottery, handles of their weapons were
imbedded with artistic designs
Negritos are known by their Zigzag Design
Indonesian Influence are found in the apparel of the Kalingas of Luzon, Maranaws of Lanao and
Mangobos and Bagobos
Malayan Influence is traced in the wood carving found on utensils, boats and wooden shields in the people
of Sulu and Mt. Province
Islam Influence are seen in the decorative and ornament art of the Lanao Muslims , they are not into figures
because Koran prohibit them from making human representations.
Muslim Decorative arts are graceful and rhythmical.