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ACI 562-12

Code Requirements for Evaluation,

Repair, and Rehabilitation of
Concrete Buildings

Reported by ACI Committee 562

First Printing
August 2012
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Code Requirements for Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings


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Farmington Hills, MI 48331
Phone: 248-848-3700
Fax: 248-848-3701
ISBN 0-87031-778-4 and 978-0-87031-778-1
ACI Committee 562

Code Requirements for Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings

Lawrence F. Kahn

Keith E. Kesner

Tarek Alkhrdaji Paul E. Gaudette Antonio Nanni

James Peter Barlow Fred R. Goodwin Kelly M. Page
F. Michael Bartlett Carl J. Larosche Jay H. Paul
Randal M. Beard Marjorie M. Lynch Randall W. Poston
Casimir Bognacki Tracy D. Marcotte Halil Sezen
Eric L. Edelson James E. McDonald Constadino Sirakis
Garth J. Fallis Myles A. Murray Gene R. Stevens

Voting Subcommittee Members

Greggrey G. Cohen Yasser Korany J. Gustavo Tumialan

Kevin Conroy Andrzej S. Nowak
Venkatesh Kumar R. Kodur Predrag L. Popovic

Consulting Member
Peter H. Emmons

American Concrete Institute

38800 Country Club Drive
Farmington Hills, MI 48331

Copyright 2012 American Concrete Institute

2 Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings PROVISIONAL STANDARD

This code provides the minimum
requirements for the evaluation, repair,
rehabilitation, and strengthening of existing
concrete buildings and, where applicable, in
nonbuilding structures.
The code is comprised of both prescriptive
and performance requirements.
Commentary is provided for both the
prescriptive and performance requirements
and is intended to provide guidance to the
licensed design professional and referenced
sources for additional information the
material presented in the code provisions.
The code and commentary is intended for
use by individuals who are competent to
evaluate the significance, limitations of its
content and recommendations, and who will
accept responsibility for the application of
the material it contains.
The materials, processes, quality control
measures, and inspections described in this
document should be tested, monitored, or
performed as applicable only by individuals
holding the appropriate ACI Certifications
or equivalent.

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PROVISIONAL STANDARD Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings 3

CONTENTS 6.8— Structural serviceability

Chapter 1—General
1.1—Scope Chapter 7—Design of structural repairs
1.2—Applicability 7.1—General
1.3—Jurisdictions without a general 7.2—Strength and serviceability
existing building code 7.3—Behavior of repaired systems
1.4—Administration and enforcement 7.4—Bond
1.5—Responsibilities 7.5—Materials
1.6—Contract documents   7.6—Design and detailing
1.7—Maintenance and monitoring considerations
Chapter 2—Notation and definitions 7.7—Repair using supplemental post-
2.1—Notation tensioning
2.2—Definitions 7.8—Repair using FRP composites
7.9—Performance under fire and
Chapter 3—Referenced Standards elevated temperatures

Chapter 4—Basis for Compliance Chapter 8—Durability

4.1—General 8.1—General
4.2—Compliance method 8.2—Cover
4.3—Initial analysis 8.3—Cracks
4.4—Work area method 8.4—Corrosion of metals and
Chapter 5—Loads, load combinations, 8.5—Surface treatments and coatings
and strength-reduction factors 8.6—Maintenance and monitoring
5.2—Load factors and load Chapter 9––Construction
combinations 9.1––Stability and temporary shoring
5.3—Strength reduction factors for requirements
repair design 9.2—Temporary conditions
5.4—Strength reduction factors for 9.3—Environmental issues
5.5—Load combinations for structures Chapter 10—Quality assurance
repaired with external reinforcing systems 10.1—Inspection and verification
10.2—Testing of repair materials
Chapter 6—Evaluation and analysis 10.3—Construction observations
6.1—Requirements for structural
evaluation Chapter 11—Commentary references
6.2—Structural assessment
6.3—Material properties
6.4—Test methods to determine or
confirm material properties
6.5—Structural analysis of existing
6.6—Strength evaluation by load testing
6.7—Structural analysis for repair

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4 Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings PROVISIONAL STANDARD

INTRODUCTION Requirements for Structural Concrete, with

The purpose of this code is to provide exceptions and additions.
minimum material and design requirements 1.1.4 The “design basis code” is the
for the evaluation, repair, and rehabilitation general building code or the original
of structural concrete members to comply building code under which the evaluation,
with the general existing building code. repair, and rehabilitation are implemented. If
a jurisdiction has adopted a general existing
CHAPTER 1—GENERAL building code, the design basis code shall be
1.1—Scope determined in accordance with Chapter 4. If
1.1.1 The scope, purpose, applicability, a jurisdiction has not adopted a general
exclusions, interpretation principles, existing building code, 1.3 applies.
language, and units of measure are defined 1.1.4C The general existing building code
in this chapter. establishes limits to which a repair and
1.1.2 The “general existing building code” rehabilitation can occur in accordance with
refers to the code adopted by a jurisdiction the original building code. Above these
that regulates existing buildings. limits, the repair and rehabilitation is in
1.1.2C The general existing building code accordance with the general building code.
establishes the limit to which a repair and 1.1.5 This code is intended to supplement
rehabilitation can occur in accordance with the evaluation requirements of the general
the original building code. Above these existing building code.
limits, the repair and rehabilitation is in 1.1.5C This code provides evaluation
accordance with the general building code. procedures for existing concrete structures.
The general existing building code in the It also provides material and design
United States is usually based on the requirements that allow the licensed design
International Existing Building Code (IEBC) professional to bring existing concrete
developed by the International Code structures in compliance with building codes
Council. The IEBC is revised every three written for new construction.
years and was first published in 2003. 1.1.6 This code provides minimum
1.1.3 The “general building code” refers to material and design requirements for the
the building code adopted by a jurisdiction repair of damaged, deteriorated, or deficient
that regulates new building design and structural concrete members and systems
construction. The “original building code” repaired in accordance with the design basis
refers to the general building code adopted code. Structural repair includes restoring or
by a jurisdiction at the time the existing increasing strength and deformation
building was constructed. capacities as well as the durability of
1.1.3C The general building code existing members.
establishes the design requirements for 1.1.7 This code supplements the general
construction materials. The general building existing building code and shall govern in
code in the United States is usually based on all matters pertaining to the evaluation,
the International Building Code (IBC) repair, rehabilitation, strengthening of
published by the International Code concrete members, and concrete sections of
Council. The IBC is revised every three composite members in existing concrete
years and was first published in 2000. For buildings, except wherever this code is in
the design and construction of concrete conflict with the requirements in the general
structures, the IBC and legacy codes existing building code. Wherever this code
reference ACI 318, Building Code

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PROVISIONAL STANDARD Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings 5

is in conflict with requirements in other 1.1.10 This code is not intended for
referenced standards, this code shall govern. repair of nonstructural concrete or for
1.1.8 Provisions for seismic resistance aesthetic improvements except if the failure Seismic evaluation and of such repairs would result in an unsafe
rehabilitation design shall be in accordance condition.
with the general existing building code. 1.1.11 Licensed design professional Where seismic rehabilitation is All references in this code
not required by the general existing building to the licensed design professional shall be
code, voluntary seismic rehabilitation shall understood to mean persons who are
be permitted. licensed to practice structural design in the
1.1.8C Conditions for such evaluation jurisdiction where this code is being used.
and repair are provided in ACI 369R, The licensed design professional for a
ASCE/SEI 31 and ASCE/SEI 41. Significant project is responsible for and in charge of
improvements to a building’s seismic the evaluation or repair design or both.
performance can be made using repair The licensed design
techniques that provide less than those professional must exercise sound
detailing and reinforcement methods engineering knowledge, experience, and
required for new construction. As an judgment when interpreting and applying
example, providing additional reinforcement this code.
to confine concrete in flexural hinging The licensed design
regions will increase the energy dissipation professional is permitted to require
and seismic performance even though the evaluation, design, construction, and quality
amount of confinement reinforcement may assurance that exceed the minimum
not satisfy the confinement requirements for requirements of this code.
new structures (Kahn 1980, Priestley et al.
1996; Harris and Stevens 1991). 1.2—Applicability
Components of the seismic-force-resisting 1.2.1 The requirements of this code are
system that require strength and ductility applicable when performing evaluation,
should be identified. Force-controlled repair, rehabilitation, and strengthening of
(nonductile) action is acceptable for some existing concrete buildings and concrete
classifications of components of the seismic- portions of other existing buildings.
force-resisting system (ASCE 41). The 1.2.2 This code shall govern the
strength requirement of 7.1 is applicable to evaluation, repair, rehabilitation, and
these force-controlled components. ASCE strengthening of nonbuilding concrete
41and ACI 369R provide information on structures when required by the Building
seismic rehabilitation. Seismic-resisting Official.
components requiring energy-dissipating 1.2.2C Such structures can include arches,
capability should maintain the ability to tanks, reservoirs, bins and silos, blast- and
dissipate energy when repaired. Design and impact-resistant structures, and chimneys.
detailing requirements for proper seismic 1.2.3 This code shall govern the
performance of cast-in-place or precast evaluation, repair, rehabilitation, and
concrete structures are addressed in ACI strengthening of building foundation
318 and 369R. members.
1.1.9 This code does not provide 1.2.3C Foundation elements include
complete design procedures or construction spread footings, mat foundations, concrete
means and methods. piles, drilled piers, and caissons embedded

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6 Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings PROVISIONAL STANDARD

in the ground. The design and installation of modifications shall be in accordance with
piling fully embedded in the ground is previous version of ACI 318 and with this
regulated by the general building code. For code.
the repair of such members, the provisions 1.3.4C If the original construction
within this code apply if not in conflict with properly implemented the design and
the general building code. For the portions detailing requirements of a previous version
of concrete piling in air or water, or in soil of ACI 318, there is no need to modify an
not capable of providing adequate lateral existing building to satisfy the ACI 318-11,
restraint throughout the piling to prevent unless the building is deemed unsafe. The
buckling, the provisions of this code govern principal goal of structural rehabilitation is
where applicable. to ensure that the structural system is safe.
1.2.4 This code governs the evaluation, Whereas one or more members may not
repair, rehabilitation, and strengthening of conform to current structural design
soil-supported structural slabs that transmit requirements, those deficiencies may not
vertical loads or lateral forces from the result in an unsafe structural system.
structure to the soil. Evaluation of the entire existing structure is
1.2.5 This code governs the evaluation, used to determine the safety of the whole.
repair, rehabilitation, and strengthening of 1.3.5 For complete replacement of building
the concrete portions of composite members. members or attachment of new construction
1.2.6 This code governs the evaluation, to existing building members, the design
repair, rehabilitation, and strengthening of shall be in accordance with ACI 318-11 and
precast concrete cladding that transmits this code.
lateral loads to diaphragms or bracing 1.4—Administration and enforcement
members. 1.4.1 The licensed design professional
shall specify that all materials, including
1.3—Jurisdictions without a general protection materials, used for repair,
existing building code rehabilitation, or strengthening shall satisfy
1.3.1 Section 1.3 only applies if a governing regulatory requirements at the
jurisdiction has not adopted a general time the Work is implemented.
existing building code. 1.4.2—Approval of special systems of
1.3.2 Sections 4.1, 4.2, and 4.4 do not design or construction—Sponsors of any
apply. repair design or construction system, which
1.3.3 Structures designed by a previous does not conform to this code but which has
version of ACI 318 shall be evaluated in been shown to be adequate by successful
accordance with 4.3 and chapter 6 of this use, analysis, or testing, shall have the right
code to determine if the structure is: to present the data on which their repair is
(a) in compliance with that previous based to the building official or to a board of
version of ACI 318 examiners appointed by the building official.
(b) not in compliance with that previous This board shall be composed of competent
version of 318 but safe engineers and shall have authority to
(c) not in compliance with that previous investigate the data so submitted, to require
version of 318 and unsafe. tests, and to formulate rules governing repair
1.3.4 If the structure is determined to be design and construction of such systems to
unsafe, modifications shall be in accordance meet the intent of this code. These rules,
with ACI 318-11 and this code. If the when approved by the building official and
structure is determined to be safe,

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PROVISIONAL STANDARD Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings 7

promulgated, shall be of the same force and During the evaluation and repair process,
effect as the provisions of this code. the licensed design professional should
1.4.2C New methods of design, new request that the owner provide all available
materials, and new uses of materials for information regarding the building’s
repair and rehabilitation should undergo a condition, plans, previous engineering
period of development before being reports, and disclose the presence of any
specifically covered in a code. Hence, good known hazardous materials in the repair
systems or components might be excluded area and any other pertinent information to
from use by implication if means are not the parties involved in the Work. This
available to obtain acceptance. For systems information may require that remedial
considered under this section, specific tests, measures be taken before or during the
load factors, strength reduction factors, construction process, which should be
deflection limits, and other pertinent considered when determining the scope of
requirements should be set by the board of Work.
examiners, and should be consistent with the 1.5.3 The licensed design professional
intent of this code. The provisions of this shall notify the owner of any maintenance
section do not apply to model tests used to requirements after the Work is completed in
supplement calculations or to strength accordance with 1.7.
evaluation of existing structures. 1.5.4 The licensed design professional
shall report identified unsafe structural
1.5—Responsibilities conditions to the owner and to jurisdictional
1.5.1 Licensed design professionals are authorities, in accordance with local
responsible for the evaluation, design, ordinances.
detailing, and specifying material 1.5.4C Unsafe structural conditions may
requirements, establishing criteria for be observed at the start of an evaluation
executing the Work, preparing documents to process or, if hidden, become evident during
perform the Work, and specifying a quality the repairs. The licensed design professional
assurance program. performing the evaluation is responsible for
1.5.1C At times, contractors employ a informing the owner about the presence of
licensed design professional to design unsafe structural conditions found. When
certain temporary elements such as shoring required, these conditions, with
or bracing. Although the design of recommendations for remediation, should be
temporary elements is generally not reported to the proper jurisdictional
performed by the licensed design authorities by the licensed design
professional responsible for the repair professional or owner. The owner should
design for the project, the licensed design take measures to limit the potential risk
professional may provide these services if associated with exposure to these
requested by the contractor and approved by conditions. The remediation of risk may
the owner as long as there is no conflict of require immediate evacuation, limiting
interest. access to portions of a structure, the
The licensed design professional may installation of shoring, encapsulation or
include a note in their documents that the removal of delaminated concrete, or other
contractor is responsible for all means and structural remedies.
methods to implement the repairs consistent
with the plans and specifications prepared
by the licensed design professional.

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8 Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings PROVISIONAL STANDARD

1.6—Contract documents are submitted. Model analysis shall be

1.6.1 The contract documents shall convey permitted to supplement calculations.
necessary information to perform the Work. 1.6.3 The licensed design professional
1.6.1C At a minimum, these contract shall provide the owner with copies of
documents should indicate: evaluation reports, project documents, field
 Name and date of issue of the reports, and other project documents
building code and supplements to produced by the licensed design professional
which the evaluation, repairs, in addition to documenting the location of
rehabilitation, or strengthening the completed repairs.
conforms. 1.6.3C Documentation of the protection
 Loads and other demand-related and repairs that have been carried out,
criteria. including any test results, and instructions
 Design assumptions including on inspection and maintenance to be
specified properties of materials undertaken during the remaining design
used for the project and the strength service life of the repaired part of the
requirements at stated ages or stages concrete structure should be provided to the
of the construction. owner. The extent and type of records
 Details and notes indicating the should be consistent with the agreement
size, configuration, reinforcement, recorded in the repair construction
anchors, repair materials, documents. It is good practice for the owner
preparation requirements, and other to keep documentation of repairs,
pertinent information to implement inspection, monitoring, and investigations as
the repairs, strengthening, or a record retention plan developed for future
rehabilitation of the structure. reference.
 Magnitude and location of
prestressing forces. 1.7—Maintenance and monitoring
 Anchorage details for prestressing 1.7.1 Maintenance recommendations shall
reinforcement. be documented by the licensed design
professional as part of the repair design.
 Development length of
1.7.1C A maintenance protocol that
reinforcement and length of lap
addresses project-specific conditions should
be established as part of the repair design
 Type and location of mechanical or
that includes inspections and period of time
welded splices of reinforcement.
between inspections, after completion of the
 Shoring or bracing necessary before, repair installation. Maintenance and
during, and at completion of the frequent preventative approaches that occur
evaluation, repair, rehabilitation, or early in the service life of the structure
strengthening projects.
generally result in improved service life with
 Quality assurance program less interruption and a lower life cycle cost
including special inspections. (Tuutti 1980). A licensed design professional
1.6.2 Calculations pertinent to design shall should provide recommendations to the
be filed with the contract documents when owner on inspection and maintenance to be
required by the building official. Analyses undertaken during the remaining design
and designs using computer programs shall service life of the repaired part of the
be permitted provided design assumptions, structure.
user input, and computer-generated output

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PROVISIONAL STANDARD Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings 9

A maintenance protocol, including fceq = equivalent specified concrete strength

periodic inspections after completion of the used for evaluation, psi
repair that addresses project-specific fy = specified yield strength of reinforcing
conditions provides the most effective steel, psi
method to ensure the durability of the repair f y = average yield strength value for
design. A maintenance protocol should be reinforcing steel, psi
provided in the as-built or close-out contract fyeq = equivalent yield strength of reinforcing
documents. Maintenance occurring early in steel used for evaluation, psi
the service life of the structure with more H = load due to weight and pressure of soil,
frequent preventative approaches generally water in soil, or other materials acting on the
results in improved service life with less structure, lb
interruption and a lower life cycle cost (ACI L = live load acting on the structure, lb
365.1R). Maintenance of the repair can be Lr = roof live load acting on the structure, lb
incorporated in instruction manuals from n = number of sample tests
the designer, the contractor, or the R = rain load acting on the structure, lb
manufacturer of the products. (Rn)ex = resistance of the structural
1.7.2 Repairs, inspections, quality component without strengthening
assurance reports, and tests required by the S = snow load acting on the structure, lb
licensed design professional shall be T = load due to thermal effects acting on the
documented. structure, lb
1.7.2C The licensed design professional U = required strength to resist factored loads
should provide the owner with copies of or related internal moments and forces, lb
reports and other project documents V = coefficient of variation determined from
produced by the licensed design testing
professional in addition to documenting the W = wind load acting on the structure, lb
location of the completed repairs. εt = net tensile strain in the extreme tension
reinforcement at nominal strength
CHAPTER 2—NOTATION AND εy = yield strain of reinforcing steel
DEFINITIONS  = strength reduction factor
2.1—Notation λ = modification factor related to unit
Ak = load or load effect resulting from weight of concrete
extraordinary event, lb 2.2—Definitions
c = depth of neutral axis, in. ACI provides a comprehensive list of
D = dead load acting on the structure, lb definitions through an online resource, “ACI
dt = distance from extreme compression Concrete Terminology,”
fiber to centroid of extreme tension Definitions
reinforcement, in. provided here complement that resource.
E = load effects due to earthquakes, lb 2.2C Additional repair-related definitions
F = load due to fluids acting on the are provided by “ICRI Concrete Repair
structure, lb Terminology,”
f c = average core strength modified to
account for the diameter and moisture ology.aspx.
condition of the core, psi
fc= specified concrete compressive bond— 1. adhesion of the applied materials
strength, psi to reinforcement or other surfaces against
which it is placed, including friction due to

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10 Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings PROVISIONAL STANDARD

shrinkage and longitudinal shear in the Commentary: dangerous—this definition is

concrete and repair materials engaged by the from the International Existing Building
bar deformations. Code.
2. adhesion or cohesion between layers of a demand-capacity ratio—ratio of required
repair area or between a repair material and strength to design strength.
a substrate produced by adhesive or design basis code—legally adopted code
cohesive properties of the repair material or requirements under which the evaluations,
other supplemental materials throughout the repairs and rehabilitations are designed and
service life of the repair. constructed.
compatible—the ability of two or more design criteria—codes, standards, loads,
materials to be placed in contact or in displacement limits, materials, connections,
sufficiently close proximity to interact with details, and protections used in the design of
no detrimental results. mandated and voluntary work.
composite construction—a type of durability—ability of a material or structure
construction using members produced by to resist weathering action, chemical attack,
combining different materials (for example, abrasion, and other conditions of service and
concrete and structural steel); members maintain serviceability over a specified time.
produced by combining cast-in-place and effective area of reinforcement—cross
precast concrete, or cast-in-place concrete section area of a reinforcement assumed to
elements constructed in separate placements resist axial or flexural stresses.
but so interconnected that the combined effective area of concrete—cross section
components act together as a single member area of a concrete member that resists axial,
and respond to loads as a unit. shear, or flexural stresses.
connector steel—steel elements, such as, equivalent cover—a system to supplement
reinforcing bars, shapes or plates embedded insufficient concrete cover to improve
in concrete or connected to embedded durability or fire protection to that
elements to facilitate concrete member equivalent to the minimum cover specified
connectivity. The purpose of connector in the design basis code.
steel is to transfer load, restrain movement evaluation process—process of
and provide stability. determining the in-place condition of a
dangerous—any concrete building, structure. The process may include field and
structure or portion thereof that meets any of laboratory testing to determine material
the conditions described below shall be properties and the extent of any deleterious
deemed dangerous: processes. Engineering calculations are also
1. The building or structure has typically required to determine the existing
collapsed, has partially collapsed, structure capacity and demand. The goal of
has moved off its foundation, or the evaluation process is an assessment of
lacks the necessary support of the the current or in-place condition of the
ground. structure.
2. There exists a significant risk of existing building—building for which a
collapse, detachment or legal certificate of occupancy has been
dislodgement of any portion, issued. For buildings that are not covered by
member, appurtenance or a certificate of occupancy, existing buildings
ornamentation of the concrete are those that are complete and permitted for
building or structure under service use.

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PROVISIONAL STANDARD Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings 11

glass transition temperature— midpoint in structure such that the repaired structure
transition over which a polymer resin satisfies all requirements of the general
changes from a glassy state to a viscoelastic existing building code. The design basis
state as measured pursuant to ASTM D4065. code for the prescriptive method is the
Tg – 27F is the glass transition temperature general building code.
minus 27˚F renovation—repair and remodeling of an
in-place condition—existing condition of a old building to restore it to its original
structure, member, connection, and serviceable condition.
component sizes and geometry, material repair process—1. complete process of
properties, and damage from aging or other evaluating an existing structure, the
event. designing, replacing or correcting
jurisdictional authority—person or entity deteriorated, damaged, or faulty materials,
that has legal control over the applicable components, or elements of a structure. The
building code and permitting procedures for repair process is complete when the use of
a structure. An example of a jurisdictional the repaired structure is transferred to the
authority is the local building official. Owner and/or the repair contract terms are
licensed design professional—engineer for completed.
the evaluation and design of repairs to a 2. procedure of evaluating an existing
structure and in responsible charge of the structure—the designing; replacing; or
engineering project. correcting deteriorated, damaged, or faulty
nonstructural concrete—any element materials, components, or elements of a
made of plain or reinforced concrete that is structure.
not part of a structural system required to repair reinforcement—reinforcement used
transfer gravity, lateral load, or both, along a to provide additional capacity or
load path to the ground. confinement to the repaired member.
objectives of the remedial Work—restore, retrofit—modification of an existing
maintain, or enhance the performance level member or structure to increase its
of the existing structure for its intended use resistance.
and life expectancy, which for the design service life—estimate of the remaining
requires specific design criteria and useful life of a structure based on the current
implementing remedial Work. rate of deterioration or distress, assuming
owner—corporation, association, continued exposure to given service
partnerships, individual, or public body or conditions without repairs.
authority with whom the Contractor enters design service life (of a building,
into an agreement and for whom the work is component, or material)—the period of
provided. The owner is the party in legal time after installation or repair during which
possession of the structure. the performance satisfies the specified
performance method—evaluation, repair, requirements when routinely maintained but
rehabilitation, and strengthening of a without being subjected to an overload or
structure performed under acceptance extreme event.
criteria approved by the building code economic service life—time in
official. The design basis code for the service until replacement of the structure (or
performance method is established by the part of it) is economically more
building code official. advantageous than keeping it in service.
prescriptive method—evaluation, repair, expected service life (of a building
rehabilitation, and strengthening of a component or material)—the period of

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12 Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings PROVISIONAL STANDARD

time after installation or repair during which upgrade—to improve the quality,
the performance satisfies the specified effectiveness, or performance of a structure
requirements when routinely maintained but or its structural or nonstructural components
without being subjected to an overload or (for example, seismic upgrade of a building
extreme event. by increasing the strength or deformation
functional service life—time in service capacity of columns).
until the structure no longer fulfills the work area method—method under which
functional requirements or becomes obsolete the evaluation, repair, rehabilitation, and
due to change in functional requirements. strengthening of a structure is performed
technical service life—time in service under the requirements of this code. This
until a defined unacceptable state is reached, method requires the establishment of the
such as spalling of concrete, safety level design basis code for the repair.
below acceptable limits, or failure of
serviceability—adequate structural STANDARDS
performance under service loads.
stability, local—the stability of an C Both current, past and withdrawn
individual member or part of an individual standards are referenced. Standards that
member in an existing structure. are referenced in the design basis code are
stability, global—stability of the overall applicable for the evaluation of existing
structure with respect to uplift, overturning, structures. These standards may have been
sway instability, or sliding failure. withdrawn by the developing organization;
strengthening—process of increasing the however they provide information on the
load-resistance capacity of a structure or a materials used at the time of original
portion thereof. construction. See 4.3.3 and Chapter 6.
structural concrete—plain or reinforced
concrete in a member that is part of a American Concrete Institute
structural system required to transfer gravity ACI 216.1-07 Code Requirements for
and/or lateral loads along a load path to the Determining Fire
ground. Resistance of Concrete
structural repair—To replace, correct, or and Masonry
strengthen deteriorated, damaged, or Construction
understrength load-resisting members and Assemblies
nonstructural members which, if failed, ACI 318-11 Building Code
would result in an unsafe condition. Requirements for
temporary bracing—temporary Structural Concrete
supplemental members added to an existing and Commentary
structure to prevent local or global ACI 437.2-12 Code Requirements for
instability during evaluation and repair Load Testing of
construction. Concrete Members of
unsafe—a structure or individual structural Existing Buildings
member that is dangerous or that constitutes (Provisional Standard)
a fire hazard. ACI 440.6-08 Specification for
Commentary: unsafe—this definition is Carbon and Glass
adapted from the International Existing Fiber-Reinforced
Building Code. Polymer Bar Materials

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PROVISIONAL STANDARD Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings 13

for Concrete Strand, Uncoated

Reinforcement Seven Wire for
Prestressed Concrete
American Welding Society ASTM A431 Specification for High-
D1.4:2005 Structural Welding Strength Deformed
Code – Reinforcing Billet-Steel Bars for
Steel Concrete
Reinforcement with
ASTM International 75,000 psi Minimum
ASTM A15 Specification for Yield Strength
Billet-Steel Bars for (withdrawn 1968)
Concrete ASTM A432 Specification for
Reinforcement Deformed Billet Steel
(withdrawn 1969) Bars for Concrete
ASTM A16 Specification for Rail- Reinforcement with
Steel Bars of Concrete 60,000 psi Minimum
Reinforcement Yield Point
(withdrawn 1969) (withdrawn 1968)
ASTM A61 Specification for ASTM A497/A497M-07 Standard
Deformed Rail Steel Specification for Steel
Bars for Concrete Welded Wire
Reinforcement with Reinforcement,
60,000 psi Minimum Deformed, for
Yield Strength Concrete
(withdrawn 1969) ASTM A615-09b/A615M-09b
ASTM A160 Specification for Axle- Standard
Steel Bars for Concrete Specification for
Reinforcement Deformed and Plain
(withdrawn 1969) Carbon-Steel Bars for
ASTM A185-07/A185M-07 Standard Concrete
Specification for Steel Reinforcement
Welded Wire ASTM A616/A616M-96a Standard
Reinforcement, Plain, Specification for Rail-
for Concrete Steel Deformed and
ASTM A370-11 Standard Test Methods Plain Bars for
and Definitions for Concrete
Mechanical Testing of Reinforcement
Steel Products (withdrawn 1999)
ASTM A408 Specification for ASTM A617/A617M-96a Standard
Special Large Size Specification for Axle-
Deformed Billet-Steel Steel Deformed and
Bars for Concrete Plain Bars for
Reinforcement Concrete
(withdrawn 1968) Reinforcement
ASTM A416/A416M-10 Standard (withdrawn 1999)
Specification for Steel

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14 Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings PROVISIONAL STANDARD

ASTM A706/A706M-09b Standard ASCE/SEI 7-10 Minimum Design

Specification for Low- Loads for Buildings and Other Structures
Alloy Steel Deformed ASCE/SEI 31-03 Seismic Evaluation of
and Plain Bars for Existing Buildings
Concrete ASCE/SEI 41-06 Seismic
Reinforcement Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings
ASTM A955/A955M-11 Standard
Specification for CHAPTER 4––BASIS FOR
Deformed and Plain COMPLICANCE
Stainless Steel Bars for 4.1—General
Concrete The licensed design professional shall
Reinforcement determine, at the start of a project, the
ASTM C42/C42M-11 Standard Test Method design basis code for the project’s
for Obtaining and compliance based on criteria set forth in the
Testing Drilled Cores general existing building code.
and Sawed Beams of 4.1C Structures constructed under
Concrete previously adopted codes or prior to the
ASTM C823/C823M-07 Standard adoption of a building code may not satisfy
Practice for all current building code requirements. The
Examination and International Building Code and
Sampling of Hardened International Existing Building Code
Concrete in contain specific requirements that determine
Constructions when existing structures should be upgraded
ASTM C1583/C1583M-04 Standard Test to satisfy the requirements of the general
Method for Tensile building code. Local ordinance may also
Strength of Concrete require that a structure be upgraded to
Surfaces and the Bond satisfy the current ACI 318. These
Strength or Tensile requirements should be reviewed at the start
Strength of Concrete of a project.
Repair and Overlay
Materials by Direct 4.2—Compliance method
Tension (Pull-off 4.2.1 The licensed design professional
Method) shall design a repair or rehabilitation in
ASTM D4065-06 Standard Practice for accordance with the prescriptive method, the
Plastics: Dynamic work area method, or the performance
Mechanical Properties: method. The compliance method selected
Determination and and the design basis code shall be used
Report of Procedures exclusive of the other methods.
ASTM E 329-11c Standard Specification 4.2.2 The design of a repair or
for Agencies Engaged rehabilitation in accordance with the
in Construction prescriptive method shall be performed in
Inspection, Testing, or accordance with the requirements of the
Special Inspection general building code.
4.2.3 The design of a repair or
American Society of Civil Engineers rehabilitation in accordance with the work

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PROVISIONAL STANDARD Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings 15

area method shall be performed in 4.3.4C Strength calculations should be

accordance with 4.4. based on in-place conditions and should
4.2.4 The design of a repair or include an assessment of the loss of strength
rehabilitation in accordance with the due to deterioration mechanisms. Guidelines
performance method shall be performed in for assessing in-place conditions include
accordance with the acceptance criteria ACI 201.2R, ACI 214.4R, ACI 228.1R, ACI
approved by the building code official. 228.2R, ACI 364.1R, ACI 437.1R, ASCE/SEI
11, ASCE/SEI 31, ASCE/SEI 41, ATC 20,
4.3—Initial analysis ATC 45; and The Concrete Society
4.3.1 The licensed design professional Technical Report 68 (2008). Material
shall review the necessary plans, properties can be assessed by testing as
construction data, reports, and other described in these references. When
available documents to perform the initial material test results are initially
analysis. unavailable, historical properties based on
4.3.2 For the purpose of performing an typical values used at the time of
initial analysis, the licensed design construction can be used in preliminary
professional is permitted to either assume a analyses.
design basis code or analyze the building in The assessment of existing structures
accordance with 4.3.3 and 4.3.4. should initially focus on critical gravity
4.3.3 Existing site conditions shall be load-resisting members such as
visually assessed by the Licensed Design columns/walls or members that are expected
Professional to verify existing structural to have limited ductility, followed by an
geometry and conditions. The Licensed assessment of the lateral load-resisting
Design Professional shall make a system.
determination if substantial structural Assessing fire damage and other
damage has occurred. deterioration mechanisms that result in a
4.3.3C Substantial structural damage change in material properties (such as
refers to damage in a structure which results compressive strength or modulus of
in a significant decrease in either the gravity elasticity) should include an evaluation of
or lateral load carrying capacity of a the effect of the damage on the material
structure. The International Existing properties and the impact of the damage on
Building Code provides a definition for the performance of the existing structure.
substantial structural damage. In most Examples of deterioration mechanisms that
building codes, when substantial structural result in possible changes in material
damage has occurred, the structure must be properties include corrosion of reinforcing
repaired sufficiently to satisfy structural steel, thermal damage, concrete reactions
design requirements for new construction. such as alkali-aggregate, and freezing and
4.3.4 The design strength of the existing thawing.
structure, with the impact of deficiencies
considered, shall be determined considering 4.4— Work area method
in-place geometric dimensions and material 4.4.1 To design a repair or rehabilitation in
properties. When material properties are not accordance with the work area method, the
immediately available, a preliminary design basis code shall be determined in
analysis shall be completed using reasonable accordance with the general existing
assumptions for material properties as building code.
described in Chapter 6.

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4.4.1C For a repair design, the design to use load factors and load combinations
basis code is defined based on a from this Chapter with strength reduction
determination if substantial structural factors from the original design building
damage has occurred. code.
For building alterations or a change of 5.1.3C Mixing of load factors and load
occupancy, the design basis code is defined combinations from one code with strength
based on area limits. reduction factors from a different code may
For new members or additions to an result in an inconsistent level of reliability
existing building, the design basis code is and safety.
the general building code. 5.1.4 Loads during all phases of the
construction and repair process shall be used
CHAPTER 5—LOADS, LOAD to design shoring during repairs or other
COMBINATIONS, AND STRENGTH- temporary construction. If the building is
REDUCTION FACTORS occupied during the construction period,
5.1—General loading shall be in accordance with
5.1.1 Applicable loads used in: (a) the ASCE/SEI 7. If the building is unoccupied
assessment of the existing structure; and (b) during the construction period, loads shall
the design of repairs or rehabilitation, shall be in accordance with ASCE/SEI 37.
be determined to verify code compliance. 5.1.5 When assessing an existing structure
5.1.2 When ACI 318-11 is the design basis or designing repairs or rehabilitation,
code for the evaluation or repair design, the consideration shall be given to forces
load factors, load combinations and strength including but not limited to prestressing,
reduction factors presented in this Chapter crane loads, vibration, impact, shrinkage,
shall be used. temperature changes, creep, and unequal
5.1.2C Load factors, load combinations, settlement of supports.
and strength-reduction factors are intended 5.1.5C These factors may not have been
to achieve acceptable levels of safety against specified in the original building code and
failure based on the accuracy of the strength therefore should be considered in the
prediction model and on maximum expected evaluation and design of repairs.
loads during the service life of the structure.
In some instances, a building may need to 5.2—Load factors and load combinations
be upgraded to satisfy current building code 5.2.1 Design of the repair shall account
requirements in accordance with the for existing loads on the structure; the
provisions of Chapters 4 and 6. Chapter 4 effects of load removal; and the sequencing
identifies conditions where current code of load application, including construction
requirements need not be satisfied. Chapter and shoring loads, during the repair process.
6 describes the structural analysis protocol 5.2.2 Structural members and
for the repair and establishes some connections, whether being designed for a
tolerances. Applicable loads are determined repair or being structurally evaluated, shall
in accordance with the building code and have design strengths at all sections at least
standards such as ASCE/SEI 7, ASCE/SEI equal to the required strengths calculated for
37, and ASCE/SEI 41. factored loads and forces in such
5.1.3 It is not permitted to use load factors combinations as stipulated in this code.
and load combinations from the original 5.2.2 C The basic requirement for
design building code with strength reduction strength design or evaluation is expressed
factors from this Chapter. It is not permitted as:

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design strength ≥ required strength Compression-controlled

 (Rn) ≥ U sections (tensile strain at
The design strength is the nominal strength failure less than or equal to
multiplied by the strength reduction factor . y)
The required strength U is expressed in (a) Members with spiral
terms of factored loads, which are the reinforcement 0.75
product of specified loads multiplied by load (b) Other reinforced
factors specified in 5.2.3. members 0.65
5.2.3 Required strength U shall be at least For sections in which the net tensile strain
equal to the effects of factored loads and in the extreme tension steel at nominal
load combinations as specified in ASCE / strength,  t , is between the limits for
SEI 7. compression-controlled and tension-
5.2.4 For post-tensioned anchorage zone controlled sections, linear interpolations of 
design, a load factor of 1.2 shall be applied shall be permitted.
to the maximum prestressing jacking force. Shear and torsion 0.75
5.2.4C The load factor of 1.2 applied to Bearing on concrete
the maximum tendon jacking force results in (except for post-tensioned
a design load that exceeds the typical anchorage zones and
prestressing yield strength. This compares strut-and-tie
well with the maximum attainable jacking models) 0.65
force, which is limited by the anchor Post-tensioned anchorage
efficiency factor. For jacking loads less than zones 0.85
the maximum tendon jacking force, or for Strut-and-tie models and
jacking loads on nonmetallic prestressing struts, ties, nodal zones,
tendons, design of the anchorage for 1.2
and bearing areas in such
times the anticipated jacking force is
models 0.75
appropriate given that the jacking load is
controlled better than typical dead loads. For a steel yield strength of 60
ksi, the steel tensile strains corresponding to
5.3—Strength reduction factors for repair the tension- and compression-controlled
design limits are 0.005 and 0.002, respectively.
5.3.1 Design strength provided by a Because the compressive strain in the
member; its connections to other members; concrete at nominal strength is typically
and its cross sections, in terms of flexure, assumed to be 0.003, the net tensile strain
axial load, shear, and torsion, shall be taken limits for compression-controlled members
as the nominal strength calculated in may also be stated in terms of the ratio c/dt,
accordance with requirements and where c is the depth of the neutral axis at
assumptions of this code, multiplied by the nominal strength, and dt is the distance from
the extreme compression fiber to the
strength reduction factors  in 5.3.2 and
centroid of extreme tension reinforcement.
The c/dt limits for compression- and tension-
5.3.2 The strength reduction factor  shall
controlled sections are 0.6 and 0.375,
be as given in the following:
respectively. The 0.6 limit for compression-
Tension-controlled sections
controlled sections applies to sections
(steel tensile strain at failure
reinforced with Grade 60 steel and to
greater than 2.5y where y is prestressed sections.
the yield strain) 0.90

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18 Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings PROVISIONAL STANDARD

5.3.3 Development lengths do not require

a -factor. 5.5—Load combinations for structures
5.3.4 For flexure, compression, shear, and repaired with external reinforcing
bearing of structural plain concrete,  shall systems
be 0.60. 5.5.1 For repairs achieved with
unprotected external reinforcing systems,
5.4—Strength reduction factors for the required strength U of a structure
evaluation without repair shall be at least equal to the
5.4.1 If the required structural element effects of factored loads in Eq. (5.5.1).
dimensions, location of reinforcement, and Uex 1.2D + 0. 5L + Ak + 0.2S
material properties are determined according (5.5.1)
to Chapter 6, it shall be permitted to increase where Uex is the factored resistance of the
 from those specified in 5.3, but  shall structure without repair; D, L, and S are the
not be more than: specified dead, live, and snow loads,
Tension-controlled respectively, calculated for the rehabilitated
section 1.0 structure; and Ak is the load or load effect
Compression-controlled resulting from the extraordinary event. For
sections: cases where the design live load acting on
Members with spiral the member to be strengthened has a high
reinforcement 0.9 likelihood of being present for a sustained
Other reinforced period of time, a live load factor of 1.0 shall
members 0.8 be used in place of 0.5 in Eq. (5.5.1).
Shear and/or torsion 0.8 5.5.1C For repairs achieved with external
Bearing on concrete 0.8 reinforcing systems, such as externally
5.4.1C Strength reduction factors given in bonded fiber-reinforced polymer, externally
5.4.1 are larger than those specified in bonded steel plates, or external post-
5.3.1. These increased values are justified tensioning systems, the unrepaired structure
by the improved reliability due to the use of should maintain a minimum strength should
accurate field-obtained material properties, failure of the repair system occur due to
actual in-place dimensions, and well- extraordinary events. Fire, impact, and
understood methods of analysis. They have blast are considered examples of
been deemed appropriate for use in ACI extraordinary events. Wind and earthquake
318-11, Chapter 20, and have had a lengthy forces are not considered extraordinary
history of satisfactory performance. events, as they are unlikely to cause damage
5.4.2 If an evaluation of members with no to the unprotected external reinforcing
observed deterioration is based on historical systems. The minimum limit of Eq. (5.5.1)
material properties as given in Tables 6.3.1a will allow the structure to maintain
through 6.3.1c, the  factors not greater sufficient structural strength until the
than those given in 5.3 shall apply. damaged repair system has been repaired.
5.4.3 Material properties of deteriorated Examples of cases where the live load is
members shall be determined by physical present for a sustained period of time
testing in accordance with 6.3.5. It shall be include library stack areas, heavy storage
permitted to increase  for evaluation of areas, warehouses, and other occupancies
these members from the values specified in with a live load exceeding 150 lb/ft2.
5.3, but  shall not be more than specified in

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CHAPTER 6 —EVALUATION AND structural members to provide for life safety

ANALYSIS and structural integrity.
6.1—Requirements for structural (c) As-built information required to
evaluation determine appropriate strength reduction
6.1.1 A structural evaluation shall be factors in accordance with Chapter 5.
comprised of a structural assessment and (d) Structural members’ orientation,
analysis. displacements, construction deviations, and
6.1.1.C Guidance on assessments may be physical dimensions.
obtained in ASCE/SEI 31 and ACI 364.1R. (e) Properties of materials and
6.1.2 A structural evaluation shall be components from available drawings,
performed if an existing member, portion, or specifications, and other documents for
the entire structure exhibits signs of existing construction; or by testing of
deterioration or behavior that is inconsistent existing materials.
with available design and contract (f) Additional considerations, such as
documents or code requirements in effect at proximity to adjacent buildings, load-
the time of construction.   bearing partition walls, and other limitations
6.1.3  A structural evaluation shall be for rehabilitation.
performed when insufficient information is (g) Necessary information to assess
available to determine if a member, portion, earthquake resistance, seismicity, lateral-
or all of the existing structure is capable of force-resisting systems, span lengths,
supporting existing or new design loads. support conditions, building use and type,
6.1.3C The data gathered for determining and architectural features.
strength should include the effects of 6.1.4C The construction documents may
material degradation, such as loss of not represent as-built conditions. Therefore,
concrete strength from chemical attack; the licensed design professional is
freezing and thawing; and loss of steel area encouraged to research and verify the
due to corrosion or other causes. The effect material properties obtained from record
of deterioration on the ductility of the documents are accurate. Material testing
section should be considered in the may be required to verify these values.
evaluation. The strength or serviceability of Additional information regarding the extent
a structure may be compromised by of the evaluation is provided in 6.3.5C.
spalling, excessive cracking, large 6.1.5 Where repairs are required on an
deflections, or other forms of degradation. element in a structure, it shall be determined
If the strength of a structure is known, if similar elements throughout the structure
improvements to the strength, serviceability, also require repair.
durability, and fire performance of a 6.1.5C If there is no evidence of distress or
structure may be completed without deterioration of similar elements to those
performing a structural evaluation. that required repair elsewhere in a
6.1.4 A structural evaluation shall structure, there is no need to implement
document existing conditions, including (a) repairs at those locations unless conditions
through (g): are such that life safety is an issue. Life
(a) The physical condition of the safety may be a concern if there are
structural members shall be examined and significant variances from the original
the extent and location of the degradation. design intent such as lower-strength
(b) The adequacy of continual load paths concrete or misplaced reinforcement. In
through the primary and secondary addition, if the similar elements are in an

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20 Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings PROVISIONAL STANDARD

environment that could foster deterioration, 6.3.1C Material properties required for
then repairs or strengthening may be seismic evaluation and rehabilitation are
required, as opposed to a similar element in discussed in ASCE/SEI 31 and ASCE/SEI
a less severe environment. 41. Where the as-built conditions and
properties of historical buildings require
6.2—Structural assessment evaluation and rehabilitation, care should
6.2.1 At a minimum, the structural be taken to minimize the impact of design
assessment shall include affected structural and investigation procedures (U.S.
members. Department of the Interior 1995). Material
6.2.1C Assessment may include visual, properties include all physical and chemical
destructive, and nondestructive testing properties of the concrete and reinforcement
where evidence of deterioration is apparent. specified and includes all references to
At a minimum, areas of known deterioration ASTM standards and other methods of
and distress in the structural elements determining physical and chemical
should be identified, inspected, and properties.
recorded as to the type, location, and degree 6.3.2 As a minimum, concrete
of severity. Procedures are referenced in compressive strength and steel
ACI 201.1R, ACI 228.1R, ACI 364.1R, and reinforcement yield strength shall be
ACI 437R. Engineering judgment may be determined for the existing structure where a
required when performing a structural structural evaluation is required. When tests
assessment. The affected structural elements are used to determine material properties,
are not only members with obvious signs of test methods shall comply with the
distress but also contiguous elements in the requirements set forth in 6.3.5.
structural system. 6.3.2C Additional factors and
6.2.2 If an analysis is required, the characteristics affecting materials that may
structural assessment shall document the be required to be evaluated include:
requirements of 6.1.4 and (a) through (c). (a) Ductility of the element based on the
(a) As-measured structural member stress-strain curves of the material.
section properties and dimensions (b) Presence of corrosion of embedded
(b) The presence and effect of any reinforcing steel, including carbonation,
alterations to the structural system chloride intrusion, and corrosion-induced
(c) Loads, occupancy, or usage different spalling.
from the original design (c) Presence of other degradation, such
as alkali-silica reaction, sulfate attack, or
6.3—Material properties delayed ettringite formation.
6.3.1 Material properties shall be obtained (d) Degradation due to cyclic freezing
from available drawings, specifications, and and thawing.
other documents for existing construction. If (e) Internal cracking (especially
such documents do not provide sufficient adjacent to and under previous repairs).
information to characterize the material Other tests for material properties,
properties, this information shall be obtained including petrographic examination, are
from the historical data provided in Tables often employed. These tests can be highly
6.3.1a through 6.3.1c, or determination of variable and dependent on the structure,
material properties in accordance with the member type(s), and distress mechanism.
requirements of 6.3.5, or both. Chloride penetration can cause
reinforcing steel corrosion that can lead to

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cracking and spalling. The depth of a spall concrete strength from sulfate attack and
will affect the effective area of concrete loss of steel area due to corrosion. The
section. Concrete degradation will affect its impact of deterioration on the expected
compressive strength. strength and ductility of the section also
6.3.3 Nominal material properties shall be needs to be considered in the evaluation.
determined by (a), (b) or (c): The minimum number of tests is
(a) Historical material properties influenced by the data available from the
provided in Tables 6.3.1a through 6.3.1c. original construction, the type of structural
(b) Available drawings, specifications, system employed, the desired accuracy, and
and previous testing documentation. the quality and condition of the in-place
(c) Physical testing in accordance with materials. The focus of the prescribed
6.4. material testing should be on the principal
6.3.3C The construction documents may structural members and specific properties
not represent as-built conditions. Therefore, needed for analysis. The licensed design
the licensed design professional is professional should determine the
encouraged to research and verify that the appropriate number and type of testing
material properties obtained from record needed to evaluate the existing conditions.
documents are accurate. Material testing Care should be taken in selecting the
may be required to verify these values. location for sampling concrete. Core
6.3.4 The material properties provided in the drilling should minimize damage of the
original construction test reports or material existing reinforcement and should generally
test reports shall be permitted to be used occur at locations where the coring will
unless deterioration has occurred. least affect the member strength.
6.3.4.C When the results of material testing 6.3.6 If historic data are not given in
from original construction are available, either Table 6.3.1b or 6.3.1c, the historic
these results may be used in analysis default value for yield strength shall be
models. Additional testing is required to taken as 27,000 psi.
confirm these material test results when
deterioration is observed. 6.4—Test methods to determine or
6.3.5 When properties are to be confirm material properties
determined by in-place testing, the locations 6.4.1 General—Destructive and
and numbers of material samples shall be nondestructive test methods used to obtain
defined by the licensed design professional. in-place mechanical properties of materials
The number of samples shall not be less than and member properties shall comply with
required by the test standard. the requirements of this section. It shall be
6.3.5C The licensed design professional permitted to determine the compressive
should research and acquire available strength of sound concrete by taking and
records from original construction. testing cores. It shall be permitted to
Assessment, historical research, and determine steel reinforcement properties by
documentation of the geometry, material removal of reinforcement samples and
properties, steel grades, and detailing used destructive testing.
in the construction are invaluable and may 6.4.2 Core sampling of concrete for
be used to reduce the amount of required in- testing— It shall be permitted to determine
place testing. The data gathered to the compressive strength of sound concrete
determine strength should include the effects by taking cores from the members being
of material degradation, such as loss of evaluated. Steel reinforcement shall be

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22 Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings PROVISIONAL STANDARD

located by nondestructive testing before development of statistical correlations

locating the cores to be extracted. between NDT and core test results.
6.4.2C Sample testing and the equivalent 6.4.4 Reinforcing steel—The size,
to specified concrete strength (f’ceq) values number, and location of steel reinforcing
may be determined in accordance with ACI bars or elements shall be established. If the
214.4R. original construction documents are not
6.4.3 Concrete—The cores shall be available and if the properties of the
selected and removed in accordance with reinforcing steel are unknown, historical
ASTM C42 and ASTM C823. The values provided in shall be permitted
equivalent specified concrete strength, fceq, in place of testing. If the grade of material is
shall be calculated using Eq. (6.4.3). unknown, the lowest grade provided in
 (kcV ) 2  Table 6.3.1b for a given historic period shall
f ceq  0.9 f c 1  1.28  0.0015  be used. When historical default strength
 n  properties are not used, testing is required.
(6.4.3) 6.4.4C The ASTM designation or age of
where f c is the average core strength, as the structure may be known but the grade of
reinforcement is not known. In this case the
modified to account for the diameter and
lowest grade of reinforcement
moisture condition of the core; V is the
corresponding to the age or ASTM
coefficient of variation of the core strengths;
designation should be used. When no
n is the number of cores taken; and kc is the
information is available, the Licensed
coefficient of variation modification factor,
Design Professional may use the lower
as obtained from Table 6.4.3.
bound value of 27,000 psi in lieu of testing.
6.4.3C The equivalent specified strength 6.4.5 Reinforcement sampling and
determined using this procedure can be used testing—Removal of reinforcement samples
in strength equations with the strength and the laboratory destructive testing shall
reduction factors from Chapter 5. The be permitted as a method of determining
strength value obtained using this procedure existing steel reinforcement properties. The
is an estimate of the 13 percent fractile of yield and tensile strength for reinforcing
the in-place concrete strength. This steels shall be obtained in accordance with
approach is specified in the Canadian ASTM A370.
Highway Bridge Design Code (CAN/CSA 6.4.5C Generally, the reinforcing steel
S6-06 2006) and is based on the approach used in a structure is of a common grade
proposed by Bartlett and MacGregor and strength. Occasionally, more than one
(1995). Guides for obtaining and evaluating grade of steel is used in a structure.
cores are provided in ACI 214.4R. Historical research from The Concrete Quantifications of concrete
Reinforcing Steel Institute (2001) may
compressive strength by nondestructive
contain supplemental information on
testing (NDT) alone shall not be permitted
mechanical properties of the reinforcement
as a substitute for core sampling and testing.
used in different construction eras.
NDT shall be permitted when a valid
Reinforcing steel includes square,
correlation is established with core sample
rectangular, and round bars with and
strength test results and nondestructive test
without deformations, prestressing wire,
bars, multi-wire strands, and structural ACI 228.1R provides shapes. Historically, wire rope and chain
information on NDT methods for assessment have also been used as reinforcement.
of concrete compressive strength and

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PROVISIONAL STANDARD Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings 23

6.4.6. A minimum of three sample 6.4.8 Coupon specimens for the

coupons, taken from different segments of determination of yield and tensile strengths
reinforcement, shall be obtained from the of structural steel shall be tested in
members being evaluated. The equivalent accordance with ASTM A370. A minimum
specified yield strength, fyeq , used for of three specimens shall be taken from
analysis shall be calculated by representative elements.
 1.3ksV  The equivalent specified yield strength, fy,
f yeq   f y  3,500  (6.4.6) of each specimen shall be its reported yield
where f̅ f y is the average yield strength strength. The fyeq used for analysis shall be
calculated by
value from the tests, in psi; V is the average
 1.3ksV 
coefficient of variation determined from f yeq   f y  4,000  (6.4.8)
testing; n is the number of strength tests; and
ks is the steel coefficient of variation where f y isf̅ the average yield strength
modification factor, as obtained from Table value from tests, in psi; V is the average
6.4.6. coefficient of variation determined from
6.4.6C The equivalent specified yield testing; n is the number of strength tests; and
strength determined using this procedure ks is the steel coefficient of variation
can be used in strength equations with the modification factor, as obtained from Table
strength reduction factors from Chapter 5. 6.4.6.
The yield strength value obtained using this 6.4.9 The sampling of prestressing steel
procedure is an estimate of the 10 percent reinforcement for strength testing shall be
fractile of the static steel strength. It is required if strength and historical data are
assumed that the difference between the not available. Testing of the prestressing
yield strength measured during a coupon reinforcement shall be in accordance with
test and the static yield strength is 3500 psi. ASTM A416.
This approach is specified in the Canadian 6.4.10 If welding of reinforcement is
Highway Bridge Design Code (CAN/CSA required, carbon equivalency shall be
S6-06 2006). determined in conformance with AWS D1.4.
The factors in Table 6.4.6 reflect the
uncertainty of the sample standard deviation 6.5—Structural analysis of existing
when it is calculated for a small sample size. structures
They are the 95 percent one-sided tolerance 6.5.1 The structural system shall be
limits on the 10 percent fractile, and they analyzed for the maximum effects on the
have been reduced by a constant factor to be affected members. Loads and load
equal to 1.0 for n = 30 specimens. combinations shall be determined in
6.4.7 If the properties of the steel used for accordance with the provisions of Chapter 5.
connections are unknown, both yield and 6.5.1C Structural evaluation analyses are
tensile strengths shall be determined by one conducted to verify strength and
of the following: serviceability. The analytical methods of 6.7
(a) Testing of coupons taken from the are used with factored loads to determine
connector steel. strength requirements for a combination of
(b) Documentation giving connector steel moments, shears, and axial loads of
properties in the original construction pertinent structural members. A service load
documents. level analysis may be completed to evaluate
(c) Use of historic default values given in serviceability, including deflections and expected crack size and distribution.

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24 Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings PROVISIONAL STANDARD

6.5.2 Analysis of the structure shall use in ACI 437, or by linear analysis which
accepted engineering principles that satisfy bounds the limits of redistributed forces.
force equilibrium and the principles of 6.5.5 Analysis shall consider the load path
compatibility of deformations and strains. from the load application through the
6.5.3 Analysis shall consider material structure to the foundation. Three-
properties, member geometry and dimensional distribution of loads and forces
deformation, lateral drift, duration of loads, in the complete structural system shall be
shrinkage and creep, and interaction with the considered unless a two-dimensional
supporting foundation. analysis adequately represents the part of the
6.5.3C The licensed design professional is structure being evaluated.
responsible for determining the appropriate 6.5.5C The evaluation of load effects
method of analysis. Appropriate methods requires consideration of both the load
include linear elastic analysis, nonlinear paths through the structure and how the
analysis, and other traditionally accepted forces are distributed in members.
engineering analysis methods. If a linear 6.5.6 Analysis shall consider the effects of
elastic analysis method is used, the effects of previous repairs and of any previous
cracking and other nonlinear effects should structural modifications on the behavior of
be included in the analysis using the structure.
engineering approximations. 6.5.6C Modifications to structures in the
The analysis may include the effects of the form of repairs, alterations, or additions
size and member geometry to determine the may affect the force distribution and load
forces on individual members of a structure. path in a structure. The effect of these
The analysis should consider external effects modifications should be accounted for in
including prestressing, material volume analytical models.
changes, temperature variations, and 6.5.7 The analysis shall be based on
differential foundation movement. available documentation, as-built
6.5.4 Members shall be analyzed dimensions, and the in-place properties of
considering the effect of any material the structure. The assessment of in-place
degradation, bond loss, and the material properties shall be as described in
redistribution of forces in members and in 6.3. If section loss has occurred, the loss
the structural system as a whole. shall be quantified by direct measurement,
6.5.4C Member deterioration and damage and section properties shall be adjusted
may result in distribution of internal forces according to the principles of structural
different than the distribution of forces for mechanics.
which the structure was originally designed. 6.5.7C Available documentation may
The strength and integrity of prestressed include original drawings, specifications,
structures with damaged prestressing shop drawings, structural assessments,
reinforcement requires careful testing, and geotechnical reports. Deviations
consideration to assess the impact of the between the existing construction and
damage. Redistribution of moments may construction documents are to be identified
exceed the moment distribution permitted in and recorded.
ACI 318-11. The actual state of the structure
should be accurately modeled to determine 6.6—Structural serviceability
the distribution of forces. Redistribution of 6.6.1 The licensed design professional
forces may be determined using material shall perform a serviceability evaluation for
nonlinear analysis, by load tests described parts or all of a structure to ensure the

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structure meets the serviceability existing materials; (b) separate action with
requirements. The serviceability evaluation full slip between repair and existing
shall be based on the in-place geometry and materials; or (c) partial composite action
properties of the structure. with friction at interfaces between repair and
6.6.1C Structural serviceability problems existing materials.
may include, but are not limited to, 6.7.3C Depending on the repair
deflections, vibrations, leakage, and construction process and the selection of
objectionable cracking. The data gathered repair materials, the repair materials and
for the purpose of determining serviceability the existing concrete or reinforcement may
should include the effects of material not act compositely. The analysis should
degradation, such as loss of concrete appropriately model the behavior of the
strength from sulfate attack or loss of steel correct degree of the expected composite
area due to corrosion. action of the repaired structure. An example
The specific performance criteria and the of partial composite behavior are beams
intended function of an individual structure that contain shear studs to develop ultimate
should be defined. Floor deflection criteria strength, yet lack bond between the overlay
can be found in ASCE/SEI 7. Vibration and substrate. In this situation, the overlay
criteria are given in Murray et al. (1999). and substrate do not maintain strain
6.7—Structural analysis for repair design 6.7.4 Seismic analysis of repaired structure
6.7.1 The structural analysis used for The interaction of structural
repair design shall use a method that models members and nonstructural components that
the structural repair process. The analysis affect the response of the structure to
shall consider the effects of the sequence of earthquake motions shall be considered in
load application and material removal the analysis.
during all phases of the evaluation and Existing, repaired, and added
repair process. supplementary members assumed not to be a
6.7.1C The construction process may part of the seismic force-resisting system
involve the application and removal and shall be permitted provided their effect on
replacement of loads. The analysis needs to the response of the system is considered and
consider the effects of the application and accommodated in the repair design.
removal of construction loads to determine Consequences of failure of structural
the maximum loading during all members that are not a part of the seismic
construction phases. The additional applied force-resisting system and nonstructural
loads may be due to prestressing, vibration, components shall be considered.
material volume changes such as creep and The method of analysis shall
shrinkage, temperature changes, effect of consider the structural configuration and
shoring, and unequal deformation of material properties after repair.
supports. 6.7.4C Procedures for seismic
6.7.2 Structural modeling shall account for rehabilitation of concrete buildings,
repairs where the materials change through including analysis, are provided in
the section. ASCE/SEI 41 and supplemented in ACI
6.7.3 Section analysis shall use principles 369R. These references provide details for
of mechanics and shall assume (a), (b), or forces, rehabilitation methods, analysis and
(c): (a) full composite action with no slip at modeling procedures, and seismic
interfaces between repair materials and rehabilitation design.

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26 Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings PROVISIONAL STANDARD

6.8—Strength evaluation by load testing STRUCTURAL REPAIRS
6.8.1 Load testing in accordance with ACI 7.1—General
437.2 shall be permitted to supplement the Repaired structures, structural
analysis and to demonstrate the strength of members, and connections shall be designed
the original or repaired structure to have design strengths at all sections at
6.8.1C The licensed design professional least equal to the required strengths
may lack information required to determine calculated for factored loads and forces in
the load carrying capacity of deteriorated or such combinations as stipulated in this code.
repaired structural members. Field
assessments, including destructive and in- 7.2—Strength and serviceability
place testing, can provide some of the 7.2.1 Repaired members shall be designed
information required, but the costs for these to have adequate stiffness to limit
assessments can be significant; however, the deflections, vibrations, cracking, or any
results of strength evaluation may still be deformations that adversely affect strength
inconclusive due to unknown effects of or serviceability of a structure.
existing conditions or interaction with the 7.2.1C Adequate stiffness needs to be
repair. In these cases, load testing can verify determined on a project-specific basis and is
the strength of a member and of a structural a function of the structure type, the desired
system and to achieve a reliable estimate of performance of the structure, and loading
the short-term strength. In such cases, load conditions and use.
testing may provide the most effective means 7.2.2 Repair design and construction
of verifying the load-carrying capacity of an procedures shall consider the loading,
existing structure or element. Load testing internal forces, and deformations in both the
can also be a valuable tool for evaluating existing and repaired structure during the
the effectiveness of structural repairs. For repair process.
example, load testing, as defined in ACI 7.2.2C During the repair process, it may
437.2, can be performed to determine that not be possible or practical to relieve
the service load deflection and cracking are existing stresses or deformations.
acceptable. Consideration should be given to the in-
6.8.2 Model testing shall be permitted to place internal forces and deformation
supplement analysis. present in the existing structure during the
6.8.2C This code permits model testing to repair and the subsequent internal forces
be used to supplement structural analysis from the design loads that the repaired
and design calculations. Documentation of section will carry. Internal forces and
the model tests and subsequent deformations caused by existing loads may
interpretation should be provided with the be locked-in by the repair.
related calculations. Model testing should Analysis to evaluate the effects of
be performed by an individual having structural modifications, such as installation
experience in this technique. Guidelines for of slab openings, should verify that strength
model testing and analysis are given by is adequate and that all serviceability
Sabnis et al. (1983). conditions are met. As an example, creating
a large opening in structural slabs may
necessitate cutting reinforcement which can
significantly influence the global behavior of
the structure. Supplementary strengthening

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may be required to address force structure. Transfer of forces between new

redistribution that can exceed the existing and existing members should not
strength. Slab punching shear strength compromise the performance of the existing
should be evaluated for openings at the structural system.
intersection of column strips to verify that 7.3.2 Repairs to existing members shall
the slab is still adequate. This is especially account for force transfer at the interface
critical near corner and edge columns between the existing member and the repair
where the slab shear is typically highest. material or repair system. It is permissible
to use ACI 318-11 provisions in the design
7.3—Behavior of repaired systems of force transfer between new and existing
7.3.1 Repairs incorporating new members concrete.
shall be designed to integrate the new 7.3.2C In repairing existing members,
members with the existing structure, induced forces on the repaired member are
creating a structural system capable of shared between the existing member and the
sharing and transferring loads. repair material or system. The repair should
7.3.1C Repair of an existing structure may be designed to allow for transfer of forces
be achieved by improving the global between the components.
behavior of the structure by adding new The requirements for composite
structural members that act integrally with behavior between the repair and the existing
the existing structural system. Repair can member may vary depending on the type of
also be achieved by improving the behavior repair (structural or nonstructural) and the
of the existing members that incorporate performance criteria at service and ultimate
repair materials or systems. states. While certain designs require
Load sharing and load transfer should composite behavior up to ultimate state,
exist between the existing structure and the others may be limited to service conditions.
new members so that the load path and force Composite behavior can be achieved by
distribution assumed by the designer can chemical bonding, mechanical means, or a
occur. The effects of adding new members combination thereof. The design should
on the global stiffness and force distribution specify the repair materials and techniques
should be considered. that will develop the level of composite The design of the repair system behavior to achieve the intended
shall consider the structural interaction performance of the repaired member.
between the existing structure and new Specific reference is made to ACI 318-11 –
members. The effect of the new members on Sections 11.6 and 17.5 for design
the existing structure shall be evaluated requirements for force transfer between new
according to the design basis code. and existing concrete. The design of the repair system Design provisions for fiber reinforced
should consider connections of new polymer (FRP) are provided in ACI 440R.
members to the existing structure. Design provisions for composite structural
Connections of new members should be steel sections are provided in the Steel
designed to transfer design forces between Construction Manual (2011). Techniques
new members and the existing structure. other than shear-friction are acceptable.
New members may need to be separated Repair design may not require all
from adjacent existing members to prevent components of the repair to remain
or minimize interaction that may result in composite with the existing member at
damage to adjacent portions of the factored load. For example, externally

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28 Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings PROVISIONAL STANDARD

bonded steel plates and FRP composites that design bond force at the repair material to
are used in bond critical applications to existing concrete interface.
increase or restore the strength of the The measured bond strength shall
member should be designed and detailed to not be less than the lower of the required
remain bonded at the factored load. bond strength or the tensile strength of the
Strength calculations should be based on the existing concrete. If the tensile strength of
achievable level of composite behavior. undamaged existing concrete is unknown, it
Spalling of cover concrete or other shall be permitted to take the tensile strength
repair materials may be tolerated at as 4λ√fc.
conditions such as a seismic event. In these Testing to measure bond strength
situations, the member may achieve ultimate of repair materials to existing concrete and
strength without the repair material in the tensile strength of the existing concrete
place. Section applies in these shall be in accordance with ASTM C1583.
events. Bond strength testing may not Structural repairs shall maintain be required in all repairs. ACI 503R and
composite behavior under service loads. ICRI 210.3 provide guidance for performing
Repairs shall be designed for the material the test and the test frequency.
and existing substrate to perform as a It shall be permitted to provide
composite section at service loads. supplementary reinforcement to achieve Repairs may be needed to required bond strength.
improve durability or aesthetics. Therefore, For bonded repairs, the tensile
they may not require composite behavior and shear strength of the repair system
under service or ultimate load. In some interface should be greater than that of the
cases, such as overhead repair or facade substrate. Lower bond strength may be
repair, nonstructural repairs may be acceptable for situations with high substrate
required to maintain composite behavior strength and the bond strength meets design
under both service and ultimate design requirements. When failure occurs within
loads. If composite behavior cannot be the substrate, failure should occur within the
achieved, the repaired system should have substrate at a depth sufficient to preclude
sufficient redundancy or connections to bruising or microfractures causing low bond
prevent falling hazards. strength.
The licensed design professional will A properly prepared substrate is achieved
typically design and detail repairs to be fully by removing the layer of existing
composite under ultimate strength deteriorated or contaminated concrete. The
conditions, and that design will typically exposed sound concrete is then roughened
satisfy service load strength requirements. and cleaned to allow for adequate bond of a
The provisions of ACI 318-11 (Sections 11.6 repair material or protective coating to the
and 17.5) can be used to design fully substrate.
composite repairs. Alternately, principles of Adequate bond means continued adhesion
engineering mechanics can be used to assess of the applied materials to reinforcement or
force demand at service load conditions. other surfaces against which it is placed.
Bond should be sufficient to resist stress due
7.4—Bond to tension, shear, and compressive forces
7.4.1 The required bond strength shall be due to differential shrinkage and creep
at least 1.5 times greater than the calculated between repair materials and the existing
concrete. Bond between the repair material

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and reinforcement should develop the design repairs and in specifying repair materials
tensile and compressive strength of the and repair procedures. These include but are
reinforcement. The adhesion or cohesion not limited to: physical properties of the
provided by the bond should not deteriorate repair materials, type of application,
unacceptably over the anticipated service adhesion, shrinkage, thermal movement,
life of the repair. durability, corrosion resistance, installation
Heavy corrosion products on the methods, curing requirements, and
reinforcement, on the concrete surface, or environmental condition.
both, inhibit development of bond between 7.5.1C Physical properties include
existing concrete and new repair materials. mechanical, chemical and electrical
Heavy corrosion products can be considered properties. Documentation should be
Rust Grade 5 or less in accordance with provided for properties of each repair
ASTM D610. Corrosion or other bond- material. The stated properties should be
inhibiting products should be removed to verified that they satisfy the project
achieve proper bond. requirements. ACI and ICRI provide
7.4.2 The licensed design professional guidelines for the selection of repair
shall verify the concrete substrate has materials (ACI 301, ACI 318-11, ACI 503R,
adequate strength to sustain and transfer ACI 503.5R, ACI 503.6R, ACI 546.3R, ICRI
design forces of externally attached No. 320.2R, ICRI No. 320.3, ICRI No. 330.1,
reinforcement. and ICRI No. 340.1).
7.4.2C If external reinforcement is The design of a repair should consider the
added to a structure, the minimum strength compatibility of the repair materials and the
of the existing concrete necessary for the materials of the existing structure.
transfer of load from the external Compatibility of repair materials and
reinforcement to the structure needs to be systems include dimensional compatibility,
established. For example, ACI 440.2R bond compatibility and durability,
requires a minimum concrete compressive mechanical compatibility, and
strength of 2500 psi to bond FRP. electrochemical and permeability
7.4.3 Adhesives used to bond existing compatibility. Generally, the intent is to use
concrete, repair materials, and repair a repair material that has physical and
reinforcement shall transfer required forces mechanical properties that are as close as
between elements. possible to those of the parent material to
7.4.3C Guide for the verification of bond which the repair material is to be adhered.
can be found in ACI 440R, ACI 503R, ICRI Individual repair materials may have
210.3, and ASTM C1583. different properties, yet will perform
7.4.4 The selection of adhesives used in satisfactorily when combined in a repair
repair shall consider load type and duration system. An example of this is where
and the effect of exposure conditions on materials with differing thermal coefficients
adhesive properties. of expansion may be used, provided that the
7.4.4C ACI 503.5R, ACI 503R, and ACI overall performance of the system is not
SP-165 provide guidance for the selection of affected by thermal changes.
adhesives. Volume stability of repair materials should
be accounted for in the design of the repair.
7.5—Materials Volume stability, also known as dimensional
7.5.1 The LDP shall consider the properties compatibility, refers to initial and time-
of repair materials and systems in designing dependent changes in the volume of the

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repair material after placement. Volume Required properties of the repair

stability is often measured as changes in a reinforcement should be specified in the
linear dimension of the repair and should be contract documents. Specified properties
accounted for in the design of a repair are dependent on the requirements of the
system. Autogenous shrinkage, chemical repair and may include yield strength,
shrinkage, degree of restraint, tensile strength, chemical properties,
environmental conditions, drying shrinkage, elongation, material type, and moduli.
creep, thermal changes, moisture 7.5.2 Materials conforming to the design
absorption, and other factors all affect basis code already in use in a building shall
volume stability. Experience has shown that be permitted to remain in use.
volume change of the repair materials has 7.5.3 Materials conforming to ACI 318-11
often been the cause of poor performance of or permitted by this code shall be used for
repairs. Properties of repair materials repairs and alterations.
should be selected for volume stability and 7.5.4 Alternate materials shall be
dimensional compatibility with the existing permitted according to the licensed design
structure to reduce the probability of professional’s approval and in accordance
cracking caused by volume changes. with 1.4.
Directional compatiblity refers to movement
or shrinkage differences in a single direction 7.6—Design and detailing considerations
or multiple directions. 7.6.1 Repair design shall be based upon
Volume stability is discussed in ACI 209R, the member conditions identified in Chapter
ACI 209.1R, ACI 546.3R, and ICRI No. 6.
320.2R. 7.6.2 Concrete—The in-place properties of
Repair materials such as portland cement the existing concrete, as identified in
concrete, portland cement mortar, polymer- Chapter 6, shall be used in the repair design.
cement concrete, polymer concrete, fiber- 7.6.2C The extent and cause of
reinforced concrete, resin-based materials, deterioration and the concrete strength and
and similar products are commonly used. quality should be determined, including
The repair materials do not necessarily compressive strength, chlorides,
contain portland cement. Repair materials carbonation, sulfate attack, alkali silica
should be selected to achieve the necessary reaction, physical damage, corrosion-
service, strength, and durability induced spalling, and cracking.
requirements. Chloride penetration can cause
The selection of reinforcement material corrosion that can lead to cracking and
should consider the durability, performance spalling. The depth of a spall reduces the
at elevated temperatures, and ductility. effective area of concrete section.
Electrical and chemical reactivity between Degradation of the concrete will affect the
the reinforcement, the repair material, and compressive strength of the concrete.
the existing reinforcement should also be 7.6.3 Reinforcement
considered. Reinforcement that is damaged
Refer to ACI 440.1R for internal FRP or corroded shall be permitted to remain.
reinforcement, ACI 440.2R for externally The effective cross-sectional area shall be
bonded FRP reinforcement, and ICRI No. used in the repair design in accordance with
330.1 and the ACI Detailing Manual (ACI the design basis code. The effect of
SP-66) for steel reinforcement. corrosion damage on development of
reinforcing steel shall be assessed by the

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licensed design professional. At locations design of the repair should evaluate the
where deformations are no longer present, required development length to develop the
reinforcing steel shall be considered as design force of existing reinforcement.
smooth bars. Detailing of the repair should include the Strength evaluation and repair proper development of new reinforcement to
design should consider the in-place achieve the design force. ACI 318-11
condition of the existing reinforcement, provides guidance for detailing of steel
including the effective cross-sectional area reinforcement. ACI 440.1R and ACI 440.2R
of the reinforcing bars after removal of provide detailing guidance for internal FRP
corroded material. The effective area is reinforcement and externally-bonded FRP
calculated using the remaining effective reinforcement, respectively.
diameter of the reinforcement accounting 7.6.4 Prestressed structures
for the loss of metal due to corrosion The effects of existing
considering the location of the loss of area prestressing shall be included in the repair
within the member. Further considerations design.
may also include the location of the Requirements for repair of
corroded areas, loss of confinement, the loss structures with bonded and unbonded
of bond, and the effect of corrosion on prestressing are different. Post-tensioned
member strength. If fire damaged the structures (with bonded and unbonded
structure, steel reinforcement may be tendons) are often cast-in-place monolithic
annealed, and the yield stress reduced. structures, whereas pretensioned structures
Specific durability requirements related to (with bonded strands) are often single-span
corroded reinforcement are addressed in precast structures. Each system is unique
Section 8.4. and should be individually considered. The Design shall consider the repair of prestressed structures requires an
location and detailing of the existing assessment of the existing tendons. Repair
reinforcement in accordance with the of unbonded tendons may require tendon
evaluation of Chapter 6. detensioning. Guidance for evaluation The location and detailing methods and repair techniques of unbonded
includes the horizontal and vertical post-tensioned structures is provided in ACI
positions, development length, orientation, 423.4R, ACI 222.2R, ICRI No. 210.2, ICRI
geometry of the reinforcement, and the No. 320.4., and PTI DC80.2 (2010).
presence of hooks and crossties. Field The effects of modifications to
examination to locate existing reinforcement existing structure geometry, existing damage
may be required. conditions, prestressing force release, and Both existing and new construction sequence shall be included in
reinforcement shall be adequately the repair design.
developed. Development length shall be Analysis of prestressed
permitted to be calculated based upon structures is required to evaluate the effect
development in both the existing concrete of damaged or severed prestressing
and new materials. reinforcement on the structural strength and Reinforcement development performance. The effect of severed bonded
may be inadequate due to corrosion, tendon is typically localized because the free
mechanical damage, insufficient or loss of end of the tendon will be effective after a
concrete cover, delaminated concrete, transmission length is developed and will
concrete strength, or other conditions. The reestablish the full tendon force.

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32 Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings PROVISIONAL STANDARD

Review of grouting quality assurance and For structures with bonded tendons,
supervision documents may be required to shoring may only be required locally at the
ensure adequately grouted tendons after the repair area. When unbonded tendons are
application of prestress. Field evaluation of severed, the prestressing force will be lost
existing grout may be required in the for the full length of the tendon. Releasing
absence of sufficient documentation of the or cutting tendons may affect multiple spans
original construction. and may require shoring beyond the area
Unbonded tendons are designed to be where cutting or releasing of tendons
permanently debonded from the member and occurs. Adjacent spans require temporary
often extend over multiple spans. As a result, shoring depending on the number of tendons
damage or discontinuity of tendons at one severed at one time and the applied loads .
location will reduce the strength for the Analysis based on actual loading at the time
entire length of the tendon. of the modification may show shoring to be
Analysis to evaluate the effects of unnecessary.
structural modifications such as installation Guidance for analysis of unbonded post-
of slab openings should verify that strength tensioned structures is provided in ICRI No.
is adequate and that all serviceability 320.4, PTI (2006), and PTI DC80.2 (2010).
conditions (for example, deflections) are Stresses in remaining section
met. Large openings can significantly after concrete removal shall not exceed the
influence the global behavior of the limits established in the design basis code.
structure and may result in strengthening Removing surface concrete
needs. from a prestressed member may cause
Corrosion on prestressing strands may excessive compressive and tensile stress in
have an effect on strand integrity and the remaining concrete section and may
strength. Prestressing strand requires alter secondary forces and moments due to
examination for conditions such as prestressing in indeterminate structures.
corrosion pitting and hydrogen This condition is more critical for
embrittlement (refer to ICRI No 210.2 and prestressed joists and girders that have a
ACI 222.2R). Analysis methods of unbonded relatively small section and large
post-tensioned structures are provided in prestressing force. Slabs are less critical
ACI 222.2R, ACI 423.4R, ICRI No. 210.2, due to the relatively small initial
ICRI No. 320.4, PTI (2006), and PTI precompression. Repairs of prestressed
DC80.2 (2010). members may result in changing the class of
Repair and structural modification may the members from Class U to Class T or
require detensioning of prestressing from Class T to Class C as defined in ACI
tendons. Unbonded tendons should be 318-11. This change is acceptable as long
detensioned in a controlled manner to as durability and strength are addressed as
ensure performance and safety. Unless not part of the repair design. The impact of
needed based on analysis, all interrupted removing concrete from a post-tensioned
unbonded tendons should be reanchored structure is addressed in Scollard and
and restressed to restore full structural Bartlett (2004). ICRI No. 320.4 provides
strength. This can be achieved by splicing guidance for removing concrete around
or by installing new tendon anchorages at anchorages and splices to prevent
the edge of new opening, and after concrete catastrophic loss of anchorage.
reaches the necessary strength, the tendons 7.6.5 Anchoring to concrete—Post-
are restressed. installed anchors and dowels shall be

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PROVISIONAL STANDARD Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings 33

designed to transfer design forces to the installation instructions should specify

substrate considering anchor failure modes procedures for drilling, hole cleaning,
and the condition of the substrate into which installation, and the care to be taken until
the anchor is installed. The design of post- the adhesive has cured.
installed anchors shall be in accordance with Testing and inspection of post-installed
ACI 318-11. anchors should conform to Chapter 10.
7.6.5C The design of post-installed Many building codes require that adhesive
anchors requires a careful consideration of anchors be installed under special
the loads to be resisted. As an example, a inspection procedures to ensure that the
long-term tensile load may require a installation is correctly performed in
different anchoring mechanism than a short- accordance with the design and
term wind or seismic load. Anchors should manufacturer’s procedure.
have adequate strength to transfer design 7.6.6 Repair geometry—Configuration of
forces across all interfaces and into the repairs shall consider the potential for stress
existing member. All possible anchor failure concentrations and cracking in both the
modes should be considered to determine its existing structure and the repair area.
design strength. Anchors should be selected 7.6.6C Some repair shapes with sharp
considering the expected concrete substrate reentrant corners and long slender (high
cracking condition. For example, post- aspect ratio) repair areas can cause stress
installed anchors used in the tension zone of concentrations that may result in cracks.
concrete members and in structures located The shape of the repair should be
in regions of moderate or high seismic risk considered to reduce stress concentrations
should be able to transfer the design seismic and possible cracking. ICRI No. 310.1R
forces assuming a cracked concrete provides guidance for repair shapes.
condition. Methods to reduce cracking in concrete
Design of post-installed anchors is repairs include configuring to maximize
provided in ACI 318-11, Appendix D. right-angle geometry, avoiding reentrant
Building code requirements have prompted corners, uniform depth of edge and uniform
the need to verify performance of post- depth of substrate reconditioning, and
installed anchors in both cracked and undercutting of reinforcement with no
uncracked concrete. ACI 355.2 and 355.4 feather edge conditions.
provide the standard required for qualifying
post-installed anchors in cracked and 7.7—Repair using supplemental post-
uncracked concrete. Specifications for post- tensioning
installed anchors should include 7.7.1 Supplemental post-tensioning shall
installation, testing, and inspection be permitted for repair and rehabilitation of
procedures. structures.
For mechanical anchors, manufacturer’s 7.7.1C The supplemental post-tensioning
installation instructions should specify can be applied to the structure externally,
procedures for drilling, hole cleaning, internally, or both.
installation, torque magnitude, and 7.7.2 Design of repair shall include the
procedures to engage the anchor. effects of the supplemental post-tensioning
For adhesive anchors and dowels, hole on the behavior of the structure.
cleaning and moisture conditions are 7.7.2C Supplemental post-tensioning can
critically important to almost all adhesive introduce additional moment, shear, and
anchor installations. Manufacturer’s axial forces within the existing structure that

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should be considered in the design and deformations, deflections, changes in length,

detailing of the repair. The internal forces and rotations due to prestressing
induced by the supplemental post-tensioning 7.7.3C The additional post-tensioning may
can be significant. For statically be restrained by adjacent stiff members such
indeterminate structures, restraint to post- as walls, and reduce the effect of the
tensioning deformations can result in prestressing on the intended member or
significant internal forces. Refer to ICRI have unintended effects on the adjacent
330.1 for selecting strengthening systems for construction.
concrete structures. 7.7.4 Post-tensioning losses shall be Stresses due to supplemental included in the design of supplemental post-
post-tensioning shall be combined with tensioning systems.
existing stresses and the total shall not 7.7.4C Losses include the following:
exceed the limits in the design basis code. seating (anchorage); elastic shortening; Adding supplemental post creep of original concrete; shrinkage of
tensioning to a prestressed member may original concrete; creep of repair material;
cause excessive compressive and tensile shrinkage of repair material; tendon
stress and may alter secondary forces and relaxation; and friction between the post-
moments. External post tensioning may tensioning reinforcement and ducts,
result in changing the class of the members bearings, or deviators. Assessment of losses
from Class U to Class T or from Class T to of supplemental post-tensioning force should
Class C as defined in ACI 318-11. This consider the existing conditions of the
change is acceptable as long as durability repaired elements as the members may have
and strength are addressed as part of the already experienced time-dependent creep
repair design. and shrinkage. Design of supplemental post- 7.7.5 Repair construction documents shall
tensioning shall provide for the transfer of define the repair sequence, including tendon
post-tensioning forces between the post- placement, anchorage, and stressing of the
tensioning system and the structure. Design post-tensioned system.
of concrete supplemental post-tensioning 7.7.5C Repair design using supplemental
anchorage zones shall be in accordance with post-tensioning systems should include
ACI 318-11. Design of steel brackets and contract documents for installation sequence
supplementary steel shall be in accordance including shoring, removal of concrete,
with ANSI/AISC 360-10. placement of new material and Anchorage of the new post- reinforcement, additional anchorage
tensioned reinforcement should be designed requirements, horizontal shear transfer
and detailed for the transfer of post-tension requirements, curing, and stressing.
forces to the existing structure. The designer Installation of supplementary post-
should consider all bearing, spalling, and tensioning involves application of significant
bursting forces created at anchor zones. forces, which may require project safety and
Strut and tie modeling, as given in ACI 318- protection procedures.
11, may be used to design post-tension 7.8—Repair using FRP composites
anchorage zones. 7.8.1 FRP in conformance with ACI 440.6
7.7.3 Provisions shall be made for effects shall be permitted to repair existing concrete
of post-tensioning, temperature, and structures.
shrinkage on adjoining construction, 7.8.1C FRP fabrics, bars, or shapes can
including immediate and long-term be used as externally bonded reinforcement,

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internal reinforcement, and as internal or be evaluated and the system should be

external prestressed reinforcement. FRP detailed and material selected to provide
shapes may be used as additional stand- adequate protection. The repaired elements
alone structural members. Design and should comply with applicable building code
detailing of externally bonded FRP systems requirements and relevant fire regulations
should be consistent with ACI 440.2R. valid at the project location. Structures
Particular attention should be given to renovated for different use or strengthened
strength increase limits, service limits, and to carry higher loads may require more
determination of FRP material design stringent fire rating than the original
properties. structure. Other requirements such as flame
Design and detailing of internal FRP spread and smoke density should also be
reinforcement should be consistent with ACI considered in accordance with the general
440.1R. Particular attention should be given existing building code and ASTM E-84.
to service limits and determination of FRP 7.9.2 It shall be permitted to design a
material design properties. repair without supplemental fire protection
When internal prestressed FRP if the unrepaired member has adequate
reinforcement is used, the design and strength in accordance with 5.5.
detailing should be consistent with ACI 7.9.2C A repair system can be selected
440.4R. without additional fire protection provided
7.8.2 Structural members repaired or that the existing unrepaired member has
modified with externally-applied FRP adequate strength to support the loads, as
composites shall have adequate unrepaired defined in 5.5, during a fire event. Fire
strength, as defined in 5.5. performance requirements and evaluation
7.8.2C Unless protection is provided, to procedures are outlined in ACI 216.1, ACI
prevent sudden failure of the member in 318-11, ACI 440.2R, ASCE/SEI/SFPE 29,
case the FRP system is damaged or becomes and AISC Design Guide 19 (Ruddy et al.
ineffective (such as in an extraordinary 2003).
event like fire), the structural member 7.9.3 The properties of the specified
should have adequate strength without the repair materials at elevated temperatures
FRP reinforcement to support factored shall be considered.
loads, as defined for extraordinary events in 7.9.3C Repair material specifications
Chapter 5. The design and use of externally should comply with the requirements of
bonded FRP may be limited by the service relevant fire regulations valid at the project
requirements of the repaired member. location. Where there is a conflict between
the properties of specific products or
7.9—Performance under fire and elevated systems and fire regulations, alternative
temperatures repair principles or methods should be used
7.9.1 Design of the repair system shall to avoid such a conflict. In general, polymer
consider elevated temperature performance mortar and polymer concrete have higher
and shall comply with the fire resistance coefficients of thermal expansion and higher
ratings of the structural members and other resistance to water vapor transmission and
fire safety requirements in accordance with lower resistance to fire and elevated
the general existing building code. temperatures compared to cementitious
7.9.1C Regardless of the repair system alternatives.
used, performance of the repaired element
under fire and elevated temperatures should

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7.9.4 Repairs using adhesives shall service temperature. The critical

consider their performance at elevated temperature should be taken as the lowest
temperatures. Tg-27F of the components of the repair
7.9.4C ACI 440.2R reports that the system.
physical and mechanical properties of the Adhesive-based repair systems can be
resin components of FRP systems are considered effective during a fire event if a
influenced by temperature and can degrade fire protection system is used that maintains
at temperatures close to and above their the temperature of the adhesive-based
glass-transition temperature. An acceptable system below its critical temperature.
service temperature for FRP is established 7.9.5 Supplemental fire protection to
by ACI 440.2R as Tg-27F. This value improve the fire rating of repaired systems
accounts for typical variation in test data for shall be permitted.
dry environment exposures. Adhesive- 7.9.5C Standard fire protection systems
bonded FRP reinforcement should not be can be used to increase the fire rating of
used if the maximum service temperature is repaired systems. National codes and
greater than Tg-27F. A service temperature professional organizations list generic
exceeding this limit is considered an ratings for concrete structural members,
elevated temperature and should be giving the minimum thickness of concrete
addressed using adhesive system with a cover needed to protect the main steel
higher Tg value or using alternate repair reinforcement from fire effects (IBC 2006;
systems. NFPA 5000 2009; PCA 1985,1994). In
When performance at elevated addition to increasing the cover thickness,
temperatures is critical, the use of fire performance of reinforced and
mechanical or cementitious grouted anchors prestressed concrete members may be
may provide a higher level of reliability than enhanced by fire protection systems as
adhesive anchors and adhesively bonded proven by fire testing or analytical methods
systems. (ACI 216.1). Concrete cover for nonmetallic
An appropriate fire rating can be reinforcement may need to be substantially
achieved using materials with an established greater than cover for steel reinforcement to
fire rating. In the absence of an established achieve the same fire resistance rating.
fire rating, detailed fire analysis may be 7.9.6 Fire rating of repaired systems,
used to establish a fire rating. based on ACI 216.1 shall be permitted.
Most repair adhesives cannot resist 7.9.6C The fire rating of a repaired
elevated temperatures (temperatures greater system or assembly can be determined in
than their glass transition temperature) such accordance with ACI 216.1 that requires the
as the temperatures generated during a fire application of the expected service load to
event. Because of the degradation of most the test specimen. The applied load should
adhesive-based repair systems (such as reflect the use of the tested member in terms
adhesive-bonded anchors and adhesive- of magnitude and layout.
bonded reinforcement) at elevated The criteria for evaluating a structure
temperature, the bond strength of these for fire safety is different than that for
systems should be assumed to be completely strength design and typically incorporates
lost when temperatures exceed the glass lower material strengths and load factors,
transition temperature. The repair material and may not require the use of strength-
should be selected such that the critical reduction factors. The designer should verify
temperature is greater than the expected that the fire-reduced strength of the member

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is greater than the force demand due to maintenance requirements, as well as

expected service loads during the fire event. incorporated into the construction
The fire-reduced strength should be based documents. A repaired section is considered
on reduced material strengths for the to be the combination of the installed repair
maximum expected temperature in a fire material(s) and the substrate material(s).
event, determined in accordance with ASTM Service life is discussed in ACI 365.1R.
E119 and ACI 216.1. Some examples of end-of-service life
CHAPTER 8 —DURABILITY  Structural safety is unacceptable due to
8.1—General material degradation or design strength is
8.1.1 Durability of repair materials shall less than the required strength.
be considered for individual repairs, the  Maintenance requirements exceed
overall durability of the repaired structure, resource limits.
and the interaction of the repair system with  Aesthetics become unacceptable.
the existing structure.  Structural functionality is no longer
8.1.1C The durability of repair materials sufficient.
depends on their ability to withstand the  Deformation capacity of the structure
environment where they are installed. The has been degraded due to an event such as
durability of repairs is dependent on the an earthquake.
compatibility between the repair material The cause of degradation should be
and its surroundings. To achieve addressed as a first step in predicting each
compatibility, the repair and the structure type of service life. Types of degradation
need to interact on several levels, including include:
chemical, electrochemical, and physical  Mechanical (abrasion, fatigue,
behavior, without detriment. impact, overload, settlement,
8.1.2 Repair materials and methods shall explosion, vibration, and excessive
be selected that are appropriate for the displacement, loads, or hammering
intended use, be compatible with the from a seismic event).
structure, and durable within the anticipated
 Chemical (alkali-aggregate
in-service environment.
reaction, sulfate attack, acid
8.1.2C The design service life of a
dissolution, soft water leaching,
structure and repaired members is a goal
and biological action).
established by the licensed design
 Physical (freezing and thawing,
professional to achieve an economical
scaling, differing coefficients of
repair which satisfies both safety and
thermal expansion, salt
serviceability requirements. Only
crystallization, radiation exposure
satisfactory repair construction including
(ultraviolet light), fire, and
application of the specified repair materials
differential permeability between
can satisfy but not necessarily achieve that
goal. The design service life of the structure
 Reinforcement corrosion
and repaired members, including
(carbonation, corrosive
maintenance requirements, should be
contaminants, dissimilar metals,
estimated in consultation with the owner and
stray currents, and stress
consideration of the properties of the
corrosion cracking).
materials. Such design service life should be
Preparation methods, materials,
reflected in the repair design and
placement, and installed systems should be

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defined in the construction documents to crystallization, and other factors

reflect the design intent and requirements to that are known to attack or
achieve compatibility. deteriorate the repair material or
Repaired sections should be resistant to concrete substrate. Water
expected service conditions that can result penetration into concrete is
in degradation, including the causes of associated with many types of
degradation listed previously within the chemical attack and other
design service life. deterioration mechanisms.
Repaired sections should be resistant  Thermal exposure and cycles.
against:  Alkali-aggregate reactions.
 Freezing and thawing damage if  Differential permeability between
subject to saturation and a the repair and existing concrete if
freeze/thaw environment. ASTM the repair material or the substrate
C666, Method B, may be used to concrete is vulnerable to
define a durability factor. A deterioration due to trapped
durability factor of greater than 80 moisture, such as freezing-and-
percent has generally been found to thawing damage of saturated
be acceptable in many locations for concrete, corrosion of embedded
resistance to freezing and thawing reinforcing steel, alkali-aggregate
for cementitious materials. reactions, or sulfate attack (refer to
 Scaling if exposed to deicing salts ACI 546.3R).
within the design service life.  The carbonation susceptibility,
 Exposure to ultraviolet or other depth, and rate of both the existing
radiation degradation within the concrete and the repair material in
repair environment unless other repairs containing reinforcement or
means are provided to address such other embedments requiring
degradation within the design alkaline passivation of the metal for
service life. protection from corrosion (refer to
 Fatigue resulting from loading 8.4).
cycles and load reversal. For  The penetration of corrosive
example, fatigue resistance may be contaminants into the concrete (such
needed in repair areas subject to as chlorides) that lead to corrosion
many cycles of repeated loading. of reinforcement or other
 Impact, erosion, and vibration embedments (refer to 8.4).
effects if exposed to conditions
causing deterioration by these 8.2—Cover
mechanisms within the design 8.2.1 The concrete cover requirements
service life. shall be in accordance with the design basis
 Abrasion resistance of repaired code. For alternative materials and methods,
sections subject to heavy traffic, an equivalent cover that provides sufficient
impingement of abrasive particles, corrosion protection and fire protection shall
or similar conditions. be in accordance with 1.4.2. Sufficient
 Chemical exposure may include anchorage and development for the
sulfate attack, acids, alkalis, reinforcement shall be provided regardless
solvents, leaching of cementitious of methods used to provide corrosion
materials due to soft water, salt protection.

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8.2.1C The preceding language is intended is subject to aggressive conditions, the

to allow equivalent cover such as design service life is reduced.
anticarbonation coatings, or intumescent Cracks reduce the protection provided by
coatings to be used if they can be the effective cover over steel reinforcement
demonstrated to be effective according to and lead to water and deleterious material
the approval detailed in 1.4.2. The LDP ingress, which accelerates the deterioration
should review anchorage and development of embedded reinforcement and can cause
requirements when alternative methods of other concrete deterioration issues such as
corrosion protection are used. freezing and thawing deterioration, alkali-
8.2.2 Corrosion—Where concrete cover aggregate deterioration, and chemical
for existing reinforcement is insufficient to attack.
provide corrosion protection for the design Crack mitigation methods should consider
service life of the structure, additional the causes, movement, size, orientation,
concrete cover or an alternate means of width, and complexity of the network of
corrosion protection shall be provided to cracks. The characteristics of the substrate,
mitigate corrosion of reinforcement. location, and evidence of water transmission
8.2.2C Alternate means of protecting should be determined to assess the
reinforcement include the application of appropriate method of repair. Active water
waterproof membranes, corrosion infiltration should be corrected as required
inhibitors, and various forms of cathodic for the durability of the structure.
protection. Existing reinforcement ACI 224.1R provides additional guidance
corrosion shall be considered when on the repair of cracks. ACI 503.7 provides
evaluating the maintenance requirements a specification for repair of cracks through
and design service life of alternative polymer injection. The comparative
methods for corrosion protection. cracking potential of different cementitious
materials can be evaluated using ASTM
8.3—Cracks C1581.
8.3.1 The design of repairs shall consider 8.3.2 The cause and repair of cracking
the effects of cracks on the expected shall be assessed and considered in repair
durability, performance, and design service design.
life of the repair. 8.3.2C Cracks in concrete structures can
8.3.1C Protection of repaired concrete be detrimental to the long-term performance
may be as vital as the repair itself. of a structure if the cracks are of sufficient
Consideration should be given to post- size to allow for the ingress of deleterious
repair cracking and the need for protection materials into the structure. Not all cracks
of the existing concrete and repair material need to be repaired. Cracks above
from the ingress of deleterious materials. reasonable widths for given exposure
ACI 224.1R provides guidance for the conditions (refer to ACI 224R, Table 4-1, for
prevention and control of cracks. Cracks in reasonable cracks widths) may require
concrete structures may impact the long- repair or remediation.
term performance of the structure. The effect There are a variety of different materials
of the cracks on the long-term performance that have been used for crack repair. For
is generally related to the exposure cracks that are essentially acting as a joint
conditions and the size, number, and or are active, one type of effective repair is
location of cracks. When the cracked section to seal the crack with an elastomeric
sealant. Materials used for crack injection

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include, for example, epoxy, polyurethane, during repairs. Sufficient concrete should be
latex in a cement matrix, microfine cement, removed to allow for the new repair
and polymethacrylate. For repair by crack materials to completely encapsulate the
injection, the process and material should reinforcement. In some situations, due to
be appropriate to the site conditions. Crack congestion of reinforcing steel, access
injection should not be used to repair cracks limitations, load considerations, or other
caused by corrosion of reinforcing steel and factors, it is not possible to remove all
alkali aggregate reaction. ACI 224.1R corrosion products from the reinforcing
provides guidance on the causes and steel. Situations exist where corroding
investigation of cracking in reinforced reinforcement that cannot be adequately
concrete under service loads as well as the cleaned or repaired is encapsulated with
evaluation and repair of cracks. All cracks new repair materials. The durability effects
have the potential to become active cracks. of encapsulating the existing reinforcing
steel on the member strength should be
8.4—Corrosion of metals and considered in these situations.
deterioration 8.4.3 The quality of existing concrete and
8.4.1 The corrosion and deterioration of its ability to protect reinforcement from
reinforcement and embedded components corrosion and deterioration shall be
shall be considered in the durability design. considered.
Repair materials shall not contain 8.4.3C Water and chemical penetration
intentionally added constituents which are into the concrete can cause corrosion of
corrosive to reinforcement. Aggregates metallic and damage to nonmetallic
shall conform to the requirements of ACI reinforcement. Where concrete cover over
318-11. reinforcement is insufficient to provide
8.4.1C Untreated reinforcement corrosion corrosion protection for the design service
limits the life expectancy of repair areas, life of the structure, additional concrete
repair materials, and repaired structures. cover or an alternate means of corrosion
Repairs that do not address reinforcement protection should be provided to mitigate
corrosion should consider the design service reinforcement corrosion. For guidance on
life and monitoring. The corrosion of alternate methods of corrosion prevention,
embedded metals adjacent to the repair may mitigation, and inhibition, refer to ACI 546R
be accelerated by the ring anode effect due and The Concrete Society Technical Report
to differing electrical potential between 50 (1997). Both carbonation and chloride
continuous reinforcement in the repair area contamination may require consideration
and that external to the repair area, and are discussed in ACI 546R.
depending on the relative humidity and The anodic ring effect that can be induced
chloride content (refer to 8.4.3C). Aggregate by certain repairs should be addressed by
should conform to the limits of ACI 318. incorporating appropriate corrosion
8.4.2 When evaluating long-term mitigation strategies such as cathodic
durability and strength of a member, protection, corrosion inhibitors, or other
existing reinforcement corrosion that is effective techniques. Considerations should
encapsulated within new repair materials include reduction of the phenomenon. ACI
shall be considered. 546R, ACI 364.3T, and ACI RAP-8 provide
8.4.2C ICRI No. 310.1R states that all discussion on anodic ring effect. ACI 222R,
damaged concrete and corrosion products ACI 222.3R, ACI 364.3T, and FAQ sections
are to be removed from reinforcement from Concrete International (2002a, b, c)

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also provide guidance for corrosion the concrete makes corrosion damage in
mitigation. prestressed concrete members more critical
Aesthetics may be affected by different than traditionally reinforced structures
means of protection and may also require (refer to ACI 423.4R).
consideration. Damage due to fire and fire Depending on the bonded or unbonded
protection requirements are discussed in nature of the prestressing steel, the
7.9. condition of the steel at the repair area, the
8.4.4 Existing steel reinforcement and attachment of the steel to the structure, the
added reinforcement shall be protected from as-designed corrosion protection measures,
corrosion and deterioration to satisfy and the continuity of the prestressing steel
durability requirements. needs to be considered to address corrosion
8.4.4C Reinforcing steel in concrete protection of the structure. See ICRI 320.4,
construction is traditionally protected by and 222.2R.
concrete cover, which protects the Hydrodemolition and other types of high-
reinforcing steel from deleterious materials volume material removal methods should be
and provides fire protection. The minimum used cautiously when the structure contains
cover thickness is typically required by ACI unbonded prestressing steel. In these
318-11. Adequate protection may be situations, excessive concrete removal may
provided by increased section thickness and damage the tendon or remove the confining
appropriate coatings such as sealers, concrete, resulting in a sudden loss of
intumescent coatings, electrochemical tension force in the prestressing steel, the
methods, or other techniques. introduction of water into the corrosion
8.4.5 Galvanic corrosion between protection (sheathing) surrounding the steel,
electrochemically dissimilar materials shall or both (refer to ICRI No. 310.3).
be considered. 8.4.7 If electrochemical protection systems
8.4.5C Reinforcement or metal accessories protect reinforcing steel in repair areas and
in the repair area with differing structures, the interaction of the protection
electrochemical potentials, environments, or system with the repaired elements, the entire
both, should be isolated from the existing structure, and environment shall be
reinforcement, or the existing reinforcement considered.
should be protected to minimize galvanic 8.4.7C Structures using impressed current
corrosion. For example, rail or post-pocket electrochemical protection or mitigation
repairs can use dissimilar metals from systems should have continuous
conventional reinforcing steel, which could reinforcement, separate zones, or provisions
accelerate the deterioration of the should be made to make the steel electrically
installation (refer to ACI 222R). continuous. Impressed current
8.4.6 Corrosion protection of bonded and electrochemical protection systems should
unbonded prestressing materials and be designed and maintained so as to not
prestressing system components shall be promote an alkali aggregate reaction (AAR)
addressed during the repair design. and to avoid embrittlement of prestressing
8.4.6C Prestressed concrete structures are steel.
reinforced with stressed, high-strength steel. Impressed current electrochemical
The prestressing steel can be either bonded protection systems should include a
or unbonded to the concrete. The presence monitoring and maintenance plan developed
of a prestressing force in the steel and the by a licensed design professional
need to transfer the prestressing force into specializing in the design of corrosion

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protection systems (refer to NACE RP0390, and moisture into the structure to reduce
NACE 01105, NACE 01102, NACE 01101, future deterioration of the structure. Surface
NACE 01104 and NACE SP0107). treatments, coatings, sealers, and
8.4.8 Repair materials and reinforcement membranes may have a shorter service life
shall be designed to be compatible such that than the concrete and can be considered as
the characteristics of each material do not consumable or requiring periodic
adversely affect the durability of the other replacement or repair to maintain effective
materials or of the existing concrete and protection of the concrete.
reinforcement. In some situations, encapsulation of
8.4.8C Materials can degrade under moisture and deleterious materials by a
certain exposure conditions with a negative surface treatment has been found to cause
impact on reinforcing steel or concrete or accelerate deterioration. The condition of
materials. For example, in certain situations the concrete should be appropriate to
such as exposure to high temperatures, PVC receive a specific surface treatment, coating,
and other polymer-based materials can or membrane (ICRI No. 310.2).
deteriorate, releasing decomposition 8.5.2 The selection of surface treatments
products found to cause corrosion. applied to concrete surfaces shall consider
Even if the conventional reinforcing steel existing cracks within the concrete and the
becomes more noble when in electrical potential for movement on the repair system
contact with a dissimilar metal (for example, durability, the surface treatment, and the
embedded aluminum conduit in the presence anticipated service life of the structure.
of chlorides), considerable concrete damage 8.5.2C Crack development and
can arise (Monfore and Ost 1965). propagation provide an accelerated
FRP wrapping should not be used as a mechanism for ingress of moisture and
corrosion repair strategy on members deleterious materials and may also cause a
experiencing corrosion of embedded surface treatment to become ineffective.
reinforcement unless the concrete is
repaired and corrosion mitigated. CHAPTER 9—CONSTRUCTION
Appropriate sections within this document 9.1—Stability and temporary shoring
and referenced documents concerning FRP requirements
repairs should be consulted (refer to ACI 9.1.1 Plans and specifications for repair
440.2R). shall define the temporary shoring and
Materials such as salts (chlorides, bracing requirements for all phases of the
bromides, etc) and other detrimental repair project. Temporary shoring and
constituents should not be incorporated into bracing shall be designed by a licensed
repairs as these materials can increase the design professional. Adequate temporary
corrosion activity. shoring and bracing of affected members
shall be provided during evaluation and
8.5—Surface treatments and coatings repair construction. Temporary shoring shall
8.5.1 Moisture transmission through the be designed to accommodate in-place
structure and the influence of the surface conditions in the structure and expected
treatment on the durability of the structure superimposed loads and shall consider the
shall be considered. effects of deformation compatibility on the
8.5.1C Surface treatments, coatings, shoring system with the supported and
sealers, or membranes are commonly used supporting structural elements.
to limit the ingress of deleterious materials

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Temporary shoring and bracing and shoring of affected members. If

installation details shall be reviewed by the necessary, requirements to preload
licensed design professional for the repair to temporary members should be included in
assess the impact of the shoring on the the repair drawings.
existing structure. 9.1.3 Existing member stability, including
9.1.1C Temporary shoring and bracing the effect of modifications or repairs to
members should be designed to consider existing lateral bracing members, shall be
changes in bracing and shoring conditions evaluated and maintained at all times.
during repair construction and as required Temporary bracing shall be provided as
to support construction operations. Design necessary to maintain the stability of
of temporary shoring members should be compression members. The lateral force for
based on the in-place loads on the structure. temporary bracing design shall be
Loads, such as snow, seismic, wind, and determined by generally accepted
construction live loads, should also be engineering principles or as required by the
considered in shoring design (ASCE/SEI general building code. Temporary shoring
37). Design requirements for shoring are and bracing shall be designed to provide
also contained in ASCE/SEI 37. Shoring sufficient stiffness to prevent excessive
design guidelines are contained in AISC displacement of the existing braced
Steel Design Guide Series 10 (Fisher and members as determined by the licensed
West 2003). Temporary shoring and design professional.
bracing installation is performed by the 9.1.3C Supplemental bracing for
contractor. Load, spacing, and placement compression members may be required if the
requirements for temporary shoring and unbraced length of a compression member is
bracing at all phases of a repair should be modified during the repair process.
conveyed to the contractor. Compression members include columns,
All temporary shoring and bracing design walls, and other members, such as
and installation details should be reviewed diaphragms, that carry compressive loads.
by the licensed design professional for the The design of bracing members is described
repair to assess the impact of the shoring on in various publications (AISC 2006;
the existing structure, and to verify American Forest and Paper Association
conformance of the proposed shoring with 2005). The design load for a bracing
any project-specific requirements. See 5.1.2 member should be based on the existing
for load requirements associated with dead and live loads, construction loads, and
shoring and temporary construction. other loads that may be resisted by the
9.1.2 Global structural stability and the compression member. A lateral force of 2%
stability of individual members shall be of the axial load in the member being braced
maintained prior to and during all stages of is commonly used as a minimum load in the
the repair process. design of bracing members (e.g. ANSI/AISC
9.1.2C The assessment of structural 360-10).
stability includes the overall existing 9.1.4 The design of shoring and bracing
structure, existing members affected by members during the repair or removal of
repair, and temporary bracing elements that existing adjacent framing shall consider the
contribute to overall stability. Stability of changes in load paths and unbraced lengths,
these elements should be considered during and the redistribution of loads and internal
all phases of the repair process. Temporary forces that result in changes in existing
measures may be needed to provide bracing applied loads on structural elements.

American Concrete Institute Copyrighted Material --

44 Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings PROVISIONAL STANDARD

Redistribution of loading due to deformation prohibited by jurisdictional authorities or

of members shall be considered in the local building codes. The reduction in the
design of temporary shoring and bracing. design load intensity should be determined
9.1.4C Removal of existing column, beam, based on the in-place condition of the
wall, and floor slab elements or parts structure and the time required for the
thereof during repair construction and the completion of stabilization measures, or
placement of shoring and bracing may result repairs using sound engineering principles.
in the redistribution of loads and internal The licensed design professional is required
forces within the building structure. The to verify that the design strength of the
removal of existing framing members, existing structure is satisfactory at all times.
diaphragms, or slabs can also affect the The licensed design professional should also
unbraced length of the existing framing consider the expected project duration when
members in the removal area. Effects of the using temporary construction loads. If a
removal of elements should be considered in change in the length of the project or a
assessing the existing structure and shoring delay occurs, the reduced design loads may
and bracing design. no longer be appropriate.
9.1.5 Where existing structural members
support the structure and all loads during the 9.3—Environmental issues
evaluation and repair construction, the 9.3.1 Plans and specifications prepared by
design strength of those members shall be the licensed design professional shall
evaluated and shall exceed the temporary instruct the contractor or other designated
required strength due to construction loads. party to be responsible for the
This evaluation shall include the effects of implementation of all specified
deterioration due to section loss and material environmental remediation measures, to
degradation. If the strength and stiffness of report any new conditions encountered, and
any member is less than required, shoring for the control of all construction debris
shall be provided and remain in place until including environmentally hazardous
the existing member is repaired. materials.
9.1.5C The design of shoring and bracing 9.3.1C Evaluation and repair of an
members and the assessment of existing existing structure can result in the exposure
members should be based on the existing of workers and the public to potentially
cross sections present at the time of repair hazardous materials. These materials may
implementation. be exposed, dislodged, carried into the air,
or discharged as effluent into surface
9.2—Temporary conditions drainage during the evaluation and repair
9.2.1 Load and load factors during the process. The owner should have an
evaluation and repair construction processes environmental assessment performed during
shall be in accordance with 5.1.4. The the evaluation and repair process in the
design strength of the structure or member areas to be repaired before any work to
shall exceed the calculated required strength. identify hazardous materials with the
The construction loads in 5.1.4 shall only be potential to present health issues to the
used during ongoing evaluation and repair workers and public, unless the owner can
process. attest that the existing structure is free of
9.2.1C During the evaluation and repair hazardous materials.
process, a temporary reduction in design During the repair process, the contractor
load is allowed, except when specifically normally is responsible for the

American Concrete Institute Copyrighted Material --

PROVISIONAL STANDARD Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings 45

implementation of repairs and, accordingly, workmanship, and for compliance with the
the control of construction debris, dust, and intent of the repair construction documents.
other materials. Any new conditions Inspection should be provided by either
uncovered during the repair process should repair inspectors or the licensed design
be reported to the owner and licensed professional. Repair inspectors should be
design professional. qualified by demonstrating competence to
the satisfaction of the licensed design
CHAPTER 10—QUALITY professional and as required by the building
ASSURANCE official, to inspect concrete repair
10.1—Inspection construction. If qualified, the licensed
10.1.1 Concrete repair and rehabilitation design professional may provide inspection
construction shall be inspected as required services.
by the general existing building code or as Inspection of concrete repair construction
required by the local jurisdiction. In the requires review of the Work in the field,
absence of such inspection requirements, the review of construction documents,
licensed design professional shall inform the comparison of the Work with contract
owner that concrete repair and rehabilitation documents, documentation and report of the
construction must be inspected during the Work inspected as conforming or
various Work stages by a licensed design nonconforming, and of corrections to the
professional, a qualified inspector, or a Work. Visual inspection and verification of
qualified individual. existing conditions may require review of
10.1.2 The licensed design professional specific conditions before continuing the
shall require (a) through (j) to be inspected, construction process and thus require
material tests to be performed, and a report pauses in the construction processes so as
of inspection and testing results submitted. not to conceal components of the Work
(a) Delivery, placement, and testing before completing necessary inspections and
reports documenting the quantity, location verifications. Inspection of post-installed
of placement, repair materials tests, and anchor installation and testing should be
other tests as required performed as required by the construction
(b) Construction and removal of forms and documents and in accordance with 7.6.5.
reshoring Part of all repair inspections is
(c) Concrete removal and surface determining compliance with the intent of
preparation the construction documents, documenting
(d) Placing of reinforcement and anchors the inspection, and reporting the inspection.
(e) Mixing, placing, and curing of repair If the inspection shows conformance with
materials the contract documents and no corrections
(f) Sequence of erection and connection of are necessary, then the inspected Work
new members should be documented as conforming and
(g) Tensioning of tendons reported to the licensed design professional
(h) Construction loadings on floors, and contractor, noting no corrections. If the
members, or walls inspection shows readily correctable issues
(i) General progress of Work and the issues are corrected by the
(j) Installation and testing of post-installed contractor, then the inspected Work should
anchors be documented as conforming and reported
10.1C Repair construction should be to the licensed design professional and
checked for quality of materials and contractor with corrections noted and

American Concrete Institute Copyrighted Material --

46 Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings PROVISIONAL STANDARD

verified as completed. Nonconforming or (h) Sequence of repair construction

deficient components, processes, and (i) Tensioning of tendons
procedures (repair not passing inspection) (j) Construction loadings
should be reported to the licensed design (k) General progresses of the repair
professional for review and actions should Work
be made to correct the process prior to 10.1.3 The licensed design professional
resuming the repair construction and shall require that existing conditions and
inspection process. Nonconforming repair reinforcement shall not be concealed with
construction may include: materials that obscure visual inspection
(a) Existing construction that differs from before completion of inspection.
the repair documents 10.1.3C Reinforcement includes existing
(b) Existing construction deterioration, reinforcement, embedded items such as
distress, or levels of distress beyond those anodes, new reinforcement, and anchors.
anticipated in the design of repairs Removal of deteriorated concrete and
(c) Deficiencies in repair components reinforcement often uncovers defects not
(d) Deficiencies in construction processes anticipated. The licensed design
and procedures professional should inspect these uncovered
Material data sheets are to satisfy the conditions before placement of new repair
requirement of specific repair material used materials.
in construction. The manufacturing date and
shelf life of the repair material provide 10.2—Testing of repair materials
information that the material is within the 10.2.1 Repair material tests and test
manufacturer’s recommended time limits for frequencies shall be specified by the
installation. licensed design professional in the contract
Existing conditions describe the nature documents. Results of tests shall be reported
and extent of damage and size and condition as required by the contract documents and
of the members. Those conditions need to be the general existing building code. Test
verified for conformance to the design records shall be retained by the testing
assumptions. The following are some items agency as required by the general building
where inspections are beneficial: code. In the absence of a general building
(a) Location of repairs code, the licensed design professional shall
(b) Surface preparation of existing require that the test records be retained by
concrete and existing reinforcement the testing agency for a minimum of 3 years
(c) Placement of reinforcement and beyond completion of construction.
anchors 10.2.1C Tests of repair materials should
(d) Specific repair material used in comply with testing and test frequency of
construction new concrete construction, unless otherwise
(e) Delivery, placement, and testing directed by the licensed design professional
reports documenting the quantity in the contract documents and approved by
and location of placement, repair the building code official. It is generally not
material tests, strength, and other practical to verify all manufacturer’s listed
tests of all repair materials properties of proprietary materials, such as
(f) Construction and removal of forms shrinkage, thermal expansion coefficient,
and shoring and modulus of elasticity. In such cases, the
(g) Mixing, placing, and curing of repair licensed design professional should rely on
materials manufacturer product data. The licensed

American Concrete Institute Copyrighted Material --

PROVISIONAL STANDARD Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings 47

design professional should evaluate the data CHAPTER 11—COMMENTARY

and, if necessary, have manufacturers REFERENCES
perform testing to confirm that their
material achieves the published values that International Code Council
they provided for the project. Refer to ACI IBC-2012 International Building Code
546.3R and ICRI 320.2R for guidance. IEBC-2012 International Existing
Tests of repair materials bond to existing Building Code
materials should comply with requirements
of the contract documents. ICC Evaluation Service (ICC-ES)
Testing personnel should be qualified by AC58-11 Acceptance Criteria
demonstrating competence to the for Adhesive Anchors
satisfaction of the licensed design in Masonry Elements
professional and building code official for AC308-11 Acceptance Criteria
testing types required of concrete repair and for Post-Installed
rehabilitation Work. The testing agency Adhesive Anchors in
should maintain a record of the tests Concrete Elements
performed and the results consistent with the
requirements for records of ASTM E 329. American Concrete Institute
ACI E706-05(Reapproved 2010) Field
10.3—Construction observations Guide to Concrete
10.3.1 Construction observation shall be Repair Application
performed as required by the licensed design Procedures—
professional. Installation of
10.3.1C A primary purpose of construction Embedded Galvanic
observation of rehabilitation Work is to Anodes
verify that the exposed existing construction ACI 201.1R-08 Guide for Conducting
is as assumed in the design and that the a Visual Inspection of
rehabilitation documents will fulfill the Concrete in Service
design intent. If the existing construction ACI 201.2R-08 Guide to Durable
differs from the design assumptions, Concrete
requiring modification of the design, ACI 209R-92 (Reapproved 2008)
changes should be documented and the Prediction of Creep,
Work modified as necessary. The licensed Shrinkage, and
design professional should report design Temperature Effects in
changes in writing to the owner, Concrete Structures
rehabilitation inspector, contractor, and ACI 209.1R-05 Report on Factors
building code official resulting from existing Affecting Shrinkage
construction, nonconforming rehabilitation and Creep of Hardened
Work and observed construction Concrete
deficiencies. Revised design or construction ACI 214.4R-03 Guide for Obtaining
Work necessary to correct these Cores and Interpreting
deficiencies, and the construction Compressive Strength
corrections should be observed. Results
ACI 216.1-07 Code Requirements for
Determining Fire
Resistance of Concrete

American Concrete Institute Copyrighted Material --

48 Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings PROVISIONAL STANDARD

and Masonry ACI 364.1R-07 Guide for Evaluation

Construction of Concrete Structures
Assemblies before Rehabilitation
ACI 222R-01(Reapproved 2010) ACI 364.3T-10 TechNote: Treatment
Protection of Metals of Exposed Epoxy-
in Concrete Against Coated Reinforcement
Corrosion in Repair
ACI 222.2R-01(Reapproved 2010) ACI 365.1R-00 Service-Life Prediction
Corrosion of ACI 369R-11 Guide for Seismic
Prestressing Steels Rehabilitation of
ACI Committee 222.3R-03 Design and Existing Concrete
Construction Practices Frame Buildings and
to Mitigate Corrosion Commentary
of Reinforcement in ACI 423.4R-98 Corrosion and Repair
Concrete Structures of Unbonded Single
ACI 224R-01 (Reapproved 2008) Strand Tendons
Control of Cracking ACI 437R-03 Strength Evaluation of
in Concrete Structures Existing Concrete
ACI 224.1R-07 Causes, Evaluation, Buildings
and Repair of Cracks ACI 437.1R-07 Load Tests of Concrete
in Concrete Structures Structures: Methods,
ACI 228.1R-03 In-Place Methods to Magnitude, Protocols
Estimate Concrete and Acceptance
Strength Criteria ACI 437.X-
ACI 228.2R-98 (Reapproved 2004) XX Code
Nondestructive Test Requirements for Load
Methods for Testing of Concrete
Evaluation of Concrete Members of Existing
in Structures Buildings
ACI 301-10 Specifications for ACI 440R-07 Report on Fiber-
Structural Concrete Reinforced Polymer
ACI 318-11 Building Code (FRP) Reinforcement
Requirements for for Concrete Structures
Structural Concrete ACI 440.1R-06 Guide for the Design
and Commentary and Construction of
ACI 355.2-07 Qualification of Post- Structural Concrete
Installed Mechanical Reinforced with FRP
Anchors in Concrete Bars.
and Commentary ACI 440.2R-08 Guide for the Design
ACI 355.4-10 Acceptance Criteria and Construction of
for Qualification of Externally Bonded
Post-Installed FRP Systems for
Adhesive Anchors in Strengthening
Concrete and Concrete Structures
Commentary ACI 440.4R-04
(Provisional Standard) (Reapproved 2011)

American Concrete Institute Copyrighted Material --

PROVISIONAL STANDARD Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings 49

Prestressing Concrete ASCE/SEI/SFPE 29-05 Standard

Structures with FRP Calculation Methods
Tendons for Structural Fire
ACI 503R-93 (Reapproved 2008) Use of Protection
Epoxy Compounds
with Concrete American Forest and Paper Association
ACI 503.5R-92 (Reapproved 2003) Guide ANSI/AF&PA NDS-2005 National
for the Selection of Design Specification
Polymer Adhesives in for Wood Construction
ACI 503.6R-97 (Reapproved 2003) Guide Applied Technology Council
for Application of ATC 20-89 Procedures for Post-
Epoxy and Latex Earthquake Safety
Adhesives for Bonding Evaluation of
Freshly Mixed and Buildings
Hardened Concrete ATC 45-04 Field Manual:
ACI 503.7-07 Specification for Crack Procedures for Safety
Repair by Epoxy Evaluation of
Injection Buildings after Wind
ACI 546R-04 Concrete Repair Guide Storms and Floods
ACI 546.3R-06 Guide for the Selection ASTM International
of Materials for the ASTM C666/C666M-03(2008)
Repair of Concrete Standard Test Method
for Resistance of
American Institute of Steel Construction Concrete to Rapid
AISC 325-11 Steel Construction Freezing and Thawing
Manual ASTM C1581/C1581M-09 Standard Test
ANSI/AISC 360-10 Specification for Method for
Structural Steel Determining Age at
Buildings Cracking and Induced
Tensile Stress
American Society of Civil Engineers Characteristics of
ASCE/SEI 7 Minimum Design Mortar and Concrete
Loads for Buildings under Restrained
and Other Structures Shrinkage
ASCE/SEI 11-00 Guideline for ASTM C1583/C1583M-04e1 Standard Test
Structural Condition Method for Tensile
Assessment of Strength of Concrete
Existing Buildings Surfaces and the Bond
ASCE/SEI 31-03 Seismic Evaluation of Strength or Tensile
Existing Buildings Strength of Concrete
ASCE/SEI 37-02 Design Loads on Repair and Overlay
Structures during Materials by Direct
Construction Tension (Pull off
ASCE/SEI 41-07 Seismic Rehabilitation Method)
of Existing Buildings ASTM D610-08 Standard Practice for

American Concrete Institute Copyrighted Material --

50 Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings PROVISIONAL STANDARD

Evaluating Degree of Hydrodemolition

Rusting on Painted Methods
Steel Surfaces ICRI No. 320.2R-09 Guide for Selecting
ASTM D4065-06 Standard Practice for and Specifying
Plastics: Dynamic Materials for Repair of
Mechanical Properties: Concrete Surfaces
Determination and ICRI No. 320.3-04 Guideline for
Report of Procedures Inorganic Repair
ASTM E119-10 Standard Test Methods Material Data Sheet
for Fire Tests of Protocol
Building Construction ICRI No. 320.4-06 Guideline for the
and Materials Repair of Unbonded
Canadian Standards Association Concrete Structures
CAN/CSA S6-06 Canadian Highway ICRI No. 330.1-06 Guideline for the
Bridge Design Code Selection of
and Commentary Strengthening Systems
for Concrete Structures
International Concrete Repair Institute ICRI No. 340.1-06Guideline for Selecting
ICRI No. 210.2-02 Guideline for the Grouts to Control
Evaluation of Leakage in Concrete
Unbonded Post- Structures
Tensioned Concrete
Structures NACE International
ICRI No. 2010.3-04, “Guide for Using In- NACE 01101 Electrochemical
Situ Tensile Pull-Off Chloride Extraction
Tests to Evaluate Bond from Steel-Reinforced
of Concrete Surface Concrete - A State-of-
Materials” the-Art Report
ICRI No. 310.1R-08 Guide for Surface NACE 01102-02 State-of-the-Art
Preparation for the Report: Criteria for
Repair of Deteriorated Cathodic Protection of
Concrete Resulting Prestressed Concrete
from Reinforcing Steel Structures
Corrosion NACE 01104 Electrochemical
ICRI No. 310.2-97 Guideline for Selecting Realkalization of
and Specifying Steel-Reinforced
Concrete Surface Concrete—A State-of-
Preparation for the-Art Report
Sealers, Coatings, and
Polymer Overlays NACE 01105-05 Sacrificial Cathodic
ICRI No. 310.3-04 Guide for the Protection of
Preparation of Reinforced Concrete
Concrete Surfaces for Elements—A State-of-
Repair Using the-Art Report

American Concrete Institute Copyrighted Material --

PROVISIONAL STANDARD Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings 51

NACE RP0390-06 Standard Monfore, G. E., and Ost, B., 1965,

Recommended “Corrosion of Aluminum Conduit in
Practice Maintenance Concrete,” Journal of the PCA Research
and Rehabilitation and Development Laboratories, V. 7, pp.
Considerations for 10-22.
Corrosion Control of Murray, T. M.; Allen, D. E.; and Ungar, E.
Atmospherically E., 1999, “Floor Vibrations Due to Human
Exposed Existing Activity,” Steel Design Guide Series 11,
Steel-Reinforced American Institute of Steel Construction,
Concrete Structures Chicago, IL.
NACE SP0107-07 Standard Practice NFPA 5000, 2009, “Building Construction
Electrochemical and Safety Code,” National Fire Prevention
Realkalization and Association, Quincy, MA.
Chloride Extraction for PCA, 1985, “Analytical Methods of
Reinforced Concrete Determining Fire Endurance of Concrete
and Masonry Members—Approved
ACI Committee 315, 2004, ACI Detailing Procedures,” Model Code SR267, Portland
Manual, SP-66, American Concrete Cement Association, Skokie, IL.
Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 212 pp. PCA, 1994, “Assessing the Condition and
Bartlett, F. M., and MacGregor, J. G., 1995, Repair Alternatives of Fire-Exposed
“Equivalent Specified Concrete Strength from Concrete and Masonry Members,” Model
Core Test Data,” Concrete International, V. Code SR322, Portland Cement Association,
17, No. 3, Mar., pp. 52-58. Skokie, IL.
Concrete International, 2002a, “FAQ,” V. PCI, 2010, PCI Design Handbook, seventh
24, No. 3, Mar., p. 82. edition, Precast/Prestressed Concrete
Concrete International, 2002b, “FAQ,” V. Institute, Chicago, IL.
24, No. 6, June, p. 90. PTI, 2006, Post Tensioning Manual, sixth
Concrete International, 2002c, “FAQ,” V. edition, Post Tensioning Institute,
24, No. 7, July, p. 91. Farmington Hills, MI, 354 pp.
CRSI, 2001, “Evaluation of Reinforcing PTI, 2010, “Guide for Creating Openings and
Bars in Old Reinforced Concrete Penetrations in Existing Slabs with Unbonded
Structures,” Engineering Data Report No. Post-Tensioning (PTI DC80.2),” Post
48, Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute, Tensioning Institute, Farmington Hills, MI,
Schaumburg, IL. 16 pp.
Fisher, J., and West, M., 2003, “Erection Ruddy, J. L.; Marlo, J. P.; Loanneides, S.
Bracing of Low-Rise Structural Steel A.; and Alfawakhiri, F., 2003, “Design
Buildings,” Steel Design Guide Series 10, Guide 19: Fire Resistance of Structural Steel
American Institute of Steel Construction, Framing,” American Institute of Steel
Milwaukee, WI, 83 pp. Construction, Chicago, IL.
IBC, 2012, “International Building Code,” Sabnis, G. M.; Harris, H. G.; White, R. N.;
International Code Council, Washington, and Mirza, M. S., 1983, Structural Modeling
DC, 666 pp. and Experimental Techniques, Prentice-Hall
IBEC, 2012, “International Existing Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Building Code,” International Code Council, Scollard, C. R., and Bartlett, F. M., 2004,
Washington, DC, 294 pp. “Rehabilitation Criteria for Post-Tensioned
Voided-Slab Bridges,” Canadian Journal of

American Concrete Institute Copyrighted Material --

52 Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings PROVISIONAL STANDARD

Civil Engineering, V. 31, No. 6, pp. 977-

Swami, R. N., and Gaul, R., eds., 1996,
Repair and Strengthening with Adhesive
Bonded Plates, SP-165, American Concrete
Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 264 pp.
The Concrete Society, 1997, “Guide to
Surface Treatments for Protection and
Enhancement of Concrete,” Technical
Report 50, The Concrete Society,
Camberley, UK, 88 pp.
The Concrete Society, 2008, “Assessment,
Design and Repair of Fire-Damaged
Concrete Structures,” Technical Report 68,
The Concrete Society, Camberly, UK.
Tuutti, K., 1980, “Service Life of Structures
with Regard to Corrosion of Embedded
Steel,” Performance of Concrete in Marine
Environment, ACI SP-65, American
Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, pp.
U.S. Department of the Interior, 1995,
“Standards for the Treatment of Historic
Properties with Guidelines for Preserving,
Rehabilitating, Restoring, and
Reconstructing Historic Buildings,”
National Park Service, Department of the
Interior, Washington, DC.
Kahn, L. F., 1980, "Strengthening Existing
RC Columns for Earthquake Resistance,"
Seventh World Conference on Earthquake
Engineering, Istanbul, Turkey.
Harris, J. R., and Stevens, G. R., 1991,
"Detailing Reinforced Concrete Structures
for Post-Elastic Seismic Resistance,"
Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete
Structures Inelastic Response and Design,
ACI SP-127, American Concrete Institute,
Farmington Hills, MI, pp. 539-554.
Priestley, M. J. N.; Seible, F.; and Calvi, G.
M., 1996, Seismic Design and Retrofit of
Bridges, John Wiley & Sons, pp. 686.

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53 Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings PROVISIONAL STANDARD

Table 6.3.1a—Default compressive strength of structural concrete (psi) *

Time frame Footings Beams Slabs Columns Walls

1900-1919 1000 2000 1500 1500 1000

1920-1949 1500 2000 2000 2000 2000

1950-1969 2500 3000 3000 3000 2500

1970-Present 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000

Taken from ASCE/SEI 41-06.

Table 6.3.1b—Default tensile and yield strength properties for reinforcing for various
periods *
Structural† Intermediate† Hard†
Grade 33 40 50 60 65 70 75
Min. Yield (psi) 33,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 65,000 70,000 75,000
Year Min. Tensile (psi.) 55,000 70,000 80,000 90,000 75,000 80,000 100,000
1911-1959 X X X - X - -
1959-1966 X X X X X X X
1966-1972 - X X X X X -
1972-1974 - X X X X X -
1974-1987 - X X X X X -
- X X X X X -
An entry of “X” indicates the grade was available in those years.

The terms structural, intermediate, and hard became obsolete in 1968.

54 Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings PROVISIONAL STANDARD

Table 6.3.1c Default Tensile and Yield Strength Properties of Reinforcing for Various ASTM Specifications and Periods*
Structural† Intermediate† Hard †
Grade 33 40 50 60 65 70 75
Yield 33,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 65,000 70,000 75,000
Designatio Steel Type Tensile 55,000 70,000 80,000 90,000 75,000 80,000 100,000
n‡ (psi)
A15 Billet 1911-1966 X X X - -
A16 Rail 1913-1966 - - X - -
A61 Rail 1963-1966 - - - X -
A160 Axle 1936-1964 X X X - -
A160 Axle 1965-1966 X X X X -
A185 WWF - - - - X
A408 Billet 1957-1966 X X X - -
A431 Billet 1959-1966 - - - - - X
A432 Billet 1959-1966 - - - X - -
A497 WWF - - - - - -
A615 Billet 1968-1972 - X - - - -X
A615 Billet 1974-1986 - X - X - -
A615 Billet - X - X - X
A616|| Rail - - - X - -
A617 Axle - X - - - -
A706# Low-Alloy - - - X - X -
A955 Stainless - X - X - X
*An entry of “X” indicates the grade was available in those years.
†The terms structural, intermediate, and hard became obsolete in 1968.
‡ASTM steel is marked with the letter W.
§Rail bars are marked with the letter R.
Bars marked with “s!” (ASTM A616) have supplementary requirements for bend tests.
ASTM A706 has a minimum tensile strength of 80 ksi, but not less than 1.25 times the actual yield strength.

55 Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings PROVISIONAL STANDARD

Table 6.4.3—Coefficient of variation modification factor kc

n kc

2 2.4

3 1.47

4 1.28

5 1.20

6 1.15

8 1.10

10 1.08

12 1.06

16 1.05

20 1.03

25 or more 1.02

Table 6.4.6—Steel coefficient of variation modification factor, ks

n ks
3 3.46
4 2.34
5 1.92
6 1.69
8 1.45
10 1.32
12 1.24
16 1.14
20 1.08
25 1.03
30 or more 1.00

56 Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings PROVISIONAL STANDARD

American Concrete Institute Copyrighted Material --

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members receive discounts of up to 40% on all ACI products and services, including documents, seminars
and convention registration fees.

As a member of ACI, you join thousands of practitioners and professionals worldwide who share a
commitment to maintain the highest industry standards for concrete technology, construction, and
practices. In addition, ACI chapters provide opportunities for interaction of professionals and practitioners
at a local level.

American Concrete Institute

38800 Country Club Drive
Farmington Hills, MI 48331
Phone: 248-848-3700
Fax: 248-848-3701
Code Requirements for Evaluation, Repair, and
Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings


was founded in 1904 as a nonprofit membership organization dedicated to public

service and representing the user interest in the field of concrete. ACI gathers
and distributes information on the improvement of design, construction and
maintenance of concrete products and structures. The work of ACI is conducted by
individual ACI members and through volunteer committees composed of both members
and non-members.

The committees, as well as ACI as a whole, operate under a consensus format,

which assures all participants the right to have their views considered. Committee
activities include the development of building codes and specifications; analysis of
research and development results; presentation of construction and repair
techniques; and education.

Individuals interested in the activities of ACI are encouraged to become a member.

There are no educational or employment requirements. ACI’s membership is
composed of engineers, architects, scientists, contractors, educators, and
representatives from a variety of companies and organizations.

Members are encouraged to participate in committee activities that relate to their

specific areas of interest. For more information, contact ACI.