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346 PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE.

(REV 1-8-02) (FA 1-10-02) (7-02)

SECTION 346 (Pages 321-346) is deleted and the following substituted:

SECTION 346
PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE

346-1 Description.
Use concrete composed of a mixture of portland cement, aggregate, water, and, where
specified, admixtures and pozzolan. Deliver the portland cement concrete to the site of placement
in a freshly mixed, unhardened state.
Obtain concrete from an approved concrete production facility’s meeting the production
and Quality Control (QC) of concrete provisions of this Section and Chapter 9.2 of the Materials
Manual – Concrete Production Facilities Guidelines, which may be view at the following URL:
http://www11.myflorida.com/statematerialsoffice/OualitySystems/materialsmanual/section92.pdf
If the concrete production facility’s approval is suspended, the Contractor is solely responsible to
obtain the services of another approved concrete production facility or await the re-approval of
the affected concrete production facility prior to the placement of any further concrete on the
project. There will be no changes in the contract time or completion dates. Bear all delay costs
and other costs associated with the concrete production facility approval or re-approval.

346-2 Materials.
346-2.1 General: Meet the following requirements:
Coarse Aggregate ....................................................................Section 901
Fine Aggregate* ......................................................................Section 902
Portland Cement ......................................................................Section 921
Water .......................................................................................Section 923
Admixtures ..............................................................................Section 924
Pozzolans and Slag ..................................................................Section 929
*Use only silica sand except as provided in 902-5.2.3.
Do not use materials containing hard lumps, crusts or frozen matter, or that is
contaminated with dissimilar material.
346-2.2 Types of Cement: Unless a specific type of cement is designated elsewhere, use
Type I, Type IP, Type IS, Type IP (MS), Type II, or Type III cement in all classes of concrete.
Use only the types of cements designated for each environmental condition in
structural concrete. A mix design for a more aggressive environment may be substituted for a
lower environment condition.

TABLE 1
BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURES
Component Slightly Aggressive Moderately Extremely
Environment Aggressive Aggressive
Environment Environment
Prescast Type I, Type II, or Type I or Type III Type II with Fly
Superstructure and Type III with Fly Ash or Ash or Slag
Prestressed Slag, Type IP, Type
Elements IS, or Type IP (MS)
TABLE 1
BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURES
Component Slightly Aggressive Moderately Extremely
Environment Aggressive Aggressive
Environment Environment
C.I.P. Type I or Type II Type I with Fly Ash Type II with Fly
Superstructure Slabs or Slag, Type IP, Ash or Slag
and Barriers Type IS, or Type IP
(MS)
BRIDGE SUBSTRUCTURE, DRAINAGE STRUCTURES AND OTHER
STRUCTURES
Component Slightly Aggressive Moderately Extremely
Environment Aggressive Aggressive
Environment Environment
All Structure Type I, Type II, or Type I with Fly Ash Type II with Fly
Components Type III or Slag, Type IP, Ash or Slag
Type IP (MS), or
Type IS

346-2.3 Pozzolans and Slag: Use as desired, on an equal weight replacement basis, fly
ash, silica fume, metakaolin, other pozzolans, and slag materials as a cement replacement in all
classes of concrete, with the following limitations:
(1) Mass Concrete:
a. Fly Ash - ensure that the quantity of cement replaced with fly ash is
18% to 50% by weight.
b. Slag - ensure that the quantity of cement replaced with slag is 50% to
70% by weight. Ensure that slag is 50% to 55% of total cementitious content by mass of total
cementitious materials when used in combination of silica fume and/or metakaolin.
(2) Drilled Shaft:
a. Fly Ash - ensure that the quantity of cement replaced with fly ash is
33% to 37% by weight.
b. Slag - ensure that the quantity of cement replaced with slag is 58% to
62% by weight.
(3) For all other concrete uses not covered in (1) and (2) above,
a. Fly Ash - ensure that the quantity of cement replaced with fly ash is
18% to 22% by weight.
b. Slag - ensure that the quantity cement replaced with slag is 25% to
70% for Slightly and Moderately Aggressive environments, and 50% to 70% by weight when
used in extremely aggressive environments. Ensure that slag is 50% to 55% of total cementitious
content by weight of total cementitious materials when used in combination of silica fume and/or
metakaolin.
(4) Type IP (MS): Ensure that the quantity of cement replaced with Type IP (MS)
is in the range of 15% to 40% by weight.
(5) Silica Fume and Metakaolin:
a. Cure in accordance with the silica fume or metakaolin manufacturer’s
recommendation.
b. Silica Fume - ensure that the quantity of cement replaced with silica
fume is 7% to 9% by weight. Use high range water reducing admixtures in concrete mixes
incorporating silica fume.
c. Metakaolin - ensure that the quantity of cement replaced with
metakaolin is 8% to 12% by weight, and may require a high range water reducing admixture.
346-2.4 Coarse Aggregate Gradation: Produce all concrete using Size No. 57 or Size
No. 67 coarse aggregate. With the Engineer’s approval, Size No. 8 or Size No. 89 may be used
either alone or blended with Size No. 57 or Size No. 67. The Engineer will consider requests for
approval of other gradation individually. Submit sufficient statistical data to establish production
quality and uniformity of the subject aggregates, and establish the quality and uniformity of the
resultant concrete. Furnish aggregate gradations sized larger that nominal maximum size 1.5 inch
[37.5 mm] as two components. Ensure the maximum coarse aggregate size does not violate the
reinforcement spacing provisions given for reinforced concrete in the AASHTO Standard
Specifications for Highway Bridges.
346-2.5 Admixtures Requirements:
346-2.5.1 Chemical Admixtures: Use water-reducing admixture, Type A, or
water-reducing and retarding admixture, Type D, that meets the requirements of ASTM C 494
[ASTM C 494M]. Use in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommended dosage rate.
The Engineer may approve the use of other admixtures. The Engineer
will require the Contractor to submit statistical evidence supporting successful laboratory and
field trial mixes which demonstrate improved concrete quality or handling characteristics.
Do not use chemical admixtures or additives containing calcium chloride
(either in the raw materials or introduced during the manufacturing process) in reinforced
concrete.
346-2.5.2 Air Entrainment Admixtures: Use an air entraining admixture in all
concrete mixes except counterweight concrete. Establish dosage rates of air entrainment
admixtures by trial mixes, and adjust them based on field conditions to produce workable
concrete with the required air content as shown in Table 2.
346-2.5.3 High Range Water Reducing Admixtures: Use high range water
reducing admixtures in concrete mixes incorporating silica fume or metakaolin. Use as desired an
approved High Range Water Reducer (HRWR) admixture, either Type F or Type G, except for
concrete used in drilled shafts.
Perform all testing for plastic concrete properties after the HRWR has
been added to the concrete mix.
346-2.5.4 Corrosion Inhibitor Admixture: Use only with concrete containing
Type II cement, Class F fly ash or slag, and a water reducing retardant admixture. Type D, to
normalize the setting time of concrete. Ensure that all admixtures are compatible with the
corrosion inhibitor admixture.

346-3 Classification, Strength, Slump, and Air Content.


346-3.1 General: The separate classifications of concrete covered by this Section are
designated as Class I, Class II, Class III, Class IV, Class V, and Class VI. Strength, slump, and air
content of each class are specified in Table 2:

TABLE 2
Specified Minimum
Target Slump (inches)
Class of Concrete Strength (28-day) (psi) Air Content Range (%)
[(mm)](c)
[(MPa)]
STUCTURAL CONCRETE
I (Pavement) 3,000 [21] 2 [50] 1 to 6
I (Special)(a) 3,000 [21] 3 [75] (b) 1 to 6
II (a) 3,400 [23] 3 [75] (b) 1 to 6
II (Bridge Deck) 4,500 [31] 3 [75] (b) 1 to 6
III 5,000 [35] 3 [75] (b) 1 to 6
TABLE 2
Specified Minimum
Target Slump (inches)
Class of Concrete Strength (28-day) (psi) Air Content Range (%)
[(mm)](c)
[(MPa)]
III (Seal) 3,000 [21] 8 [200] 1 to 6
IV 5,500 [38] 3 [75] (b) 1 to 6
IV (Drilled Shaft) 4,000 [28] 8 [200] 0 to 6
V (Special) 6,000 [41] 3 [75] (b) (d) 1 to 5
V 6,500 [45] 3 [75] (b) 1 to 5
VI 8,500 [59] 3 [75] (b) 1 to 5

(a) For precast drainage products that are manufactured at the precast plant the
Contractor is permitted to use concrete meeting the requirements of ASTM C 478 [ASTM C
478M] 4,000 psi [30 MPa] in lieu of Class I or Class II concrete. Apply the chloride content
limits specified in 346-4.2 to all precast or cast-in-place box culverts.
(b) The Engineer may allow higher target slump, not to exceed 7 inches [180
mm], when a Type F or Type G admixtures is used.
(c) The Engineer may approve a reduction in the target slump for slip-formed or
prestressed elements.
(d) When the use of silica fume or metakaolin is required as a pozzolan in Class
V (Special) concrete, ensure that the concrete does not exceed a permeability of 1,000 coulombs
at 28-days when tested per AASHTO T 277. Submit 2, 4-inch [102 mm] diameter by 8 inch [203
mm] length cylindrical test specimens to the Engineer for permeability testing before mix design
approval. The permeability of the concrete will be taken as the average of two tests, one test per
cylinder.
346-3.2 Drilled Shaft Concrete: When drilled shaft concrete is placed in any wet shaft,
provide concrete in accordance with the following specified slump loss requirements. When
concrete is placed in a dry excavation, do not test for slump loss, except where a temporary
removable casing is to be used.
Ensure that drilled shaft concrete has a slump between 7 inches and 9 inches [175
mm and 225 mm] when placed and maintains a slump of 4 inches [100 mm] or more throughout
the drilled shaft concrete elapsed time. Ensure that the slump loss is gradual as evidenced by
slump loss tests described below. The concrete elapsed time is the sum of the mixing and transit
time, the placement time and the time required for removal of any temporary casing that causes or
could cause the concrete to flow into the space previously occupied by the temporary casing.
Provide slump loss tests before drilled shaft concrete operations begin,
demonstrating that the drilled shaft concrete maintains a slump of at least 4 inches [100 mm]
throughout the concrete elapsed time. Inform the Engineer at least 48 hours before performing
such tests. Perform slump loss testing of the drilled shaft mix using a laboratory acceptable to the
Engineer meeting the requirements of 6-9.
Perform the following procedures for slump loss tests:
(1) Prepare the mix for the slump loss test at a temperature consistent
with the highest ambient and concrete temperatures expected during actual concrete placement.
Obtain the Engineer’s approval of the test temperature.
(2) Ensure that the mix is at least 3 yd3 [2.3 m3] and is mixed in a mixer
truck.
(3) After initial mixing, determine the slump, concrete temperature,
ambient temperature and air content. Ensure that the concrete properties are within the required
specification limits.
(4) Mix the concrete intermittently for 30 seconds every five minutes at
the mixing speed of the mixer.
(5) Determine slump, concrete temperature, ambient temperature and air
content at 30 minute intervals until the slump is 4 inches [100 mm] or less. Remix the mix for one
minute at the mixing speed of the mixer before these tests are run.
(6) Begin all elapsed times when water is initially introduced into the
mix.
(7) Ensure that the concrete maintains a slump of at least 4 inches [100
mm] for the anticipated elapsed time.
(8) Obtain the Engineer’s approval of slump loss test results in terms of
elapsed time before concrete placements.
346-3.3 Mass Concrete: When mass concrete is designated in the Contract Documents,
[provide an analysis of the anticipated thermal developments in the mass concrete elements for all
expected project temperature ranges using the proposed mix design, casting procedures, and
materials. Use a Specialty Engineer following the procedure outlined in Section 207 of the ACI
Manual of Concrete Practice to formulate, implement, administer and monitor a temperature
control plan, making adjustments as necessary to ensure compliance with the Contract
Documents. Describe the measures and procedures intended for use to maintain a temperature
differential of 35°F [20°C] or less between the interior core center and exterior surface(s) of the
designated mass concrete elements during curing. Submit both the mass concrete mix design and
the proposed mass concrete plan to monitor and control the temperature differential to the
Engineer for acceptance. The Engineer will review the submittal for acceptance within ten
working days of receipt. Provide temperature monitoring devices to record temperature
development between the interior core center and exterior surface(s) of the elements in
accordance with the accepted mass concrete plan. Read the monitoring devices and record the
readings at intervals no greater than 6-hours beginning when the mass concrete placement is
complete and continuing until the maximum temperature differential (not maximum temperature)
is reached and a decreasing temperature differential is confirmed. Furnish a copy of all
temperature readings to the Engineer. If the 35°F [20°C] differential has been exceeded, take
immediate action, as directed by the Specialty Engineer, to retard further growth of the
temperature differential. Use a Specialty Engineer to revise the previously accepted plan to ensure
compliance on future placements. Do not place any mass concrete until the Engineer has accepted
the mass concrete plans. When mass concrete temperature differentials are exceeded provide all
analyses and test results deemed necessary by the Engineer for determining the structural
integrity and durability of the mass concrete element, to the satisfaction of the Engineer. The
Department will make no compensation, either monetary or time, for the analyses or tests or any
impacts upon the project.

346-4 Composition of Concrete.


346-4.1 Master Proportion Table: Proportion the materials used to produce the various
classes of concrete in accordance with Table 3:

TABLE 3
Class of Concrete Minimum Total Cementitious *Maximum Water Cementitious
Materials Content lb/yd3 Materials Ratio lb/lb [kg/kg]
[kg/m3]
I (Pavement) 508 [300] 0.50
I (Special) 508 [300] 0.50
II 564 [335] 0.49
II (Bridge Deck) 6ll [365] 0.44
III 611 [365] 0.44
III (Seal) 611 [365] 0.52
TABLE 3
Class of Concrete Minimum Total Cementitious *Maximum Water Cementitious
Materials Content lb/yd3 Materials Ratio lb/lb [kg/kg]
[kg/m3]
IV 658 [390] 0.41
IV (Drilled Shaft) 658 [390] 0.41
V (Special) 752 [445] 0.37**
V 752 [445] 0.37**
VI 752 [445] 0.37
*The calculation of the water to cementitious materials ratio (w/cm) is based on the total cementitious material
including silica fume, slag, fly ash or metakaolin.
**When the use of silica fume or metakaolin is required as a pozzolan, the maximum water cementitious material ratio
will be 0.35.

346-4.2 Chloride Content Limits for Concrete Construction:


346-4.2.1 General: Use the following maximum chloride content limits for the
concrete application shown:

Table 4
Maximum Allowable
Application Chloride Content lb/yd3 [kg/m3]
Production Mix Design
Non Reinforced Concrete N/A N/A
Reinforced Concrete that does not require Type II cement plus
0.70 [0.42] 0.64 [0.38]
slag or pozzolan(s)
All applications that require Type II cement plus pozzolan(s) 0.40 [0.24] 0.34 [0.20]
Prestressed Concrete 0.40 [0.24] 0.34 [0.20]

Determine the chloride content as the average of three tests on samples


taken from the concrete. Ensure that the range of results of the three tests does not exceed a
chloride content of 0.08 lb/yd3 [0.05 kg/m3] of concrete. When test results are outside of the
allowable range, run an additional three tests until the test results are within the allowable range.
The Contractor may obtain samples from representative concrete cylinders or cores tested for
compressive strength. If the cylinders or cores have been exposed to salt or aggressive
environment, discard the outer 1 inch [25 mm] surface of the sample.
346-4.2.2 Sampling and Testing: Determine the chloride content in accordance
with FM 5-516 within two weeks of sampling.
(1) For all concrete requiring Type II cement with pozzolan(s) or slag
and prestressed concrete, determine the chloride content on a frequency that is in accordance with
these Specifications and the following procedures:
(a) When the chloride content is 0.25 lb/yd3 [0.15 k/m3] or less,
determine chloride content at a frequency of not less than one for every four weeks of production
as long as the test results remain at or below 0.25 lb/yd3 [0.15 kg/m3]. As an exception to the
aforementioned testing frequency, when eight consecutive tests show chloride content 0.25 lb/yd3
[0.15 kg/m3], the Engineer may reduce the frequency to not less than one every eight weeks of
production.
(b) When the chloride content is greater that 0.25 lb/yd3 [0.15
k/m ] and less than or equal to 0.33 lb/yd3 [0.20 kg/m3], determine chloride content at a frequency
3

of not less than one for every two weeks of production, as long as the values remain at or below
0.33 lb/yd3 [0.20 kg/m3].
(c) When the chloride content is greater than 0.33 lb/yd3 [0.20
3
kg/m ], make subsequent chloride content tests for each day’s production.
(2) For all reinforced concrete other than concrete requiring Type II
cement with slag or pozzolan(s) and prestressed concrete, determine the chloride content on a
frequency of not less than one test every four weeks. As an exception to the aforementioned
testing frequency, when eight consecutive chloride content determinations are below 0.40 lb/yd3
[0.24 kg/m3] of concrete, the Engineer may reduce the frequency to not less than one every eight
weeks of production.
For any case listed above, when the source of any concrete
component material, including admixtures, is changed, determine the chloride content
immediately.
Test results obtained at the frequency provided above represent
the chloride content of all concrete placed subsequent to the proceeding test for the determination
of chloride content.
346-4.2.3 Certification: Determine the chloride content, and certify the test
results of chloride determinations to the Department. Include in the certification all pertinent data
required by the Department. The Department will require properly executed certifications
showing the chloride content within the required limits for acceptance of all concrete produced in
accordance with these Specifications.
346-4.2.4 Control Level for Corrective Action: If the test results indicate that
the chloride level is greater than the following limits, suspend concrete production until
implementing corrective measures acceptable to the Engineer.
(1) Chloride content of 0.65 lb/yd3 [0.39 kg/m3] or greater for reinforced
concrete that does not require Type II cement plus slag or pozzolan(s).
(2) Chloride content of 0.35 lb/yd3 [0.21 kg/m3] or greater for prestressed
concrete and all applications that require Type II cement with slag or pozzolan(s).
The Engineer will reject the concrete exceeding the maximum
allowable chloride content limits shown in 346-4.2.1.

346-5 Sampling and Testing Methods.


Perform concrete sampling and testing in accordance with the following methods:

Table 5
Description Method
Slump of Hydraulic Cement Concrete ASTM C 143 [ASTM C 143M]
Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by the Pressure
ASTM C 231
Method*
Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by the Volumetric
ASTM C 173 [ASTM C 173M]
Method*
Making and Curing Test Specimens in the Field ASTM C 31 [ASTM C 31M]
Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens ASTM C 39 [ASTM C 39M]
Obtaining and Testing Drilled Core and Sawed Beams of
ASTM C 42 [ASTM C 42M]
Concrete
Early sampling of fresh concrete from revolving drum truck
FM 5-501
mixers or agitators
Low Levels of Chloride in Concrete and Raw Materials FM 5-516
Density (Unit Weight), Yield and Air Content ASTM C 138 [ASTM C 138M]
(G i t i ) f C t
Table 5
Description Method
Slump of Hydraulic Cement Concrete ASTM C 143 [ASTM C 143M]
(Gravimetric) of Concrete

Temperature of Freshly Mixed Portland Cement Concrete ASTM C 1064 [ASTM C 1064M]
Sampling Freshly Mixed Concrete ASTM C 172
*Use the same type of meter for QC tests as the Department uses for verification testing. Where selecting pressure type
meters, use an aggregate correction factor determined by the concrete producer for each mix design to be tested. Record
and certify test results for correction factors for each type of aggregate at the concrete production facility.

346-6 Quality Control.


346-6.1 General: Develop a Quality Control Plan (QCP) as specified in 6-8. Assume
responsibility for meeting the requirements of the approved QCP and Contract Documents.
Ensure the QCP includes the necessary requirements to control the quality of the concrete
between the point of delivery at the site and the final placement.
Quality Control (QC) activities are performed by the Contractor to ensure
materials, methods, techniques, personnel, procedures and processes utilized during production
meet the specified requirements.
Accept responsibility for performing QC inspections of all phases of work
ensuring all materials and workmanship incorporated into the product meets the requirements of
the Contract Documents.
When concrete plastic properties (slump, air content and temperature) could be
significantly affected by handling between the point of delivery and the point of final placement,
including the use of pumps, conveyor belts, troughs, chutes, barge transport or other means.
Provide in the QCP provisions to sample the plastic concrete for all testing at the point of final
placement, as a minimum.
Ensure the QCP includes any anticipated requirements for adjusting the concrete
at the placement site. Include the testing procedures that will be implemented to control the
quality of the concrete and ensure that concrete placed is within the target range. Also, include
provisions for the addition of water to concrete delivered to the placement site at designated level
areas, to ensure the allowable amount of water stated on the concrete delivery ticket or the
maximum water/cementitious ration on the approve design mix are not exceeded. Ensure the
anticipated ranges of job site water additions are described and the proposed methods of
measuring water for concrete adjustments are included.
Failure to meet the requirements of this Specification or the QCP will
automatically void that portion of the QCP. To obtain QCP re-approval, implement corrective
actions as approved by the Engineer. The Engineer may allow the Contractor to continue any
ongoing concrete placement but the Engineer will not accept concrete for any new placement
until the QCP reapproval is given by the Engineer.
346-6.2 Concrete Design Mix: Provide concrete that has been produced in accordance
with a Department approved design mix.
Do not place concretes of different compositions such that the plastic concretes
may combine, except where the plans require concrete both with and without silica fume,
metakaolin or calcium nitrite in a continuous placement. Produce these concretes using two
separate design mixes. For example, designate the mix with calcium nitrite as the original mix
and the mix without calcium nitrite as the redesigned mix. Ensure that both mixes contain the
same cement, fly ash or slag, coarse and fine aggregates and compatible admixtures. Submit both
mixes for approval as separate mix designs, both meeting all requirements of this Section. Ensure
that the redesigned mix exhibits plastic and hardened qualities which are additionally approved
by the Engineer as suitable for placement with the original mix. The Engineer will approve the
redesigned mix for commingling with the original mix and for a specific project application only.
Alternately, place a construction joint at the location of the change in concretes.
346-6.2.1 Material Substitutions: Material sources may be substituted within an
approved base mix design provided that the materials are the same type, with similar chemical
and physical properties and are from an approved source. Obtain the Department’s approval for
any material substitutions before beginning concrete placement. Provide a new base mix design
for any cementitious material or admixture substitution. The Department may take up to five
working days to review any material substitution request.
For every material substitution made, perform testing for chlorides and
ensure compliance with 346-4.2.
Ensure the substituted mix meets the theoretical yield requirements, does
not exceed the maximum water to cementitious materials ratio, and the cement content equals or
exceeds, the approved base mix design.
The Department may require a single 3.0 yd3 [2.3 m3] minimum test
batch at the approved concrete production facility to demonstrate that the plastic properties of the
adjusted mix design is within the slump and air tolerances provided in Table 2 and the theoretical
unit weight of the proposed mix design will be within 2.0 lbs/ft3 [35 kg/m3] of the originally mix
design. Approved adjusted mixes may be transferred.
At any time if the Engineer determines that unsatisfactory results are
obtained during production, return to the originally approved base mix design or obtain approval
of a new mix design.
346-6.3 Delivery Certification: Ensure that a delivery ticket is furnished with each batch
of concrete before unloading at the placement site. Ensure that the materials and quantities
incorporated into the batch of concrete are recorded on the delivery ticket. Provide the following
information on the delivery ticket:
(1) Arrival time at job site
(2) Time that concrete mix has been completely discharged
(3) Number of revolutions upon arrival at the job site
(4) Total gallons [liters] of water added at the job site
(5) Additional mixing revolutions when water is added
(6) Total number of revolutions at mixing and agitating speed.
Ensure the batcher responsible for production of the batch of concrete signs the
delivery ticket, certifying the batch of concrete was produced in accordance with the Contract
Documents.
Sign the delivery ticket certifying that the maximum specified water to
cementitious materials ratio was not exceeded due to any job site adjustments to the batch of
concrete, and that the batch of concrete was delivered and placed in accordance with the Contract
Documents.
346-6.4 Tolerances: Meet the following tolerances from target values for plastic concrete
properties specified in 346-3.1:

Table 6
Property Tolerance
Slump (Non-Drilled Shaft Concrete) ± 1.5 inch [± 40 mm]
Slump (Drilled Shaft Concrete) ± 1 inch [± 25 mm]
Air Content As shown in the range in Table 2
Reject concrete with slump exceeding the above tolerances or air content
exceeding the ranges in Table 2. Do not allow concrete to remain in a transporting vehicle to
reduce slump. Water may be added in accordance with the approved QCP.
If the slump of non-drilled shaft concrete varies from the target value in excess of
0.75 inch [20 mm] (1 inch [25 mm] for concrete containing HRWR), immediately adjust the
concrete mixture to correct the slump of succeeding batches. The Engineer will allow a
reasonable time for adjustment, taking into consideration trucks already in route from the
concrete production facility. If the Contractor does not implement adjustments at the earliest
possible time, the Engineer will reject the concrete and terminate further production until the
Contractor makes corrections.

346-7 Mixing and Delivering Concrete.


346-7.1 General Requirements: Operate all concrete mixers at speeds and volumes per
the manufacturer’s design or recommendation as stipulated on the mixer rating plate.
346-7.2 Transit Mixing: When water is added at the job site, mix the concrete 30
additional mixing revolutions. When mixing for the purpose of adjusting consistency, do not
allow the total number of revolutions at mixing speed to exceed 160. Discharge all concrete from
truck mixers before total drum revolutions exceeds 300.
346-7.3 Mixing at the Site: Use a mixer of sufficient capacity to prevent delays that may
be detrimental to the quality of the work. Ensure that the accuracy of batching equipment is in
accordance with requirements of this Section.
346-7.4 Concreting in Cold Weather: Do not mix concrete when the air temperature is
below 45°F [7°C] and falling. The Contractor may mix and place concrete when the air
temperature in the shade, and away from artificial heat, is above 40°F [4°C] and rising. Do not
heat aggregates or use salts to reduce the freezing temperature. Protect the fresh concrete from
freezing until the concrete reaches a minimum compressive strength of 1,500 psi [10 MPa]. Do
not apply this requirement where concrete is to be heat cured.
346-7.5 Concreting in Hot Weather: Hot weather concreting is defined as the
production, placing and curing of concrete when the concrete temperature at placing exceeds
85°F [30°C] but is less than 100°F [40°C].
Unless the specified hot weather concreting measures are in effect, reject
concrete exceeding 85°F [30°C] at the time of placement. Regardless of special measures taken,
reject concrete exceeding 100°F [40°C]. Predict the concrete temperatures at placement time and
implement hot weather measures to avoid production shutdown.
346-7.6 Transit Time: Ensure compliance with the following maximum allowable time
between the initial introduction of water into the mix and depositing the concrete in place:

Table 7
Non-Agitator Trucks Agitator Trucks
45 minutes 60 minutes
75 minutes* 90 minutes*
*When a water reducing and retarding admixture (Type D or Type G) is used.

346-7.7 Adding Water To Concrete at the Placement Site: Perform an initial slump
before the addition of water at the job site. After adjusting the slump, perform a test to confirm
that the slump of the concrete is within the target range. If the slump exceeds the target range but
is within the tolerance range, that load may be accepted, but water added at the site will be
reduced to maintain a slump within the target range on successive loads. Confirm with another
test that the next load is within the target range after the addition of water at the placement site.
Repeated incidents of concrete being placed outside the target range will result in revocation of
that portion of the QCP. No concrete represented by plastic test results outside of the tolerance
range will be accepted for placement.
346-7.8 Sample Location: Where concrete buckets are used to discharge concrete
directly into the forms at the point of final placement or into the hopper of a tremie pipe, all
samples will be obtained from the discharge of the bucket; except where the concrete is
discharged directly from the mixer into the bucket, with a minimal lapse of time before discharge
of the bucket, all samples may be obtained from the discharge of the mixer if identified in the
QCP.
Where concrete is placed in a drilled shaft or other element using a tremie pipe
and a concrete pump, all QC and verification samples will be obtained from the discharge of the
pump line at the location of the tremie hopper. Obtain comparative samples for use in controlling
the mix from the discharge of the mixer delivering concrete to the pump to confirm that the
plastic properties are within the tolerance range.
Where a concrete pump is used to deposit concrete directly into a drilled shaft
which is a wet excavation without the use of a tremie, ensure the discharge end of the pump line
remains immersed in the concrete at all times after starting concrete placement, and the following
procedures is followed:
a. Obtain initial samples from the discharge of the pump line using the
full length of pump line which will be required to start the placement. Ensure the plastic
properties of the concrete sampled from the discharge of the pump line are within the target
range. Obtain comparative initial samples from the discharge of the mixer delivering concrete to
the pump in order to control the plastic properties of the mix.
b. Obtain all other samples from the discharge of the mixer delivering
concrete to the pump. Ensure the plastic properties of the concrete being delivered to the pump
are within the allowable tolerance, except when necessary and approved by the Engineer and base
on comparative testing, to provide concrete meeting the Specification requirements at the end of
the pump line.

346-8 Plastic Concrete Sampling and Testing.


QC tests include water to cementitious ratio calculation, air content, temperature, slump,
compressive strength cylinders, and may include plastic unit weight. Perform plastic concrete
tests on the initial delivery of each concrete design mix each day. Ensure QC technicians meeting
the requirements of 105-2 are present and performing test throughout the placement operation.
Ensure one technician is present and performing test throughout the placement operation at each
placement site. Ensure all equipment utilized meets this Specification. Do not proceed with the
placement operation until the delivered concrete complies with plastic properties specified. After
placement begins, perform QC tests to ensure compliance with Specification requirements on
each LOT of concrete. Reject non-complying loads which cannot be adjusted at the job site.
Ensure that corrections are made on subsequent loads.
Furnish sufficient concrete of each design mix as required by the Engineer for
verification testing. When the Engineer’s verification tests results do not compare with the QC
plastic properties tests results do not compare with the QC plastic properties tests results, within
the limits defined by the Independent Assurance (IA) checklist comparison criteria, disposition of
the concrete will be at the option of the Contractor.
If a QC test fails, reject the remainder of that load, terminate the LOT, and notify the
Engineer. Make cylinders representing that LOT from the same sample of concrete.
Following termination of a LOT, re-initiate initial plastic properties tests until such time
as the water to cementitious materials ratio, air content, temperature and slump comply with the
Specification requirements. Initiate a new LOT once the testing indicates compliance with
Specification requirements.
When three consecutive LOTs, or when five LOTs in two days of production of the same
design mix are outside the specified tolerances, suspend production. Make the necessary revisions
to concrete operations and increase the frequency of QC testing in the QCP to bring the concrete
within allowable tolerances. Obtain the Engineer’s approval of the revisions before resuming
production. After production resumes, obtain the Engineer’s approval before returning to the
normal frequency of QC testing.
If concrete placement stops for more than 90 minutes, perform initial plastic properties
testing on the next batch and continue the LOT. Cylinders cast for that LOT will represent the
entire LOT.
The Department may perform discretionary verification testing at any time to evaluate the
QC of the concrete. The comparison between the discretionary verification testing and the QC
testing is identified in the IA checklist criteria. When a test does not compare, the Contractor will
revise the QCP as deemed necessary by the Engineer. The Department reserves the right to notify
the IA to review the testing procedures and equipment.

346-9 Acceptance Sampling and Testing.


346-9.1 General: Perform plastic properties test as per 346-8 and cast a set of three 6
inch x 12 inch [150 mm x 300 mm] QC cylinders for each LOT of structural concrete
incorporated into the project. Take these acceptance samples randomly for each LOT as
determined by a random number generator. The Department will independently perform plastic
properties test and cast a set of verification cylinders from a separate sample from the same load
of concrete as the Contractor’s QC sample. For each LOT verified by the Department, cast one
additional cylinder from the same sample, and identify it as the QC “hold” cylinder. The
Department will also cast one additional “hold” cylinder from each verification sample. All
cylinders will be initially cured in the same curing facility. Transport the QC cylinders to the
testing laboratory in the same time period the Department transports the verification cylinders.
Test the QC samples for compressive strength at the age of 28-days in a
laboratory meeting and maintaining at all times the qualification requirements listed in 6-9.
The Engineer will compare the average 28-day compressive strength of the QC
cylinders to the average 28-day compressive strength of the verification cylinders for that LOT.
QC and verification test laboratories will provide the Engineer with the compressive strength test
results on the first working day after testing and place this information into the Department’s
sample tracking database within three working days. If the averages of the 28-day compressive
strength compare within 750 psi [5.2 MPa], the QC data is verified. If the verification and QC do
not compare, the Engineer will initiate a resolution procedure in accordance with 346-9.5.
346-9.2 Sampling Frequency for Quality Control Tests:
As a minimum, sample and test concrete of each design mix for water to
cementitious ratio, air content, temperature, slump and compressive strength in accordance with
Table 8. The Engineer will randomly verify one of every four consecutive LOTs of each design
mix based on a random number generator, and may perform additional discretionary verification
tests.

Table 8
Class Concrete Maximum LOT Size
I (Pavement) one lane mile [1.5 lane km] or one day’s
production, whichever is less
I (Special) 150 yd3 [125 m3] or one day’s production,
whichever is less
II, II (Bridge Deck), III, IV, IV (Drilled Shaft), 50 yd3 [40 m3], or one day’s production,
V (Special), V, VI whichever is less
III (Seal) Each Seal placement
346-9.2.1 Reduced Frequency for Acceptance Tests: For all structural concrete
except Class I and III (Seal), if the previous 15 consecutive strength test results of the same
design mix produced at the same concrete production facility, on a given Contract have all been
verified and have attained an average strength greater than 2 standard deviations above the
specified minimum, then the maximum LOT size will be increased to 100 yd3 [80 m3].
The average of 15 consecutive breaks can be established based on
historical data from the previous project. The data must also represent the same
prime/subcontractor. The last test from the previous job must be within the last 60 calendar days.
Test data must be from a laboratory meeting the requirements of 6-9.
The average of 15 consecutive breaks can also be established by a
succession of samples on the current project. Only one sample can be taken from each LOT.
If at any time a strength test is not verified and/or the average strength of
the previous 15 consecutive samples is less than the specified minimum plus 2 standard
deviations, the maximum LOT size will return to 50 yd3 [40 m3]. The maximum LOT size will
remain 50 yd3 [40 m3] until the thresholds listed above are achieved.
346-9.3 Strength Test Definition: The strength test of a LOT is defined as the average
of the compressive strength tests of three cylinders cast from the same sample of concrete from
the LOT.
346-9.4 Acceptance of Hardened Concrete: Hardened concrete will be accepted or
rejected on the basis of strength test results as defined in 346-9.3. Do not discard a cylinder
strength test result based on low strength (strength below the specified minimum strength as per
the provisions of 346-3 and 346-9). When QC strength test results are verified, the Engineer will
accept the concrete based on QC test results. The Engineer will accept at full pay only LOTs of
concrete represented by strength test results which equal or exceed the respective specified
minimum strength.
When one of the three QC cylinders from non-verified LOT is lost, damaged or
destroyed, determination for compress strength will be made by averaging the remaining two
cylinders and payment for that LOT of concrete will be reduced by 10%.
When more than one QC cylinder from a non-verified LOT is lost, damaged or
destroyed, the Contractor, at the discretion of the Engineer, will core the structure at no cost to the
Department to determine if the LOT of concrete meets the minimum compressive strength
requirements. In addition, no payment will be made for this LOT of concrete.
When QC compressive strength test results are not verified, the resolution
procedure will be used to accept or reject the concrete.
346-9.5 Resolution Procedure: The Department may initiate an IA review of sampling
and testing methods. The resolution procedure may consist of, but need not be limited to, a
review of sampling and testing of fresh concrete, calculation of water cementitious materials
ratio, handling of cylinders, curing procedures and compressive strength testing. Cores of the
hardened concrete may be required. The Engineer will ensure that the QC and verification “hold”
cylinders are tested within 7 days of the 28-day strength tests. The following acceptance
procedure will apply.
When the Department determines that either the QC or verification strength test
results are in error, the concrete will be accepted based only on the strength test results deemed by
the Department to be the most accurate. When the verification strength test results are deemed to
be the most accurate, the verification strength test results will represent the four consecutive
LOTs, and the Contractor will pay for the resolution testing. When the QC strength test results are
deemed to be the most accurate, the QC strength test results will represent the four consecutive
LOTs and the Department will pay for the resolution testing.
When the Department cannot determine that either the QC or verification
strength test results are in error, the concrete represented by the four consecutive LOTs will be
evaluated based on the results of the resolution investigation.
If the Department finds deficiencies based on the Contractor’s QCP, the Engineer
may suspend that part of the QCP. When the QCP is suspended, submit corrective actions for
approval of the Engineer. The Engineer may take up to five working days to review corrective
actions to the QCP. The Engineer will not allow changes to Contract Time or completion dates.
Incur all delay costs and other costs associated with QCP suspension and re-approval.

346-10 Investigation of Low Strength Concrete for Structural Adequacy.


346-10.1 General: When a concrete acceptance strength test result falls more than 10%
or 500 psi [3.5 MPa] below the specified minimum strength, whichever is the lesser deviation
from the specified minimum strength, and the Department determines that an investigation is
necessary, make an investigation into the structural adequacy of the LOT of concrete represented
by that acceptance strength test result at no additional expense to the Department. The Engineer
may also require the Contractor to perform additional strength testing as necessary to determine
structural adequacy of the concrete.
Furnish either a structural analysis performed by a Specialty Engineer to
establish strength adequacy or drilled core samples as specified in 346-10.3 to determine the in-
place strength of the LOT of concrete in question at no additional expense to the Department.
Obtain the Engineers approval before taking any core samples. Core strength test results obtained
from the structure will be accepted by both the Contractor and the Department as the in-place
strength of the LOT of concrete in question. The core strength test results will be final and used in
lieu of the cylinder strength test results for determination of structural adequacy and any pay
adjustment. The Department will calculate the strength value to be the average of the compressive
strengths of the three individual cores and this will be accepted as the actual measured value.
346-10.2 Determination of Structural Adequacy: If the core strength test results are
less than 10% below the specified minimum strength, and this deviation from the specified
minimum strength does not exceed 500 psi [3.5 MPa], consider the concrete represented by the
cores structurally adequate. If the core strength test results are more than 10% or 500 psi [3.5
MPa] below the specified minimum strength, whichever is the lesser deviation from the specified
minimum strength, the Department will consider the concrete represented by the cores
structurally questionable. Submit a structural analysis performed by a Specialty Engineer. If the
results of the structural analysis, approved by the Department, indicates adequate strength to
serve its intended purpose with adequate durability, the Contractor may leave the concrete in
place subject to the requirements of 346-11, otherwise, remove and replace the LOT of concrete
in question at no additional expense to the Department.
346-10.3 Coring for Determination of Structural Adequacy: Furnish three undamaged
core samples taken from the same approximate location as where the structural questionable
concrete represented by the low strength concrete test cylinders was placed. Select the location of
the drilled cores so that the structure is not impaired and does not sustain permanent damage after
repairing the core holes. Obtain the approval of the Engineer to core, and of the core location
prior to drilling.
346-10.4 Core Conditioning and Testing: The Department will test the cores in
accordance with ASTM C 42 [ASTM C 42M].

346-11 Pay Adjustments for Low Strength Concrete.


346-11.1 General: Any LOT of concrete failing to meet the specified minimum strength
as defined in 346-3, 346-9, 346-10 and satisfactorily meeting all other requirements of the
Contract Documents, including structural adequacy, the Engineer will individually reduce the
price of each low strength LOT in accordance with this Section.
346-11.2 Basis for Pay Adjustments: When an acceptance strength test result falls more
than 10% or 500 psi [3.5 MPa] below the specified minimum strength, whichever is the lesser
deviation from the specified minimum strength, core samples may be obtained from the
respective LOT of concrete represented by the low acceptance strength test result for determining
pay adjustments.
When the Contractor submits acceptable core samples to the Engineer for testing,
the Engineer will determine payment reductions based upon the results of the strength tests. Both
the Contractor and the Department will accept the results of strength tests of the drilled cores,
subject to 346-11.5 and 346-11.6, as final and in lieu of the cylinder strength test results for
determining pay adjustments.
Do not core hardened concrete for determining pay adjustments when the 28-day
acceptance cylinder strength test results are less than 10% below the specified minimum strength,
and this deviation from the specified minimum strength does not exceed 500 psi [3.5 MPa].
346-11.3 Coring for Determination of Pay Adjustments: Obtain the cores in
accordance with 346-10.3.
346-11.4 Core Conditioning and Testing: The Department will test the cores in
accordance with 346-10.4.
346-11.5 Core Strength Representing Equivalent 28-day Strength: For cores tested
no later than 42 days after the concrete was cast, the Engineer will accept the core strengths
obtained as representing the equivalent 28-day strength of the LOT of concrete in question. The
Engineer will calculate the strength value to be the average of the compressive strengths of the
three individual cores. The Engineer will accept this strength at its actual measured value.
346-11.6 Core Strength Adjustments: For cores tested later than 42 days after the
concrete was cast, the Department will establish the equivalency between 28-day strength and
strength at ages after 42 days based on test data developed by a Department approved testing
laboratory to relate strength at the actual test age to 28-day strength for the particular class of
concrete and design mix represented by the cores. Obtain such data at no additional expense to
the Department. When such data is not available and cannot be produced, as determined by the
Department, the Department will determine the equivalent 28-day strength by adjusting the tested
core strengths according to the following relationship:

Equivalent 28-day Strength = Average Core Strength X100


F
where:
F = 4.4 + 39.1 (ln x) –3.1 (ln x)2 (Type I Cement)
F = -17.8 + 46.3 (ln x) –3.3 (ln x)2 (Type II Cement)
F = 48.5 + 19.4 (ln x) –1.4 (ln x)2 (Type III Cement)
x = number of days since the concrete was placed
ln = natural log

346-11.7 Calculating Pay Adjustments: The Engineer will determine payment


reductions for low strength concrete, accepted by the Department and represented by either
cylinder or core strength test results below the specified minimum strength, in accordance with
the following:
Reduction in Pay = $0.80/yd3 [$1.05/m3] for each 10 psi [70 MPa] of strength
test value below the specified minimum strength.
For the elements that payments are based on the per foot [meter] basis, the
Engineer will adjust the price reduction from cubic yards [cubic meters] basis to per foot [meter]
basis, determine the total feet [meter] of the elements that are effected by low strength concrete
samples and apply the adjusted price reduction accordingly.
347 PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE – CLASS I (NONSTRUCTURAL).
(REV 5-21-01) (FA 6-20-01) (1-02)

SECTION 347 (Pages 346-349) is deleted and the following substituted:

SECTION 347
PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE - CLASS I
(NONSTRUCTURAL)

347-1 Description.
The requirements of this Section are applicable to concrete designated as Class I (Nonstructural),
hereinafter referred to as concrete. Use concrete composed of a mixture of portland cement, aggregates,
and water, with or without chemical admixtures, slag, or pozzolanic materials. Deliver concrete to
placement site in a freshly mixed, unhardened state.

347-2 Materials.
347-2.1 General: Certify that all materials used in concrete are from Department approved
sources, and free from frozen or other detrimental matter.
Meet the following requirements:
(a) Portland Cement .......................................................... Section 921
(b) Fine Aggregate ............................................................ Section 902
(c) Coarse Aggregate ........................................................ Section 901
(d) Water ........................................................................... Section 923
(e) Chemical Admixtures.................................................. Section 924
(f) Pozzolans and Slag ...................................................... Section 929

347-2.2 Admixture Requirements: Chemical admixtures may be added at the dosage rates
recommended by the manufacturer.
347-2.3 Substitution of Materials: Approved material sources may be substituted for similar
materials indicated on the originally approved mix design. Use originally approved mix components and
proportions, when unsatisfactory test results are obtained from the use of the substituted material(s).
347-2.4 Material Storage: Use a concrete production facility that meets the following
requirements:
347-2.4.1 Cementitious Materials Storage: Provide a separate and clearly labeled
weatherproof facility to store each brand or type of cementitious material without mixing or
contamination. Provide a suitable, safe and convenient means of collecting cementitious material samples
at each storage facility.
347-2.4.2 Aggregate Storage: Provide suitable bins, stockpiles or silos to store and
identify aggregates without mixing, segregating or contaminating different grades or types of materials.
Identify Department approved pit number and aggregate type/gradation. Handle the aggregates in a
manner to minimize segregation and meet the specification requirements when recovered from storage.
Continuously and uniformly sprinkle coarse aggregate with water, for 24 hours preceding introduction
into the concrete mix. Maintain stored aggregates in a well-drained condition to minimize free water
content. Provide access for the Engineer to sample the aggregates from the recovery side of the storage
facility.

347-3 Production, Mixing and Delivery.


347-3.1 Concrete Production Requirements: Deliver concrete from a production facility that is
certified by the National Ready-Mixed Concrete Association (NRMCA) or approved by the District
Materials Office and on the Department’s approved plant list. Produce concrete utilizing equipment that is
in good operating condition and operated in a manner to ensure a consistent product. Within two hours
prior to each day’s batching, ensure that the concrete production facility determines the free moisture for
the coarse and fine aggregates. On concrete placements expected to exceed three hours, perform an
additional moisture test approximately half way through the batching operations and adjust batch
proportions accordingly.
Ensure that the calibration of the measuring devices of the concrete production facilities
meets the requirements of Chapter 531 of the Florida Statutes. At least quarterly, ensure that all scales,
meters and other weighing or measuring devices are checked for accuracy by a qualified representative of
a scale company registered with the Bureau of Weights and Measures of the Florida Department of
Agriculture. Have the accuracy of admixture measuring dispensers certified annually by the admixture
supplier.
347-3.2 Mixers: Ensure that mixers are capable of combining the components of concrete into a
thoroughly mixed and uniform mass, free from balls or lumps of cementitious materials, and capable of
discharging the concrete uniformly. Operate concrete mixers at speeds per the manufacturer’s design. Do
not exceed the manufacturer’s rated capacity for the volume of mixed concrete in the mixer, mixing drum,
or container.
347-3.3 Delivery: The maximum allowable mixing and agitation time of concrete is 120 minutes.
Water may be added at the job site before discharging concrete, provide the ratio values for water to
cementitious materials and slump remain below the maximum allowable values specified in the approved
mix design.

347-4 Control of Quality.


347-4.1 Concrete Mix Design: Before producing any concrete, submit the proposed mix design
to the Engineer on a form provided by the Department. Use only concrete mix designs meeting the
following requirements and having prior approval of the Engineer.

Maximum water to cementitious materials ratio 0.55 lbs/lbs [0.55 kg/kg]


Minimum 28-Day Compressive Strength 2,500 psi [17 MPa]
Minimum Cementitious Materials Content 470 lbs/yd3 [280 kg/m3]
Slump 0 to 6 inch [0 to 150 mm]

Materials may be adjusted provided that the theoretical yield requirement of the approved
mix design is met. Show all required original approved design mix data and batch adjustments and
substituted material on the Department concrete delivery ticket. The Engineer may disqualify any
concrete production facility for non-compliance with Specification requirements.
347-4.2 Sampling and Testing: The Engineer may sample and test the concrete at his discretion
to verify its quality.
347-4.3 Records: Maintain the following records for review for at least three years:
1. Approved concrete mix designs.
2. Materials source (delivery tickets, certifications, certified mill test reports).
3. A copy of the scale company or testing agency report showing the observed deviations
from quantities checked during calibration of the scales and meters.
4. A copy of the documentation certifying the admixture weighing/measuring devices.
5. Recent NRMCA or Department inspection records certifying plant can produce
concrete and documentation showing that action has been taken to correct deficiencies noted during the
inspections.
347-5 Certification and Acceptance.
Furnish a Delivery Ticket with each batch of concrete before unloading at the placement site. The
Department will provide the Delivery Ticket Form. The concrete producer may use an alternate form
provided that it contains the required information. Record material quantities incorporated into the mix on
the Delivery Ticket. Ensure that the Batcher responsible for production of the concrete, certifying that the
batch was produced in accordance with specification requirements, signs the Delivery Ticket. Sign the
Delivery Ticket certifying that the maximum specified water to cementitious materials ratio was not
exceeded due to any jobsite adjustments to the batch, and that the batch was delivered and placed in
accordance with specification requirements.
Concrete acceptance by the Department will be by Certification on the Delivery Ticket, as
described herein, by the Batcher and the Contractor. The Engineer will hold the contractor responsible for
rejecting loads of concrete that do not meet specification requirements, or exceeds the allowable slump or
water to cementitious materials ratio. Replace, at no cost to the Department, all concrete that does not
meet the 28-day compressive strength requirements. At the sole option of the Department, the Engineer
may accept concrete at a reduced pay when it is determined that the concrete may not serve its intended
function.
901 COARSE AGGREGATE.
(REV 1-10-02) (FA 1-10-02) (7-02)

SECTION 901 (Pages 798-803) is deleted and the following substituted:

SECTION 901
COARSE AGGREGATE

901-1 General.
901-1.1 Composition: Coarse aggregate shall consist of naturally occurring materials such as
gravel, or resulting from the crushing of parent rock, to include natural rock, slags, expanded clays and
shales (lightweight aggregates) and other approved inert materials with similar characteristics, having
hard, strong, durable particles, conforming to the specific requirements of this Section.
Coarse aggregate for use in a hot bituminous mixture may also consist of reclaimed
portland cement concrete pavement meeting the requirements of 901-5. Washing of this material will not
be required if the requirements of 901-1.2 for maximum percent of material passing the No. 200 [75 µm]
sieve can be met without washing.
Materials substantially retained on the No. 4 [4.75 mm] sieve, shall be classified as coarse
aggregate.
Approval of mineral aggregate sources shall be in accordance with 6-3.3.
901-1.2 Deleterious Substances: All coarse aggregates shall be reasonably free of clay lumps,
soft and friable particles, salt, alkali, organic matter, adherent coatings, and other substances not defined
which may possess undesirable characteristics. The weight of deleterious substances shall not exceed the
following percentages:
Coal and lignite (AASHTO T 113)...................................................... 1.00
Soft and friable particles (AASHTO T 112)...................................... 2.00*
Clay lumps (AASHTO T 112)........................................................... 2.00*
Cinders and clinkers............................................................................. 0.50
Free shell.......................................................................................... 1.00**
Total Material passing the No. 200 [75 µm] sieve (FM 1-T 011)
At Source ............................................................................................. 1.75
At Point of Use .................................................................................... 3.75
Organic Matter (wet)............................................................................ 0.03
Chert (less than 2.40 specific gravity SSD) (AASHTO T-113) .... 3.00***
*The maximum percent by weight of soft and friable particles and clay lumps together
shall not exceed 3.00.
**Aggregates to be used in asphaltic concrete may contain up to 5% free shell. Free shell
is defined as that portion of the coarse aggregate retained on the No. 4 [4.75 mm] sieve consisting of
loose, whole, or broken shell, or the external skeletal remains of other marine life, having a ratio of the
maximum length of the particle to the shell wall thickness exceeding five to one. Coral, molds, or casts of
other shells, and crushed clam and oyster shell indigenous to the formation will not be considered as free
shell.
***This limitation applies only to coarse aggregates in which chert appears as an
impurity. It is not applicable to aggregates which are predominantly chert.

901-1.3 Physical Properties: Coarse aggregates shall meet the following physical property
requirements, except as noted herein:
Los Angeles Abrasion (FM 1-T 096)...........................maximum loss 45%
Soundness (Sodium Sulfate) AASHTO T104 .......... maximum loss 12%*
Flat or elongated pieces ..................................................maximum 10%**
*For source approval - Aggregates exceeding soundness loss limitations will be rejected
unless performance history shows that the material will not be detrimental for Portland
Cement Concrete or other intended usages.
**A flat or elongated particle is defined as one having a ratio between the maximum and
the minimum dimensions of a circumscribing prism exceeding five to one.
901-1.4 Gradation: Coarse aggregates shall conform to the gradation requirements of Table 1,
when the stone size is specified. However, Table 1 is waived for those aggregates intended for usage in
bituminous mixtures, provided the material is graded on sieves specified in production requirements
contained in 6-3.3, and meets uniformity and bituminous design requirements.

TABLE 1
Standard Sizes of Coarse Aggregate
Amounts Finer than Each Laboratory Sieve (Square Openings), weight percent
3 1/2 2 1/2 1 1/2
Size Nominal Size 4 inches 3 inches 2 inches 1 inches
inches inches inches
No. Square Openings [100 mm] [75 mm] [50 mm] [25 mm]
[90 mm] [63 mm] [37.5 mm]
3 1/2 to 1 1/2 in.
1 100 90 to 100 - 25 to 60 - 0 to 15 -
[90 to 37.5 mm]
2 1/2 to 1 1/2
2 inches - - 100 90 to 100 35 to 70 0 to 15 -
[63 to 37.5 mm]
2 1/2 to 3/4 inches
24 - - 100 90 to 100 - 25 to 60 -
[63 to 19.0 mm]
2 to 1 inches
3 - - - 100 90 to 100 35 to 70 0 to 15
[50 to 25 mm]
2 inches to No. 4
357 - - - 100 95 to 100 - 35 to 70
[50 to 4.75 mm]
1 1/2 to 3/4 inches
4 - - - - 100 90 to 100 20 to 55
[37.5 to 19 mm]
1 1/2 inches to
467 No. 4 - - - - 100 95 to 100 -
[37.5 to 4.75 mm]
1 to 1/2 inches
5 - - - - - 100 90 to 100
[25 to 12.5 mm]
1 to 3/8 inches
56 - - - - - 100 90 to 100
[25 12.5 mm]
1 inch to No. 4
57 - - - - - 100 95 to 100
[25 to 4.75 mm]
3/4 to inches
6 - - - - - - 100
[19 to 9.5 mm]
3/4 to 3/8 inches
67 - - - - - - 100
[19 to 9.5 mm]
3/4 inch to No. 8
68 - - - - - - -
[19 to 2.36 mm]
1/2 inch to No. 4
7 - - - - - - -
[12.5 to 4.75 mm]
78 1/2 inch to No. 8 - - - - - - -
TABLE 1
Standard Sizes of Coarse Aggregate
Amounts Finer than Each Laboratory Sieve (Square Openings), weight percent
3 1/2 2 1/2 1 1/2
Size Nominal Size 4 inches 3 inches 2 inches 1 inches
inches inches inches
No. Square Openings [100 mm] [75 mm] [50 mm] [25 mm]
[90 mm] [63 mm] [37.5 mm]
[12.5 to 2.36 mm]
3/8 inch to No. 16
8 - - - - - - -
[9.5 to 1.18 mm]
3/8 inch to No. 16
89 - - - - - - -
[9.5 to 1.18 mm]
No. 4 to No. 16
9 - - - - - - -
[4.75 to 1.18 mm]
No. 4 to 0
10 - - - - - - -
[4.75 mm]

TABLE 1 (Continued)
Standard Sizes of Coarse Aggregate
Amounts Finer than Each Laboratory Sieve (Square Openings), weight percent
Size Nominal Size 3/4 inches 1/2 inch 3/8 inch No. 4 No. 8 No. 16 No.50
No. Square Openings [19 mm] [12.5 mm] [9.5 mm] [4.75 mm] [2.36 mm] [1.18 mm] [0.30 mm]
3 1/2 to 1 1/2
1 inches 0 to 5 - - - - - -
[90.0 to 37.5 mm]
2 1/2 to 1 1/2
2 inches 0 to 5 - - - - - -
[63.0 to 37.5 mm]
2 1/2 to 3/4
24 inches 0 to 10 0 to 5 - - - - -
[63.0 to 19.0 mm]
2 to 1 inches
3 - 0 to 5 - - - - -
[50.0 to 25 mm]
2 inches to No. 4
357 - 10 to 30 - 0 to 5 - - -
[50.0 to 4.75 mm]
1 1/2 to 3/4
4 inches 0 to 15 - 0 to 5 - - - -
[37.5 to 19 mm]
1 1/2 inches to
467 No. 4 35 to 70 - 10 to 30 0 to 5 - - -
[37.5 to 4.75 mm]
1 to 1/2 inches
5 20 to 55 0 to 10 0 to 5 - - - -
[25.0 to 12.5 mm]
1 to 3/8 inches
56 40 to 85 10 to 40 0 to 15 0 to 5 - -
[25.0 to 9.5 mm]
1 inches to No. 4
57 - 25 to 60 - 0 to 10 0 to 5 - -
[25.0 to 4.75 mm]
3/4 to 3/8 inches
6 90 to 100 20 to 55 0 to 15 0 to 5 - - -
[19.0 to 9.5 mm]
TABLE 1 (Continued)
Standard Sizes of Coarse Aggregate
Amounts Finer than Each Laboratory Sieve (Square Openings), weight percent
Size Nominal Size 3/4 inches 1/2 inch 3/8 inch No. 4 No. 8 No. 16 No.50
No. Square Openings [19 mm] [12.5 mm] [9.5 mm] [4.75 mm] [2.36 mm] [1.18 mm] [0.30 mm]
3/4 inch to No. 4
67 90 to 100 - 20 to 55 0 to 10 0 to 5 - -
[19.0 to 4.75 mm]
3/4 inch to No. 8
68 90 to 100 - 30 to 65 5 to 25 0 to 10 0 to 5 -
[19.0 to 2.36 mm]
1/2 inch to No. 4
7 100 90 to 100 40 to 70 0 to 15 0 to 5 - -
[12.5 to 4.75 mm]
1/2 inch to No. 8
78 100 90 to 100 40 to 75 5 to 25 0 to 10 0 to 5 -
[12.5 to 2.36 mm]
3/8 inch to No. 8
8 - 100 85 to 100 10 to 30 0 to 10 0 to 5 -
[9.5 to 4.75 mm]
3/8 inch to No. 16
89 - 100 90 to 100 20 to 55 5 to 30 0 to 10 0 to 5
[9.5 to 1.18 mm]
No. 4 to No. 16
9 - - 100 85 to 100 10 to 40 0 to 10 0 to 5
[4.75 to 1.18 mm]
No. 4 to 0
10 - - 100 85 to 100 - - -
[4.75 mm]
NOTE: The gradations in Table 1 represent the extreme limits for the various sizes indicated,
which will be used in determining the suitability for use of coarse aggregate from all sources of
supply. For any grade from any one source, the gradation shall be held reasonably uniform and not subject to the extreme
percentages of gradation specified above.

901-2 Natural Stones.


Course aggregate may be processed from gravels, granites, limestones, dolomite, sandstones, or
other naturally occurring hard, sound, durable materials meeting the requirements of this Section.
901-2.1 Gravels: Gravel shall be composed of naturally occurring quartz, free from deleterious
coatings of any kind. The minimum dry-rodded weight AASHTO T19 shall be 95 lb/ft3 [1,522 kg/m3].
Crushed gravel shall consist of a minimum of 85%, by weight, of the material retained on
the No. 4 [4.75 mm] sieve, having at least three fractured faces.
901-2.2 Granites: Coarse aggregate produced from the crushing of granites shall be sound and
durable. For granites to be used in bituminous mixtures and surface treatments, the Los Angeles Abrasion
requirement of 901-1.3 is modified to permit a maximum loss up to 50 (FM 1-T 096). Maximum amount
of mica schist permitted is 5% (AASHTO T 189).
901-2.3 Limestones, Dolomite and Sandstone: Coarse aggregates may be produced from
limestone, dolomite, sandstones, and other naturally occurring hard, durable materials meeting the
requirements of this Section.
Pre-Cenozoic limestones and dolomite shall not be used as crushed stone aggregates
either coarse or fine for Asphaltic Concrete Friction Courses, or any other asphaltic concrete mixture or
surface treatment serving as the final wearing course. This specifically includes materials from the Ketone
Dolomite (Cambrian) Newala Limestone (Mississippian), and Northern Alabama and Georgia.
As an exception to the above up to 20% fine aggregate from these materials may be used
in asphaltic concrete mixtures other than Friction Courses which serve as the final wearing course.
901-2.4 Cemented Coquina Rock: For Cemented Coquina Rock to be used in bituminous
mixtures, the Los Angeles Abrasion requirement of 901-1.3 is modified to permit a maximum loss up to
50 (FM 1-T 096) provided that the amount of material finer than No. 200 sieve [75 µm] generated during
the Los Angeles Abrasion test is less than 18%.
901-3 Manufactured Stones.
901-3.1 Slags: Coarse aggregate may be produced from molten nonmetallic by-products
consisting essentially of silicates and aluminosilicates of calcium and other bases, such as air-cooled
blast-furnace slag or phosphate slag, provided it is reasonably uniform in density and quality, and
reasonably free from deleterious substances as specified in 901-1.2. In addition it must meet the following
specific requirements:
Sulphur content ............................................................not more than 1.5%
Dry rodded weight AASHTO T19......... minimum 70 lb/ft3 [1,120 kg/m3]
Glassy Particles.............................................................not more than 10%
Slag shall not be used as an aggregate for portland cement concrete.
For Air-Cooled Blast Furnace Slag, the Los Angeles Abrasion requirement of 901-1.3 is
modified to permit a maximum loss up to 50 (FM 1-T 096) provided that the amount of
material finer than No. 200 sieve [75 µm] generated during the Los Angeles Abrasion test
is less than 18%.

901-4 Lightweight Aggregates.


901-4.1 Lightweight Coarse Aggregate for Bituminous Construction: Lightweight coarse
aggregate may be produced from naturally occurring materials such as pumice, scoria and tuff or from
expanded clay, shale or slate fired in a rotary kiln. It shall be reasonably uniform in quality and density,
and free of deleterious substances as specified in 901-1.2, except that the term cinders and clinkers shall
apply to those particles clearly foreign to the extended aggregate in question.
In addition, it must meet the following specific requirements:
Material passing the No. 200 Sieve
[75 µm]........................................maximum 3.00%, (FM 1-T 011)
Dry loose weight (FM 1-T 019) .... 33-55 lb/ft3 [530-880 kg/m3]*
Los Angeles Abrasion (FM 1-T 096) ....................maximum 35%
Ferric Oxide (ASTM C 641).............................. maximum 1.5 mg
*Source shall maintain dry-loose unit weight within ±6% of Quality Control
average. Point of use dry-loose unit weight shall be within ±10% of Source Quality Control average.
901-4.2 Lightweight Coarse Aggregate for Structural Concrete: The requirements of 901-4.1
are modified as follows:
Aggregates shall not be produced from pumice and scoria.
Los Angeles Abrasion (FM 1-T 096, Section 12) shall be 45%, maximum.

901-5 Reclaimed Portland Cement Concrete Pavement.


The reclaimed portland cement concrete pavement shall be from a source which was produced
and placed in accordance with applicable Specifications. The material shall be crushed and processed to
provide a clean, hard, durable aggregate having a uniform gradation free from adherent coatings, metals,
organic matter, base material, joint fillers, and bituminous materials.
The Contractor’s (Producer’s) crushing operation shall produce an aggregate meeting the
applicable gradation requirements. The physical property requirements of 901-1.3 for Soundness shall not
apply and the maximum loss as determined by the Los Angeles Abrasion (FM 1-T 096) is changed to 50.
The sources of reclaimed portland cement concrete pavement will be treated as a mine and
subject to the requirement of Section 6.

901-6 Exceptions, Additions and Restrictions.


Pertinent specification modifications, based on material usage, will be found in other Sections of
the specifications.
902 FINE AGGREGATE.
(REV 8-23-01) (FA 1-10-02) (7-02)

SECTION 902 (Pages 804-807) is deleted and the following substituted:

SECTION 902
FINE AGGREGATE

902-1 General.
902-1.1 Composition: Fine aggregate shall consist of natural silica sand, screenings,
local materials, or subject to approval, other inert materials with similar characteristics, or
combination thereof, having hard, strong, durable particles, conforming to the specific
requirements of this Section.
Approval of mineral aggregate sources shall be in accordance with 6-3.3.
902-1.2 Deleterious Substances: All fine aggregate shall be reasonably free of lumps of
clay, soft or flaky particles, salt, alkali, organic matter, loam or other extraneous substances. The
weight of deleterious substances shall not exceed the following percentages:

Shale ...............................................................................................1.0
Coal and lignite ..............................................................................1.0
Cinders and clinkers .......................................................................0.5
Clay Lumps ....................................................................................1.0

902-2 Silica Sand.


902-2.1 Composition: Silica sand shall be composed only of naturally occurring hard,
strong, durable, uncoated grains of quartz, reasonably graded from coarse to fine, meeting the
following requirements, in percent total weight.

Sieve Opening Size Percent Retained Percent Passing


No. 4 [4.75 mm] 0 to 5 95 to 100
No. 8 [2.36 mm] 0 to 15 85 to 100
No. 16 [1.18 mm] 3 to 35 65 to 97
No. 30 [600 µm] 30 to 75 25 to 70
No. 50 [300 µm] 65 to 95 5 to 35
No. 100 [150 µm] 93 to 100 0 to 7
No. 200 [75 µm] minimum 96 maximum 4

Silica sand from any one source, having a variation in Fineness Modulus greater
than 0.20 either way from the Fineness Modulus of target gradations established by the producer,
may be rejected.
902-2.2 Organic Impurities: Silica sand shall be subject to the colorimetric test for
organic impurities. If the color produced is darker than the standard solution, the aggregate shall
be rejected unless it can be shown by appropriate tests that the impurities causing the color are
not of a type that would be detrimental to Portland Cement Concrete. Such tests shall be in
accordance with AASHTO T21 and AASHTO T71. When tested for the effect of organic
impurities on strength of mortar, the strength ratio at seven and 28 days, calculated in accordance
with Section 11 of AASHTO T71, shall not be less than 95%.
902-3 Sands for Miscellaneous Uses.
902-3.1 Anchor Bolts and Pipe Joints: Sand for setting anchor bolts, pipe joints or other
similar uses shall meet the quality requirements of 902-2 except that gradation requirements are
waived.
902-3.2 Brick Masonry: Sand for brick masonry shall meet the quality requirements of
902-2 except for gradation requirements. All the materials shall pass the No. 8 [2.36 mm] sieve,
and be uniformly graded from coarse to fine.
902-3.3 Sand-Cement Riprap: Sand for sand-cement riprap shall meet the quality
requirements of 902-2 except for gradation requirements. The material shall meet the following
gradation limits:

Sieve Size Percent Passing


No. 4 [4.75 mm] minimum 97%
No. 100 [150 µm] maximum 20%
No. 200 [75 µm] maximum 5%

902-4 Filter Material for Underdrains.


Silica sand for use as filter material for Types I through IV Underdrains shall meet the
requirements of 902-2 except that the requirements of 902-1.2 and 902-2.2 shall not apply. The
aggregate shall be reasonably free of organic matter and other deleterious materials. The
gradation requirements of 902-2.1 shall apply except no more than 2% shall pass the No. 200 [75
µm] sieve.
Filter material for Type V Underdrain shall meet the above requirements except that there
shall be no more than 1% of silt, clay and organic matter, that the aggregate shall have a
Uniformity Coefficient of 1.5 or greater, and that 10% diameter shall be No. 70 to 35 sieve [212
to 500 µm]. The Uniformity Coefficient shall be determined by the ratio D60 divided by D10,
where D60 and D10 refer to the particle diameter corresponding to 60 and 10% of the material
which is finer by dry weight.

902-5 Screenings.
902-5.1 Composition: Screenings shall be composed of hard, durable particles, either
naturally occurring, such as gravel screenings, or resulting from the crushing or processing of the
parent rock, to include natural rock, slags, expanded clays or shales (lightweight aggregates), or
other approved inert materials with similar characteristics.
Aggregates classified as screening shall conform to the following gradation
requirements:

Sieve Size Percent Passing


3/8 in. [9.5 mm] 100%
No. 4 [4.75 mm] 75 to 100%

902-5.2 Specific Requirements:


902-5.2.1 Screenings from Department Approved Sources of Coarse
Aggregate: Processed screenings from fully Approved Sources of Coarse Aggregate are subject
to gradation. Should Coarse Aggregate Source Approval status change, or unsatisfactory in-
service history develop, additional control requirements may be implemented.
Screenings for use in hot bituminous mixture may consist of screenings
from the processing of reclaimed portland cement concrete pavement to produce coarse
aggregate.
902-5.2.2 Screenings from Other Sources: Screenings, from sources other than
Department Approved Sources of Coarse Aggregate, must meet the following additional general
requirements:
Modified Los Angeles Abrasion .........................95% statistical
probability of meeting maximum loss of 23%.
Specific Gravity*
Absorption*
Soundness*
Sulfur*
Phosphate*
Extraneous Substances*
*Specific specification requirements based on material usage found in
appropriate Bituminous or Portland Cement Sections.
Based on specific material characteristics, processing techniques and in-
service history on Department projects, specific source requirements may be assigned.
902-5.2.3 Screenings For Use in Portland Cement Concrete: Screenings
produced from either the Miami Oolite, Miami Ft. Thompson, or Loxahatchee Ft. Thompson
Formations may be substituted for silica sand for use in concretes, except for concrete pavements,
approach slabs, bridge decks and precast superstructure segments. (However, screenings will be
permitted in the concrete when the bridge deck or approach slab is to be covered with an asphaltic
concrete surface course.)
These screenings must meet the gradation requirements of AASHTO M
6, Section 6.1, as well as the maximum percent passing the No. 200 [75 µm] sieve, Fineness
Modulus, and Organic requirements of 902-2 Silica Sand. In addition, the saturated, surface dry
specific gravity shall be at least 2.48.

902-6 Local Materials.


Local materials shall be composed of hard, strong, durable particles, either naturally
occurring, such as natural sands, or resulting from the crushing or processing of parent rock, to
include natural sand and rock, slags, expanded clays or shales (lightweight aggregate), or other
approved inert materials with similar characteristics.
Aggregates classified as local material shall conform to the following gradation
requirements:

Sieve Size Percent Passing


3/8 in. [9.5 mm] 100%
No. 10 [2.00 mm] 85 to 100%
No. 200 [75 µm] maximum 15%

In addition to meeting the requirements of 902-1.2, the material shall not contain
excessive quantities of other deleterious substances, such as roots, cans, debris, etc. If clay size
material is present, it shall not exceed 7%, as determined by AASHTO T88, and it shall be of a
type which will not produce clay balls when used. The aggregate must be suitable for designated
use, as determined by laboratory tests. If the deposit consists of stratified layers of varying
characteristics and gradation, the producer shall employ such means as necessary to secure a
uniform material.
Local materials will not be required to be produced under the requirements of 6-3.3,
provided they can meet the above requirements.

902-7 Exceptions, Additions and Restrictions.


Other specification modifications, based on material usage may be found in the
appropriate Sections of the specifications.
921 PORTLAND CEMENT AND BLENDED CEMENT.
(REV 1-9-02) (FA 1-10-02) (7-02)

SECTION 921 (Pages 829-832) is deleted and the following substituted:

SECTION 921
PORTLAND CEMENT AND BLENDED CEMENT

921-1 General.
921-1.1 Type of Cement: Cement shall conform to the requirements of the following AASHTO
designations except where a particular type of cement is specified on the plans or Specifications, and as
specifically restricted in Section 346, cement may be Types I, II, III, IV, V (AASHTO M 85), or IP, IP
(MS), IS (AASHTO M 240). Different brands of cement, cement of the same brand from different
facilities, or different types of cement shall be stored separately and shall not be mixed.
921-1.2 Alkali Content: Only Portland cement containing a maximum of 0.6% alkali, or less,
calculated as Na2O (% Na2O plus 0.658 % K2O), shall be used.
921-1.3 Heat of Hydration: Ensure that the heat of hydration of the cement does not exceed 80
cal/g [335 kJ/kg] at seven days measured as the average of three samples, and that no individual
measurement exceeds 90 cal/g [375 kJ/kg].
Where fly ash is 18% or greater or slag is 50% or greater of the total cementitious
material, ensue that the heat of hydration of the cement does not exceed 88 cal/g [370 kJ/kg] at seven days
measured as the average of three samples, and ensure that no individual measurement exceeds 96 cal/g
[400 kJ/kg].
Do not apply these requirements to Type III cement.

921-2 Terminology.
The following definitions are applicable to the production and quality control of cement:
Sources of Supply:
A source of supply shall be the cement supplier responsible for supplying the final
product. Where the supplier has more than one manufacturing facility, the source of supply may be
designated as the manufacturer/facility.
Approved Source - The term Approved Source shall indicate a cement supplier that has
been qualified by the State Materials Office. A list of Approved Cement Sources will be maintained by
the State Materials Engineer.
Current Quality Control Plan Approval - A current indication of quality control approval
status, for each cement supplier, will be maintained by the State Materials Engineer in conjunction with
the Approved Source List.
Purchaser - The term “purchaser” in the AASHTO Specifications shall be taken as the
Department.
Approved Laboratory - An approved laboratory is a laboratory acceptable to the State
Materials Engineer and which has been currently inspected by the Cement and Concrete Reference
Laboratory (CCRL) and which has corrected all deficiencies noted at the time of inspection. The
laboratory must also authorize CCRL to send copies of inspection reports to the State Materials Engineer.

921-3 Packing Handling and Storing.


Cement may be delivered in bags or in bulk. The storage building, bin or silo shall be
weatherproof and shall be located convenient to the work. On small jobs, storage in the open may be
permitted by the Engineer in which case raised platforms and adequate waterproof coverings shall be
provided.

921-4 Rejection.
The entire contents of the sack or bulk container which contains cement that does not meet the
requirements of this Specification or has been damaged, is partially set, lumpy or caked shall be rejected.
Bagged cement which varies more than 5% from the designated weight, or if the average weight
of 50 sacks, taken at random, is less than the designated weight, the cement shall be rejected.

921-5 Quality Control Plan.


921-5.1 General: The quality control program of a cement supplier shall conform to Section 6-8.
Cement suppliers shall submit a proposed quality control plan to the State Materials Engineer for plan
approval. In addition to the quality control plan, the supplier must submit test reports from an approved
laboratory which certifies that the cement in current production or supply conforms to these
Specifications. Upon initial quality control plan approval and receipt of cement certifications, the
suppliers will be placed in an approved source status with an approved quality control plan. An approved
laboratory shall perform one quality control test per 400 ton [360 metric ton] LOT and a copy of their mill
certificates shall be sent to the State Materials Engineer when the material is in use on Department
projects. The certification shall indicate that the cement meets the requirements of this Specification.
Also, the corresponding samples along with mill certificates shall be submitted to the Department, upon
request.
The supplier’s quality control plan shall be sufficient to insure that more than 97% of all
cement delivered for FDOT work shall meet all Specification requirements. Upon request of the
Department, the supplier shall provide split samples of the cement collected for quality control testing.
Split samples shall be delivered to the State Materials Office and shall be identified as representing a
designated LOT of cement.
921-5.2 Acceptance of Portland Cement: Portland Cement from an approved source with a
current quality control plan approval may be accepted on the basis of certified mill analysis test results
meeting the requirements of the applicable AASHTO and FDOT Specifications. Certification of these test
results shall be provided upon request to the District Materials Office and corresponding samples for
verification testing. Quality Control testing shall be performed by an approved laboratory.
921-5.3 Cement Ownership and Responsibility: For purposes of Quality Control Plan approval
status, the cement supplier will be responsible for cement quality until the cement is accepted by the
concrete producer. Where the cement has been accepted by a concrete producer and is subsequently found
deficient, the concrete plant approval may be withdrawn with respect to further use of that cement and
reinstated only when the deficiency is adequately resolved and such reinstatement is made by the State
Materials Engineer.
921-5.4 Quality Control Plan Approval Control: The Department may withdraw quality
control plan approval and may require cement shipments to be individually tested prior to incorporation
into Department work. Quality control plan approvals may be rescinded when the performance of cement
is in question, including problems with concrete quality, inconsistent quality control data, or failure of
quality control or verification test results. Discontinuance of approval may be based on testing at the point
of use, testing by the manufacturer or proven poor performance of the cement in concrete.
In the specific instance of a failing cement sample taken by the Department, the failure
shall initiate the Department to collect an additional sample from the location of the original failure.
Failure of this sample will be considered adequate evidence to withdraw the Quality Control Plan of the
Cement Supplier.
Notification of failing test results will be distributed to the cement supplier (and concrete
producers if applicable) as designated in the Approved Quality Control Plan. Split samples of the
additional sample will be provided to the cement supplier and concrete producer upon request.
Reinstatement of the Quality Control Plan will occur when the cement producer identifies
and corrects the specific cause of the failures or that a statistical analysis indicates that the current cement
production meets or exceeds the requirements of this Specification.
921-5.5 Sampling of Cement: The verification samples may be taken at the manufacturer’s
plant, distribution facility or at the concrete production facility. Samples shall be obtained by one of the
methods in Florida Methods FM 5-503. Samples shall be a minimum of 10 pounds [4.5 kg] in size. At the
concrete production facility, cement samples shall be jointly obtained by the Department Inspector and
the concrete producer’s representative. The concrete producer may select a preferred sampling method
and shall provide safe access and the necessary equipment to collect the required samples.
923 WATER FOR CONCRETE.
(REV 10-29-01) (FA 12-20-01) (7-02)

SECTION 923 (Page 832) is deleted and the following substituted:

SECTION 923
WATER FOR CONCRETE

923-1 General Requirements.


Water for use with cement shall be clear and free from injurious amounts of oil, acid, alkali,
chlorides, organic matter, and other deleterious substances. It shall not be salty or brackish. If it contains
quantities of substances which discolor it or make it smell or taste unusual or objectionable or cause
suspicion, it shall not be used unless service records of concrete made with it indicates that it is not
injurious to the quality of the concrete or approved by the Engineer. Wash water from mixer washout
operations, (stored in a lined settling pond), and recycled wash water may be used only to sprinkle the
coarse aggregate stockpiles and for use in the batching of Class I (Nonstructural) Concrete. Samples
arriving at the laboratory shall be allowed 14 days for completion of tests. The frequency of testing, by
the Department, of approved sources will be as outlined in the Sampling, Testing and Reporting Guide.
At the discretion of the Engineer, the Department may require additional compliance testing at any time,
of any water source.

923-2 Evaluation of Water for Concrete.


923-2.1 General: Water from city water supplies that are approved by a public health department
may be accepted without testing. Wash water from mixer washout and recycled wash water shall meet the
requirements of 923-3.2. and 923-4. All other sources of water shall meet the requirements 923-3.3 and
923-4. The concrete producer shall provide test data of water samples.
923-2.2 Source Approval: Wash water from mixer washout operations and recycled wash water
shall be tested once per week for four weeks initially, and thereafter once per month for four months prior
to its use, provided that the results of the test samples comply with all the applicable limits. All other
sources shall test one sample initially.
923-2.3 Source Sampling: Open bodies of water shall be tested monthly. Well and other sources
of water will be tested once every three months. If the last eight consecutive well water samples meet the
requirements, then the sample frequency may be reduced to one sample every six months, as approved by
the Engineer. If a well water sample fails once the frequency has been changed, then the sampling
frequency shall revert back to once every three months.

923-3 Chemical Requirements.


923-3.1 Testing: All chemical analysis or test shall be performed in accordance with
AASHTO T 26.
923-3.2 Reclaimed Water: Water from mixer washout and recycled wash water shall be tested
and approved before use and shall not exceed the following allowable limits:
Equivalent Alkalis as (Na2O + 0.658 K2O) – 0.06%
Total Solids – 5.00%
Total Chlorides as Sodium Chloride – 0.05%
Sulfate as SO4 – 0.30%
923-3.3 All Other Sources: Water from all sources, other than public health approved sources,
shall be tested and approved before use and shall not exceed the following allowable limits:
Acidity or alkalinity calculated in terms of calcium carbonate – 0.05%
Total organic solids – 0.05%
Total inorganic solids – 0.08%
Total chlorides as sodium chloride – 0.05%
Sulfate as SO4 – 0.30%

923-4 Physical Requirements for Mortar.


Mortar shall be tested in accordance with AASHTO T 106 with the following exception: the
mortar shall not be tested for flow. The mortar, composed of the sampled water, shall have a compressive
strength of not less than 90% when compared to a mortar prepared using distilled water and tested at 7
days.
Water of a questionable quality, as determined by the Engineer, shall be subject to the acceptance
criteria for time of set as required by AASHTO M 157, Table 1.
924 ADMIXTURES FOR CONCRETE.
(REV 10-15-01) (FA 1-9-02) (7-02)

SECTION 924 (Pages 833-835) is deleted and the following substituted:

SECTION 924
ADMIXTURES FOR CONCRETE

924-1 General.
This Section covers materials for use as admixtures for concrete. The use of admixtures is
restricted to those admixtures as may be allowed or required elsewhere in the specifications for specific
concrete applications. Admixtures shall comply with applicable AASHTO and ASTM specifications as
modified in 924-2.3 through 924-2.7. Admixtures that have been previously qualified for Department use
are listed on a Qualified Products List as described in 924-2.1. Admixtures not on the Department’s list
may be qualified using the procedure described in 924-2.2.

924-2 Acceptance of Admixtures.


924-2.1 Qualified Products List (QPL): The Department maintains a list of qualified admixtures
for air-entraining, water-reducing (Type A), accelerating (Type C), water-reducing and retarding (Type
D), water-reducer and accelerating (Type E), high range water reducing (Type F) and high range water-
reducing and retarding (Type G), high range water-reducing (Type I - Plasticizing and Type II -
Plasticizing and retarding) in producing flowing concrete, and corrosion inhibitor, which have been
determined as meeting requirements for use on Department projects. Admixtures included on this list, will
be permitted without further testing.
The inclusion of any specific product on the QPL, as specified in 6-1, indicates that the
product has been given contingent approval, as evidenced by previous tests and apparent effectiveness
under field conditions.
Except as specified in Sections 346 and 347, no further testing will be required for any
product on the QPL unless there is indication in actual field use of inadequate or unreliable results.
924-2.2 Certification: Manufacturers of admixtures not included on the QPL shall provide
certified test results from an independent laboratory inspected by the Cement and Concrete Reference
Laboratory (CCRL) on a regular basis for applicable tests, with all deficiencies corrected, and acceptable
to the Engineer.
Test results shall indicate compliance with test requirements as modified herein of
AASHTO M 154 for air-entraining, AASHTO M 194 for water-reducing (Type A) or water-reducing and
retarding (Type D), accelerating (Type C) and water-reducer and accelerating (Type E), high range water
reducing (Type F) and high range water reducing and retarding (Type G), ASTM C 1017 C for high range
water reducing (Type I - Plasticizing and Type II - Plasticizing and retarding) in producing flowing
concrete, and ASTM G 109 for corrosion inhibitor.
924-2.3 For Air-Entraining: Air-entraining admixtures shall meet the requirements of AASHTO
M 154, except for the flexural strengths, resistance to freezing and thawing, and length change
requirements are waived.
924-2.4 For Type A (Water-Reducing) and Type D (Water-Reducing and Retarding):
Water-reducing and water-reducing and retarding admixtures shall meet the requirements of AASHTO M
194 for Type A and D, respectively, except for the compressive strength at six months and one year,
flexuaral strengths, and relative durability factor requirements are waived.
924-2.5 For Type C (Accelerating) and Type E (Water Reducing and Accelerating):
Accelerating and water reducing and accelerating admixtures shall meet the requirements of AASHTO
M-194 for Type C and Type E, respectively, except that compressive strength at six months and one year,
flexural strengths and relative durability factor requirements are waived.
924-2.6 For High Range Water-Reducing: High range water reducing admixtures shall meet
the requirements of 346-2.6.3 and comply with the applicable AASHTO specifications as modified in
924-2.6.1 and 924-2.6.2.
924-2.6.1 For Type F or Type G: High range water reducing (Type F) and high range
water reducing and retarding (Type G), shall meet the requirements of AASHTO M 194, except the
compressive strengths, at one year, and relative durability factor requirements are waived.
924-2.6.2 For Type I and Type II: High range water reducing (Type I) and high range
water reducing and retarding (Type II), for use in producing flowing concrete shall meet the requirements
of ASTM C 1017, except for the compressive strength, at one year, and relative durability factor
requirements are waived.
924-2.7 For Corrosion Inhibitors: Corrosion inhibitors shall meet the requirements of ASTM G
109 and all requirements in this Section.
924-2.7.1 Calcium Nitrite Corrosion Inhibitor: Calcium nitrite is a chemically reactive
admixture used in concrete to inhibit the corrosion of embedded reinforcing steel and other metallic
components. The calcium nitrite supplier shall furnish the Engineer with test certificates from an
independent laboratory indicating compliance with this Specification. The test certificate shall include
corrosion inhibiting properties per ASTM G 109 and results of physical tests included in this section.
Calcium nitrite shall be supplied by the same manufacturing source throughout the project. If a single
primary source of calcium nitrite cannot be maintained throughout the project, new test certificates shall
be submitted. The Engineer will determine specification compliance of a new supplier’s product, and
evaluate the effectiveness of the new calcium nitrite product before approving the source.
The active ingredient shall be calcium nitrite [Ca(NO2)2].
The calcium nitrite shall be furnished in solution containing not less than 29%
calcium nitrite solids. The concentration of the calcium nitrite solution shall be verified by
spectrophotometric analysis or other comparable methods. The nitrite concentration shall be measured in
accordance with Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water, 18th Edition.
A volume of one gallon [3.78 L] of calcium nitrite solution shall weigh within
the range of 10.40 to 11.92 lb. [4.71 to 5.40 kg].
The calcium nitrite solution shall be added to the concrete mixture at a rate of
4.50 to 4.60 gal/yd3 [22.2 to 22.9 L/m3] of concrete.
The addition of calcium nitrite to the concrete mix shall not adversely affect the
properties of fresh and hardened concrete.
Calcium Nitrite concrete shall meet the following physical requirements when mixed and
tested in accordance with AASHTO M 194:

Water Content, % of control 95 to 100


Time of setting, allowable deviation from control, h:min:
Initial: at least not more than 1:00 earlier nor 1:30 later
Final: at least not more than 1:00 earlier nor 1:30 later
Compressive Strength, min. % of control: shall be 100 for all ages
Flexural strength, min, % of control: shall be 100 for all ages
Length change, max Shrinkage (alternative Requirements): % of control 135
Increase over control 0.010
Relative durability facto, min 80

The following table lists the corrosion inhibiting test result limits for calcium nitrite
concrete tested in accordance with ASTM G 109:
Maximum Allowable Test Results of Calcium Nitrite Concrete
Measured average macrocell current any time during the test 10 µA
Average macrocell current at test completion 2 µA
Average visible corrosion measured as percent corroded area of control 85%

924-2.8 Contingency of Continued Approval: The continued approval of admixtures allowed


for use, as based on the above specification requirements, will also be subject to the contingencies
specified in 924-1.

924-3 Performance Test on Air-Entraining Admixtures, For Effect on Strength of


Concrete.
924-3.1 Conditions under which Test is Required: For any air-entraining admixture selected
for use the Engineer may call for a performance test (either prior to or at any time during construction) for
determining its effect on the strength of the concrete. In general, this check-test will be required only
when there is indication that such admixture is giving erratic results or is unduly reducing the strength of
the concrete. Testing shall be in accordance with 924-3.2 and 924-3.3.
924-3.2 Permissible Reduction in Strength of the Concrete: For concrete composed of the
same cement and aggregates (and in the same proportions) to be used in the work, and containing the
admixture under test, in an amount sufficient to produce between 3 and 5% entrained air in the plastic
concrete, the compressive strength at seven days shall be at least 90% of the strength of the same concrete
without the admixture.
924-3.3 Method of Test for Strength Reduction: The percentage reduction in strength shall be
calculated from the average strength of at least three standard 6 inch by 12 inch [150 mm by 300 mm]
cylinders of each class of concrete. Specimens shall be made and cured in the laboratory in accordance
with AASHTO T 26, and shall be tested in accordance with AASHTO T 22. The percentage of entrained
air shall be determined in accordance with AASHOTO T 152 or AASHTO T 196.

924-4 Retesting.
The approved admixtures are required to be tested for their uniformity and equivalence whenever
there is an indication of erratic results, as indicated in 924-1. The tests shall be performed in accordance
with the following procedure. The admixture shall be checked for comparison between infrared
spectrophotometry, pH value, specific gravity, and solids content. Any marked variation from the original
curve, pH value, specific gravity, or solids content will be considered sufficient evidence that the
chemistry of the original material has been changed and, therefore, the use of this material will be rejected
and the material will be removed from the QPL.
929 POZZOLANS AND SLAG.
(REV 9-28-01) (FA 2-5-02) (7-02)

SECTION 929 (Pages 845-847) is deleted and the following substituted:

SECTION 929
POZZOLANS AND SLAG

929-1 Basis for Source Approval.


929-1.1 General: The cementitious materials supplier shall submit the proposed quality control
plan, certified test reports from an approved independent laboratory acceptable to the State Materials
Office, and a sample of the material for Department verification. The quality control program of a
cementitious materials supplier shall conform to Standard Specifications 6-8. Continuance of Department
Qualifications is subject to satisfactory results from periodic verification evaluations. A verification
sample may be taken at the manufacturer’s plant, distribution facility or at the concrete producer’s plant.
Upon review of the quality control plan and satisfactory verification of the test results,
the plant will be placed on the Department’s list of active cementitious materials sources. The
cementitious materials supplier shall utilize a quality control plan approved by the State Materials Office.
The Department reserves the right to withdraw quality control plan approval and to require cementitious
material shipments to be individually tested prior to incorporation into Department work. Quality control
plan approvals may be rescinded when the performance of cementitious material is in question, including
problems with concrete quality, inconsistent quality control data, or failure of quality control or
verification test results.
929-1.2 Approved Laboratory: The cementitious materials supplier’s testing laboratory must
meet and maintain, at all times, the qualification requirements as described in 6-9. The producer’s
laboratory shall authorize the inspecting laboratory to send a copy of the inspection report to the State
Materials Office.

929-2 Fly Ash.


929-2.1 Class C or Class F: Fly ash derived from the combustion of ground or powdered coal shall
meet the requirements of ASTM C 618, Class C or Class F Fly ash. Sampling and testing of fly ash shall
follow the requirements of ASTM C 311.
929-2.2 Petroleum Coke Class F: Fly ash resulting from the combustion of coal and petroleum coke
shall meet the physical and chemical requirements of ASTM C 618 Class F fly ash. When petroleum coke
Class F fly ash is used in concrete, the test results shall verify improved or comparable strength, sulfate
resistance, corrosion protective properties and other durability requirements of concrete, as compared to
ASTM C 618 Class F fly ash concrete. The strength and durability tests of concrete shall be performed in
accordance with ASTM C 39, ASTM C 157, ASTM C 1012, ASTM C 1202, ASTM G 109, FM 5-516 and
FM 5-522. Fly ash shall not include the residue resulting from the burning of municipal garbage or any other
refuse with coal, or the burning of industrial or municipal garbage in incinerators. Sampling and testing of fly
ash shall follow the requirements of ASTM C 311.
929-2.3 Bark Ash Class F: Fly ash resulting from the combustion of timber bark ash and coal shall
meet the physical and chemical requirements of ASTM C 618 Class F fly ash. When bark ash is used in
concrete, the strength and durability of the bark ash concrete shall be improved or comparable to the strength
and the durability properties of ASTM C 618 Class F fly ash concrete. The tests shall be performed as
specified in 929-2.2. Sampling and testing of fly ash shall follow the requirements of ASTM C 311.
929-2.4 Special Requirements:
929-2.4.1 Fly Ash (Class C): When a Class C fly ash is used in moderately or extremely
aggressive environments, tests made by the CCRL approved independent laboratory shall verify improved
sulfate resistance of the concrete in accordance with ASTM C 1012, and improved or comparable corrosion
protective properties measured by FM 5-522, as compared to similar concrete made with Class F fly ash. No
mix designs will be approved in advance of satisfactory completion of such tests.
929-2.4.2 Petroleum Coke and Bark Ash (Class F): For sources where the fly ash is not
derived solely from ground or powdered coal combustion, certified test results performed by an independent
approved laboratory, shall be submitted by the supplier. The performance-based comparison test results shall
meet the requirements of 929-2.2 and 929-2.3 for petroleum coke and bark ash fly ashes, respectively.
929-2.5 Exceptions: Fly ash shall not be used in conjunction with Type IP or Type IS cements.
929-2.6 Acceptance Testing of Fly Ash: Acceptance of fly ash from sources operating under an
approved quality control plan shall be based on the monthly certified quality control tests meeting the
chemical (Supplementary Optional included) and physical requirements of ASTM C 618. When the loss on
ignition exceeds 5%, the Uniformity Requirements in the Supplementary Optional Physical Requirements
shall be mandatory. An approved laboratory shall perform the monthly quality control tests and a copy of
their mill certificates shall be sent to the State Materials Office in Gainesville when the material is in use on
Department projects. The certification shall indicate that the fly ash meets the requirements of this
Specification. Also, the corresponding samples along with mill certificates shall be submitted to the
Department, upon request.

929-3 Silica Fume


929-3.1General: Silica Fume shall meet the requirements of ASTM C 1240 using the referenced test
methods and frequencies. Repulpable bags will not be accepted.
929-3.2 Acceptance Testing of Silica Fume: Acceptance of silica fume from sources operating
under an approved quality control plan shall be based on the monthly certified quality control tests meeting
the chemical (Supplementary Optional included) and physical requirements of ASTM C 1240. An approved
laboratory shall perform the monthly quality control tests and a copy of their mill certificates shall be sent to
the State Materials Office in Gainesville when the material is in use on Department projects. The certification
shall indicate that the silica fume meets the requirements of this Specification. Also, the corresponding
samples along with mill certificates shall be submitted to the Department, upon request.

929-4 Metakaolin
929-4.1General: Metakaolin shall meet the requirements of ASTM C 618 Class N with the following
modifications:
1. The sum of SiO2 + Al2O3 + Fe2O3 shall be at least 85%. The Material Safety Data Sheet
shall indicate that the amount of crystalline silica, as measured by National Institute of Occupation Safety and
Health (NIOSH) 7500 method, after removal of the mica interference, is less than 1.0%.
2. The loss on ignition shall be less than 3.0%.
3. The available alkalies, as equivalent Na2O, shall not exceed 1.0%.
4. The amount of material retained on a No. 325 mesh sieve shall not exceed 1.0%.
5. The strength activity Index, at 7 days, shall be at least 85%.
6. When metakaolin is used in concrete, the test results shall verify improved or comparable
strength, sulfate resistance, corrosion protective properties and other durability performance properties of
concrete, as compared to the performance of silica fume concrete. The comparison strength and durability
tests shall be performed in accordance with ASTM C 39, ASTM C 157, ASTM C 1012, ASTM C 1202,
ASTM G 109, FM 5-516 and FM 5-522, by an approved independent testing laboratory. Sampling and testing
of metakaolin shall follow the requirements of ASTM C 311.
929-4.2 Acceptance Testing of Metakaolin: Acceptance of metakaolin from sources operating under
an approved quality control plan shall be based on the monthly certified quality control tests meeting the
chemical (Supplementary Optional included) and physical requirements of ASTM C 618 Class N, as modified
herein. An approved laboratory shall perform the monthly quality control tests and a copy of their mill
certificates shall be sent to the State Materials Office in Gainesville, when the material is in use on
Department projects. Also, the corresponding samples along with mill certificates shall be submitted to the
Department, upon request. The certification shall indicate that the metakaolin meets the requirements of this
Specification.

929-5 Slag.
929-5.1General: Slag shall meet the requirements of ASTM C 989. Sampling and testing procedures
shall follow the requirements of ASTM C 989.
929-5.2 Special Requirements: Only Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag Grade 100 and 120 will
be permitted.
929-5.3 Exceptions: Slag shall not be used in conjunction with Type IP or Type IS cements.
929-5.4 Acceptance Testing: Acceptance of slag from sources operating under an approved quality
control plan shall be based on the monthly certified quality control tests meeting the chemical and physical
requirements of ASTM C 989. An approved laboratory shall perform the monthly quality control tests and a
copy of their mill certificates shall be sent to the State Materials Office in Gainesville when the material is in
use on Department projects. Reference Cement used for determination of Slag Activity shall meet the
requirements of ASTM C 989. The certification shall indicate that the slag meets the requirements of this
Specification. Also, the corresponding samples along with mill certificates shall be submitted to the
Department, upon request.
Topic No.: 675-000-000
Materials Manual Effective: June 20, 2002
Concrete Production Revised: September 4, 2002

Section 9.2

CONCRETE PRODUCTION FACILITIES GUIDELINE


Note: This procedure applies to the contracts let after October 1, 2002. To access the
procedure effective for contracts let from July 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002, visit
our website:

http://www11.myflorida.com/statematerialsoffice/QualitySystems/materialsmanual/section92draft.pdf

9.2.1 GENERAL

The State Materials Office, in conjunction with the District Materials Offices, are
responsible to verify that all concrete production facilities meet the requirements
of the Specifications and guidelines herein. Concrete production facilities that
supply concrete to Department projects must be approved by the Department in
accordance with Standard Specification for Road and Bridge Construction
Section 6-8. Concrete produced in accordance with Department specifications
and this guideline shall be accepted upon proper certification of concrete
production through an approved quality control plan and verification of job site
acceptance criteria.

Notify the District Concrete Engineer prior to mixing and delivering concrete to a
Department project. Identify the plant number, project number, mix number, and
the cubic yards to be batched.

9.2.2 SCOPE

This guideline establishes the Department’s policies governing the production of


concrete for Department use. The concrete production facility shall certify
compliance with project specifications.

The following provides the Concrete Production Facility with information related
to the methods and the minimum requirements for Quality Control programs, and
the criteria by which the Department will maintain that approval. The
Department will maintain the list of qualified plants that meet the requirements of
these guidelines.

9.2.3 APPLICABLE STANDARDS

Quality Control Of Concrete 9-2-1


Topic No.: 675-000-000
Materials Manual Effective: June 20, 2002
Concrete Production Revised: September 4, 2002
Methods of sampling and testing materials shall be in accordance with Standard
Specification 346-5. Reference to the above standards shall be construed to
mean the most current issuance, including interims or addenda thereto at the
time of advertisement for bids.

9.2.4 MATERIALS REQUIREMENTS

9.2.4.1 General

Meet the following requirements found in the Standard Specifications:


Coarse Aggregate Section 901
Fine Aggregate* Section 902
Portland Cement Section 921
Water Section 923
Admixtures Section 924
Pozzolans and Slag Section 929
*Use only silica sand except as provided in Section 902-5.2.3.

Use materials containing no hard lumps, crusts, frozen matter, or that are not
contaminated with dissimilar material.

9.2.4.2 Cementitious Material

Acceptance at the plant shall be based upon certified mill analyses. As a


check on current quality, samples may be obtained and tested by the
Producer or the Department.

Each plant must provide a separate and clearly labeled weatherproof facility
to store each brand or type of cementitious material available during
production. Each storage facility shall provide a suitable, safe and convenient
means of collecting cementitious material samples.

Measure the cementitious materials by mass within an accuracy of 1% of the


required total amount, except that for concrete batches of 3 yd3 [3 m3] or less,
accuracy of 2% is allowed. Weigh the cementitious materials separately from
other materials. When weighing cementitious materials in a cumulative weigh
hopper, weigh the cement first. Measure silica fume slurry as an admixture.

If bagged cementitious material is permitted, proportion the batch to use only


whole bags. Store silica fume and metakaolin in accordance with the
manufacture’s recommendation.

Quality Control Of Concrete 9-2-2


Topic No.: 675-000-000
Materials Manual Effective: June 20, 2002
Concrete Production Revised: September 4, 2002
9.2.4.3 Aggregates

All Aggregate shall be obtained from Department approved sources. A list of


approved sources will be maintained by the Department and made available
from the State Materials Office.

As a minimum, each plant must provide suitable bins, stockpiles or silos to


store and identify aggregates without mixing, segregating or contaminating
the different sources or grades. Identification shall include DOT designated,
approved pit number and aggregate grade. Measure aggregates by mass or
volume within an accuracy of 1% of the required amount. Apply aggregate
surface moisture corrections.

The Producer shall be responsible for handling the aggregates so as to


minimize segregation and recover material from the stockpile for use in the
mix so it will remain within specification limits. Stockpiles shall be maintained
in a well drained condition to minimize free water content and to not promote
algae/fungal growth. The Producer shall make available to the Department,
from the recovery side of the stockpile where feasible, the quantities of
aggregate necessary for sampling and testing to ensure compliance with
project specifications.

9.2.4.3.1 Wetting Coarse Aggregate Stockpiles, Storage Bins And Silos

The entire surface of the coarse aggregate shall be continuously and


uniformly sprinkled with water for a period of 24-hours immediately
preceding introduction into the concrete. Any request for deviations from
the 24-hour sprinkling requirement should be addressed in the Producer's
Quality Control Program for consideration by the District Materials
Engineer.

9.2.4.4 Admixtures

Only admixtures approved by the Department shall be used in concrete


mixes. A certification from the admixture supplier that the admixture proposed
meets the requirements of Standard Specification 924 is required. Ensure
that the certification also includes an additional statement from the
admixtures’ supplier or an approved independent testing laboratory that the
proposed admixture is compatible with all other admixture to be included in
the concrete design mix. Admixture dosage rate shall be within the range of
the manufacturers technical data sheet for the product to be used.

Measure admixtures by mass or volume. Use measuring equipment that has


Quality Control Of Concrete 9-2-3
Topic No.: 675-000-000
Materials Manual Effective: June 20, 2002
Concrete Production Revised: September 4, 2002
an accuracy, under all operating conditions, within 3% of the quantity of
admixture required for the batch. Measure silica fume slurry to an accuracy of
1%. Measure each admixture separately, and add it to the mixing water in a
separate sequence as the mixing water is introduced into the mix.

Store admixtures in accordance with the manufacture’s recommendation.

9.2.4.5 Scales And Meters

All scales, meters and other weighing or measuring devices, excluding


admixture dispensers, shall be checked for accuracy by a qualified
representative of a scale company registered with the Bureau of Weights and
Measures of the Florida Department of Agriculture prior to production of
concrete. Scales, meters and other weighing or measuring devices, excluding
admixture dispensers, shall be checked quarterly at a minimum. The
Department reserves the right to be present during all scale checks.

9.2.4.5.1 Water Measuring Devices

Water measuring devices used during batching operations at concrete


plants are to be checked for accuracy at least quarterly. Accuracy of
these devices is checked by weight or volume. Any container used for
accuracy verification must be capable of holding the maximum quantity of
water normally used during batching sequence.

If accuracy is checked by volume, the maximum capacity of the container


used must be known in gallons [liters]. Graduation marks must be readily
visible on the container at each level checked, ensuring accurate volume
determination to the nearest 0.5 gallon [2 L]. Accuracy of these
graduation marks must be documented by a scale company registered
with the Bureau of Weights and Measurements, Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services.

Use of a flow meter mounted in series is acceptable provided the


accuracy of the flow meter is traceable to the National Institute of
Standards and Technology. The accuracy of the calibration device should
be checked annually.

Measure water by volume or weight. Whichever method is used,


construct the equipment so that the accuracy of measurement is not
affected by variations in pressure in the water supply line. Use a meter or
weighing device capable of being set to deliver the required quantity and
to automatically cut off the flow when the required quantity has been
discharged. Ensure that the measuring equipment has accuracy, under all
Quality Control Of Concrete 9-2-4
Topic No.: 675-000-000
Materials Manual Effective: June 20, 2002
Concrete Production Revised: September 4, 2002
operating conditions, within 1% of the quantity of water required for the
batch.

Regardless of the method used, the following guidelines will be followed


when measuring devices are checked for conformity with accuracy
requirements of the specification or accuracy requirements as specified
herein:

(1) Devices will be checked up to the maximum quantity normally required for
a batch.

(2) At least four step - checks will be made at approximately equal intervals,
including the maximum quantity normally required for a batch.

(3) The report supplied by the qualified agency performing the check shall
include the date of inspection, signature of the agency representative,
observed deviations for each quantity checked and a statement that the
device conforms to Department specifications. A copy of the report
corresponding with the current certificate of inspection shall be available
at the plant where the device is located.

(4) A certificate of inspection bearing the date of certification and signed by a


representative of the qualified agency shall be affixed to the measuring
device.

(5) Methods not specifically detailed above are considered acceptable if


District Materials Personnel verify compliance with conditions and
guidelines stated in the specifications, or other written authority.

9.2.4.5.2 Admixture Measuring Dispensers

Admixture measuring dispenser accuracy shall be certified annually by


the admixture supplier. Calibrate the dispensing equipment for calcium
nitrite and silica fume slurry quarterly.

9.2.4.5.3 Recorders

Plants equipped with recording mechanisms must provide records that


are clear, complete and permanent indications of plant performance.
Where necessary, recorder information may be supplemented by the
batcher during the batching operation. The Department shall be allowed
to review recorder history at any time.

Quality Control Of Concrete 9-2-5


Topic No.: 675-000-000
Materials Manual Effective: June 20, 2002
Concrete Production Revised: September 4, 2002
9.2.4.6 Batching Accuracy

Failure to maintain batching operations of the plastic concrete within the


tolerance for each component material requires immediate investigation and
corrective action by the concrete producer, and automatically places the plant
on conditional approved status. Failure to implement corrective measures will
be cause for placing the plant on non-approved status and suspension of the
Quality Control Plan.

9.2.4.7 Batch Adjustments For Materials

Permissible adjustments to previously approved design mixes that may be


made without a new design mix request are as follows:

(1) Coarse or Fine Aggregate: ±75 lbs/yd3 [±45 kg/m3] of concrete.

(2) Admixtures: Shall be within the manufacturer's technical data sheet range.
Adjustments falling outside the technical data sheet range shall require
design mix re-verification.

(3) Cementitious Materials: ±6.5% per cubic yard [cubic meter], but not less
than the specified minimum for that class of concrete.

The Adjusted mix must meet the theoretical yield requirements of the
approved mix design.

The Producer shall inform the District Materials Engineer of any adjustments
to the mix. Batch adjustments shall be noted on the concrete delivery tickets.

9.2.4.8 Batch Adjustments For Moisture

Within two hours prior to each day's batching, free moisture shall be
determined for the coarse and fine aggregates. On continuous concrete
placements expected to exceed three hours, an additional moisture test shall
be required approximately half way through the batching operations. The
concrete producer shall use these values for adjustment of batch proportions.

One or more of the following methods shall determine aggregate free


moisture:

(1) By using moisture probe readings, speedy moisture tester or Chapman


flask for fine aggregate moisture. The accuracy of the moisture probe shall
be verified at least weekly by the manufacturer's recommended method
Quality Control Of Concrete 9-2-6
Topic No.: 675-000-000
Materials Manual Effective: June 20, 2002
Concrete Production Revised: September 4, 2002
and by method (2) below. The Chapman flask and speedy moisture tester
shall be verified at least weekly by method (2) below.

(2) By calculating both coarse and fine aggregate free moisture based upon
dry sample weights and adjusting for absorption.

(3) By towel drying coarse aggregate to calculate free moisture on saturated


surface dry aggregate. The accuracy of towel drying shall be verified
weekly by method (2) above.

9.2.4.9 Substitution of Materials

Obtain Department approval for any material substitutions before production


of that design mix. Any substitution of materials must meet the requirements
in Standard Specification 346.

9.2.4.10 Equipment

Use equipment for handling ingredients, mixing concrete, handling the mixed
concrete, transporting and depositing the mixed concrete that has no
detrimental effect on the plastic concrete. Do not use equipment with
aluminum surfaces in physical contact with the mixed product.

9.2.5 DESIGN MIXES

Design mixes shall meet the requirements of Standard Specification 346. Form
675-010-03, Concrete Design Mix [Form 675-010-04 for metric projects] shall be
used for design mix submittals.

Plants furnishing concrete to multiple projects may use approved concrete mix
designs on different projects, provided component materials and project
requirements of the approved mix design remain the same. The concrete
production facility shall submit mix design requests directly to the District
Materials Engineer in the District that the concrete production facility is located.
If a concrete producer is located out-of-state, then the mix design submission will
be to the nearest District Materials Engineer.

The District Materials Engineer will monitor or otherwise review the


proportioning, mixing and testing of the proposed mix. When the mix properties
and components have been verified, the District Materials Office will so advise
the State Materials Office, who will issue approval for the mix design. Those mix
designs that cannot be verified regarding final properties or components will be
returned to the concrete producer as unacceptable for use on Department
Quality Control Of Concrete 9-2-7
Topic No.: 675-000-000
Materials Manual Effective: June 20, 2002
Concrete Production Revised: September 4, 2002
projects. Make a separate submittal for each class of concrete and each
particular combination of component materials to be used at trial mix
temperatures of 70 to 85ºF [20 to 30ºC], and for hot weather mixes at a minimum
temperature of 94ºF [35ºC]. Use only design mixes approved by the State
Materials Office for Department use. The approved concrete mix design will
remain in effect until the District Materials Office authorizes a change in writing.

Include the following with the mix design submittal:

(1) The Department approved source identification number for coarse and fine
aggregates, specific gravity, along with the size of coarse aggregate and target
Fineness Modulus for fine aggregate. Identify other component materials by
manufacturer, brand name, and type.

(2) The actual proportions of raw materials intended to be combined to produce the
concrete.

(3) Historical or trial mix data:

(a) Historical data from a minimum of 15 consecutive Department


acceptance tests of production concrete, made in accordance with the
proposed mix design, which demonstrates that the proposed mix has met
all applicable plastic and hardened concrete specification criteria without
failure. For drilled-shaft concrete to be placed in (1) a wet shaft, or (2) a
dry shaft requiring a temporary removable casing, provide slump loss test
results. The Department will not approve hot weather mixes based on
historical data.

(b) Alternatively, test data from a single trial mix which demonstrates that the
produced concrete using the proposed mix, designated ingredients and
designated water to cementitious materials ratio will have a slump within ±
0.5 inch [±15 mm] of the target value (or for mixes utilizing HRWR, within
±1 inch [±25 mm] of the target value), air content of 2.5% to 5% and
strength required to meet an over design which is the minimum required
strength plus 1.6 standard deviations.

(4) The chloride content of the proposed design mix. The Department will not
approve mix designs when the chloride content of the trial mix exceeds the limits
shown in Standard Specification Section 346-4.2.1.

(5) For design mixes developed for use under hot weather concreting conditions:
Hold the trial mix in the mixer for 90 minutes after completion of initial mixing.
During the extended mixing period, turn the drum intermittently for 30 seconds
Quality Control Of Concrete 9-2-8
Topic No.: 675-000-000
Materials Manual Effective: June 20, 2002
Concrete Production Revised: September 4, 2002
every five minutes. Cover the drum with wet burlap or an impermeable cover
material during the rest periods. At the end of the 90-minute period, remix the
trial mix for a minimum of one minute and make a slump test to verify that the
concrete is within the specified range for slump.

On completion of the extended mixing period, ensure that the trial mix concrete
has a slump within ±0.75 inch [±20 mm] of the target value (±1 inch [±25 mm] for
mixes utilizing HRWR), and an air content between 2% and 5%. If below the
target range, the producer may adjust the slump by a water addition. After the
water addition, remix the concrete for a minimum of two minutes. Ensure that the
mix temperature is not less than 94ºF [34ºC] at any time.

The total water used in initial mixing and the final slump adjustment constitutes
the design mix water content. Ensure that the total water to cementitious
materials ratio does not exceed the maximum water to cementitious ratio of
Table 3 in the Standard Specification 346-4, for the respective class of
concrete. The Department may require extended mixing for precast/prestressed
concrete when centrally mixed at the placement site.

(6) For design mixes proposed for use in wet drilled shafts, demonstrate the
additional requirements in Standard Specification Section 346-3.2.

Submit strength test data for establishing the standard deviation of the plant to
meet the specified strength of the mix submitted for approval within 1,000 psi
[7 MPa]. The strength test data shall represent either a group of at least 30
consecutive tests or a statistical average for two groups totaling 30 or more
tests. When the Department cannot determine the plant standard deviation from
historical data, apply an over design requirement, based on a singular trial mix,
that is the minimum required strength plus 1,200 psi [8 MPa] for minimum
required concrete strengths of 5,000 psi [35 MPa] or less. For minimum required
concrete strengths above 5,000 psi [35 MPa], apply an over design requirement
that is the minimum required strength plus 1,400 psi [10 MPa].

Ensure that preparation and testing of the trial mixes is performed by a


laboratory acceptable to the Department which (A) has been inspected by the
CCRL on a regular basis, with all deficiencies corrected, and under the
supervision of a Specialty Engineer, Engineer’s representative or a professional
Engineer, or (B) meets all the requirements of ASTM C 1077. The Department
may give consideration to approval of laboratories operating under other
independent inspection programs demonstrated to be equivalent to the programs
recognized in (A) and (B). Ensure that the 28-day strength (or strength at any
other designated age) of trial mixes meets the above stated over design
requirements to ensure that concrete sampled and tested at the point of
Quality Control Of Concrete 9-2-9
Topic No.: 675-000-000
Materials Manual Effective: June 20, 2002
Concrete Production Revised: September 4, 2002
placement has a strength exceeding the specified minimum strength.

9.2.6 BATCHING PRODUCTION FACILITY REQUIREMENTS

9.2.6.1 Bins

Provide bins of adequate capacity for the required concrete production.


Support the bins upon a rigid framework founded upon a stable foundation
capable of holding them in a safe and secure position. Design each
compartment to discharge efficiently and freely into the weigh hopper.
Provide positive means of control so that as the quantity desired in the weigh
hopper is approached, the material can be added slowly and the addition of
further material can be stopped precisely. Use a discharging mechanism that
prevents loss of material when it is closed. Construct aggregate storage bins
sufficiently tight to prevent leakage of material, and divide them into at least
one compartment for the fine aggregate and one compartment for each size
of coarse aggregate to be used. Provide compartment partitions that are
sufficiently tight and high enough to prevent intermingling of the different
materials. Construct leak-proof and moisture-proof cementitious bins, and
provide them with vibrators or other means to aid the flow of cement from the
bin.

9.2.6.2 Weigh Hoppers

Provide weigh hoppers consisting of suitable containers freely suspended


from scales and protected from the elements so that accuracy is not
adversely affected. Equip the hoppers with a discharge mechanism that
prevents leakage or loss of material when closed. Vent hoppers to permit air
to escape and equip them with vibrators or other equipment that ensures
complete and efficient discharge of materials.

9.2.6.3 Scales

Provide either beam type or springless dial type scales, or electronic devices
such as load cells. Where using beam type scales, provide suitable means to
hold poises securely in position after they are set. Keep scales clean and in
good operating condition. Provide the scale operator with an unobstructed
view of all indicating devices and convenient access to all controls. Use
graduated weigh beam or dials to permit reading to 0.1% of the capacity of
the scales.

All scales and other weighing devices used in batching shall be checked for
accuracy by a representative of a scale company registered with the Bureau
Quality Control Of Concrete 9-2-10
Topic No.: 675-000-000
Materials Manual Effective: June 20, 2002
Concrete Production Revised: September 4, 2002
of Weights and Measures of the Florida Department of Agriculture. All scales
and other weighing devices shall be checked prior to beginning any work for
the Department and at lease once every three months. Any scale can be
required to be rechecked if deemed necessary by the Department. Check
scales up to at least the maximum load normally handled on each respective
scale.

Maintain cement scales, pozzolan scales, and coarse and fine aggregate
scales to an accuracy of 0.5% of the maximum load normally handled.

Affix a certificate of inspection bearing the date of the certification showing


signature of the scale company representative to each weighing device.
Make available at the plant a copy of the scale company's report
corresponding with the current certificate of inspection showing the date of
inspection, signature of the scale company representative, the observed
scale deviations for the loads checked, and a statement that the scale meets
the requirements of Chapter 531 of the Florida Statutes (F.S.), pertaining
to specifications, tolerances and regulations, as administered by the Bureau
of Weights and Measures of the Florida Department of Agriculture.

9.2.7 MIXERS

9.2.7.1 General Requirements

Provide mixers of an approved type that are capable of combining the


components of the concrete into a thoroughly mixed and uniform mass, free
from balls or lumps, which are capable of discharging the concrete with a
satisfactory degree of uniformity.

9.2.7.2 Design

Use truck mixers of the inclined axis revolving drum type, or concrete plant
central mixers of the non-tilting, tilting, vertical shaft or horizontal shaft types.

Make available at the batching plant at all times a copy of the manufacturer's
design, showing dimensions and arrangement of blades. The concrete
producer may use mixers that have been altered from such design in respect
to blade design and arrangement, or to drum volume, when concurred by the
manufacturer and approved by the Department.

Ensure that metal rating plates are attached to each mixer specifying its
mixing speed, agitating speed, rated capacity and unit serial number.

Quality Control Of Concrete 9-2-11


Topic No.: 675-000-000
Materials Manual Effective: June 20, 2002
Concrete Production Revised: September 4, 2002
9.2.7.3 Truck Mixers

Use truck mixers with a drum that is actuated by a power source independent
of the truck engine or by a suitable power take-off. Ensure that either system
provides control of the rotation of the drum within the limits specified on the
manufacturer's rating plate, regardless of the speed of the truck. Use truck
mixers of the revolving drum type that are equipped with a hatch in the
periphery of the drum shell which permits access to the inside of the drum for
inspection, cleaning and repair of the blades.

Use truck mixers equipped with revolution counters of an approved type and
mounting, by which the number of revolutions of the drum may be readily
verified.

Ensure that the water supply system mounted on truck mixers is equipped
with a volumetric water gauge or approved water meter in operating
condition. Annually calibrate water measuring devices on truck mixers or
other water sources used for concrete water adjustments.

Where a truck mixer volumetric gauge controls job site water additions,
ensure the truck mixer is parked in a level condition during on-site water
adjustments so that the gauge is indicating a specific tank volume before and
after the concrete adjustment. When water additions exceed 4 gal/yd3
[20 L/m3] of concrete, ensure that the water measuring equipment has an
accuracy of within 3% of the indicated quantity.

Truck mixers meeting these requirements and Standard Specification


Section 346 will be issued an identification card by the District Materials
Engineer upon request from the concrete producer. Identification cards shall
be displayed in the truck cab when delivering concrete for Department use.
Failure to display the identification card in the truck cab shall be cause for
rejection of the delivered concrete. The Department may remove the
identification cards when a truck mixer is discovered to be in noncompliance.

As an exception to the above, when the deficiency involves only an


inoperable revolution counter, the truck mixer identification card will not be
removed. However, the Department will note the deficiency on the card. The
Producer will be allowed to deposit the concrete in the mixer, and the truck
mixer will then be removed from use until the revolution counter is repaired or
replaced. On the next delivery to any Department project, after repair or
replacement of the counter, the truck mixer operator shall make known that
the revolution counter is operable and obtain the Department’s initial on the
truck mixer identification card. Without such inspection and documentation of
Quality Control Of Concrete 9-2-12
Topic No.: 675-000-000
Materials Manual Effective: June 20, 2002
Concrete Production Revised: September 4, 2002
corrective action, the Department may reject the truck mixer at any time it is
again found to have an inoperable revolution counter. The revolution counter
will be set to zero prior to mixing.

The Producer shall inspect all truck mixers at least once each week for
changes due to accumulation of hardened concrete or to wear of blades. The
blades shall be repaired as necessary to meet the requirements. Any
appreciable accumulation of hardened concrete shall be removed before any
mixer may be used.

Copies of the most recent water measuring equipment calibration shall be


kept in the truck cab and available upon request.

9.2.7.4 Central Mixers

Use stationary type mixers equipped with an approved timing device which
will automatically lock the discharge lever when the drum is charged and
release it at the end of the mixing period. In the event of failure of the timing
device, the Department may allow operations to continue during the day that
failure was noticed for the first time. Do not extend such operations beyond
the end of that working day. The mixer shall be operated at the speed
recommended by the manufacturer.

The Producer shall inspect all mixers at least once each week for changes
due to accumulation of hardened concrete or to wear of blades.

9.2.7.5 Cleaning and Maintenance of Mixers

Repair or replace mixer blades of revolving drum type mixers when the radial
height of the blade at the point of maximum drum diameter is less than 90%
of the design radial height. Repair or adjust mixers of other designs per
manufacturer's instructions. Resolve questions of performance through mixer
uniformity tests as described in ASTM C 94.

9.2.8 MIXING AND DELIVERING CONCRETE

9.2.8.1 General Requirements

Operate all concrete plant mixers at speeds per the manufacturer's design or
recommendation. Do not allow the volume of mixed batch material to exceed
the manufacturers rated mixing capacity. Mix concrete containing metakaolin
or silica fume in accordance with their supplier's recommendations.

Quality Control Of Concrete 9-2-13


Topic No.: 675-000-000
Materials Manual Effective: June 20, 2002
Concrete Production Revised: September 4, 2002
When necessary and in order to produce concrete of the specified
temperature during cold weather conditions, heat either the mix water or the
aggregates or both prior to batching. Apply the heating uniformly in a
manner, which is not detrimental to the mix. Do not heat the aggregates
directly by gas or oil flame or on sheet metal over fire. Do not heat the
aggregates or water to a temperature of over 150° F (66° C). If either is
heated to over 100° F (38° C), mix them together prior to the addition of the
cement so that the cement does not come in contact with the materials,
which are in excess of 100° F (38° C). Include in the Quality Control Plan
measures to maintain free moisture in a well drained condition when heating
aggregates.

9.2.8.2 Central Mixing:

After all materials are in the mixer, mix the concrete a minimum of two
minutes or the manufacturer's recommended minimum, whichever is longer,
unless the Department authorizes a reduced mixing time.

9.2.8.3 Transit Mixing:

Initially mix each batch between 70 and 100 revolutions of the drum at mixing
speed. When water is added at the job site, mix the concrete 30 additional
mixing revolutions. When mixing for the purpose of adjusting consistency, do
not allow the total number of revolutions at mixing speed to exceed 160.
Discharge all concrete from truck mixers before total drum revolutions exceed
300. All revolutions of the drum shall be counted in the total number of
revolutions.

Do not haul concrete in mixer trucks loaded with more than the rated capacity
shown on their attached plates.

9.2.8.4 Charging the Mixer

Charge each batch into the drum so that some water enters both in advance
of and after the cementitious material and aggregates. If using fly ash in the
mix, charge it into the drum over approximately the same interval as the
cement. The concrete producer may use other time intervals for the
introduction of materials into the mix when the concrete producer
demonstrates, using test requirements specified in ASTM C 94, that he can
achieve uniformity of the concrete mix.

For concrete mixes containing specialty ingredients (silica fume, metakaolin,


corrosion inhibitor calcium nitrite, accelerators, high range water reducers,
Quality Control Of Concrete 9-2-14
Topic No.: 675-000-000
Materials Manual Effective: June 20, 2002
Concrete Production Revised: September 4, 2002
etc.), charge the batch materials into the mixer in a sequence recommended
by the supplier. Adjust the weight of mixing water for a concrete mix
containing a corrosion inhibitor admixture or silica fume slurry. Account for
water in the corrosion inhibitor or silica fume slurry as described in the
manufacture’s technical data sheet.

9.2.9 QUALITY CONTROL PLAN

The quality control plan of any concrete production facility shall meet the
requirements of Standard Specification Section 6. The quality control plan is
used to maintain the properties of concrete to the point of discharge at the
project site. The quality control plan shall address how the water to cementitious
materials ratio and the plastic properties tests of concrete will be controlled to
meet specification requirements. The quality control plan shall address the
qualification of personnel, source of materials, and equipment used to produce
concrete. Quality control of the concrete shall be achieved through statistical
evaluation of test results. The Producer shall use a Department approved
laboratory and qualified personnel.

The production facility shall be on the Department’s approved list prior to


production of concrete for Department projects. The approved Quality Control
Plan shall be the minimum required control of concrete on all Department
projects. The State Materials Office will assign a Concrete Plant Number for
each facility.

9.2.10 PERSONNEL

Concrete production facilities supplying concrete to Department projects shall


have adequate qualified personnel. Batch Plant operator, certified technicians
and manager of quality control are required positions for an approved concrete
production facility. At the discretion of the Department, certain functions of the
above positions may be combined when it can be demonstrated that the plant
operation and quality of the concrete will not be detrimentally affected. CTQP
Qualified Technicians utilizing equipment with a valid calibration/verification will
perform Quality Control sampling and testing. This qualification of any technician
shall be made available upon request.

9.2.10.1 Batch Plant Operator

Personnel who have quality control functions or who sign concrete


certification/delivery tickets must demonstrate, through examination,
adequate concrete related knowledge. Plant Operators shall be present
during batching operations. The Plant Operator shall be qualified by the
Quality Control Of Concrete 9-2-15
Topic No.: 675-000-000
Materials Manual Effective: June 20, 2002
Concrete Production Revised: September 4, 2002
Department’s Construction Training and Qualification Program (CTQP).

9.2.10.2 Certified Technicians

Personnel who perform the tests on the plastic properties of concrete, such
as slump, temperature, air content, making/curing concrete cylinders and
calculating the water to cementitious materials ratio, shall be qualified as a
Concrete Field Inspector – Level I by the Department’s Construction Training
and Qualification Program (CTQP).

Personnel who perform the tests on the hardened properties of concrete,


such as strength of cylinders, shall be qualified as a Concrete Laboratory
Technician – Level I by the Department’s Construction Training and
Qualification Program (CTQP).

9.2.10.3 Mix Design Technician

Personnel who have quality control functions of designing a concrete mix


must demonstrate, through examination, adequate concrete related
knowledge. Such examinations will deal with Department specifications and
concrete quality control procedures. The Mix Design Technician shall be
qualified as a Concrete Laboratory Technician – Level II by the Department’s
Construction Training and Qualification Program (CTQP).

9.2.10.4 Manager of Quality Control

Personnel who perform the duties of managing the quality control of the plant
shall be qualified as a Concrete Laboratory Technician – Level II by the
Department’s Construction Training and Qualification Program (CTQP). The
personnel shall also have the following qualifications:

(4) Three years of quality control experience directly related to cement


concrete production.

(5) Demonstrated proficiency in implementing, supervising and maintaining


surveillance over a quality control program.

(6) Experience or certification in performance of required quality control tests


and in organization and statistical evaluation of quality control test results.

The personnel who perform the duties of managing the quality control of the
production facility shall have the following duties and responsibilities:

Quality Control Of Concrete 9-2-16


Topic No.: 675-000-000
Materials Manual Effective: June 20, 2002
Concrete Production Revised: September 4, 2002
(7) Implement policies and procedures of the quality control program.

(8) Maintain liaison with Project Manager and the Department on all activities
related to quality control.

(9) Supervise the activities of all quality control technicians, ensuring sufficient
manpower in all areas related to quality control testing and inspection.

(10) Review all quality control procedures to ensure compliance with project
specifications.

(11) Ensure all quality control records are properly prepared and reviewed.

(12) Ensure that quality control activities are performed in accordance with
documented instructions and procedures.

(13) Develop and maintain a filing, storage and retrieval system for quality
control records.

9.2.11 RECORDS

All records shall be kept on file at each plant and made available upon request
by the Department. The following updated information shall be available at each
plant:

(1) Producer Quality Control program and plant approval status.

(2) Approved concrete design mixes.

(3) Materials source/specification compliance (delivery tickets, certifications, certified


mill test reports, miscellaneous test reports).

(4) Quality Control data (gradation and absorption worksheets, fresh and hardened
concrete test results, sample frequency data, and any additional information
required by the District Materials Engineer).

(5) Plant and mixer design data as required by project specifications.

(6) Federal poster.

(7) Contract documents, as determined necessary by the District Materials


Engineer.

Quality Control Of Concrete 9-2-17


Topic No.: 675-000-000
Materials Manual Effective: June 20, 2002
Concrete Production Revised: September 4, 2002
(8) A copy of the scale company or testing agency report showing the observed
deviations from quantities checked during calibration of scales or meters.
Certification documents for admixture weighing and measuring dispensers.

(9) Chloride test data. Ensure that testing for chlorides is performed by a laboratory
meeting the requirements of Standard Specification Section 6-9.

(10) Weekly mixer inspection certification (a copy of the truck mixer certification shall
be located in the truck cab and in the plant).

(11) Moisture Control records including date and time of test.

(12) Daily records of all concrete batched for delivery to Department projects,
including respective design mix numbers and quantities of batched concrete.

9.2.12 SAMPLING AND TESTING OF MATERIALS

Sampling and Testing of materials and concrete for quality control purposes is
the responsibility of the concrete production facility. Frequency of sampling must
be designed to provide adequate data to operate the quality control program for
each design mix. Table 1 designates the minimum sampling and testing
frequencies that will be accepted in a well controlled production facility. The
quality control plan shall indicate an increased sampling rate when any quality
control plan limit is reached. All sampling and testing shall be conducted in
accordance with current ASTM sampling and testing methods.

Quality Control Of Concrete 9-2-18


Topic No.: 675-000-000
Materials Manual Effective: June 20, 2002
Concrete Production Revised: September 4, 2002

TABLE 1
Material and Required Tests Minimum Sampling Frequency For Each Source and Grade
Coarse Aggregate*
Gradation 1 per month
Absorption 1 per month
Total Minus 200 1 per month
Fine Aggregate*
Gradation 1 per month
Absorption 1 per month
(Screenings only)
Total Minus 200 1 per month
Cementitious Materials Certification
Admixtures Certification
Water 1/30 days: Open bodies of water & recycled water
Chemical Analysis** 1/3 months: Wells and treated water
Chlorides As required in Specification 346-4.2
*Materials certifications must be kept on file for three years.
**Water approved by a Public Health Department does not need to be tested.

9.2.13 DELIVERY TICKET/CERTIFICATION

The following information is required information for each delivery


ticket/certification. All information shown on the delivery ticket/certification must
be furnished with each load. The information contained within Standard
Specification Section 346-6.3 is required information on each delivery
ticket/certification. The original signature on the delivery ticket shall certify to the
accuracy of the recorded information and compliance with the approved design
mix including the chloride content requirements. A sample of a delivery ticket is
provided in Attachment “B”.

(13) Serial number of delivery ticket.

(14) Plant number assigned by the Department.

(15) Date of batching.

(16) Contractor's name.

(17) A description of the delivery location.

(18) FDOT Financial Project Number.

Quality Control Of Concrete 9-2-19


Topic No.: 675-000-000
Materials Manual Effective: June 20, 2002
Concrete Production Revised: September 4, 2002
(19) Truck number making the concrete delivery.

(20) Class of concrete.

(21) Design mix number.

(22) Time all materials are introduced into mixer.

(23) Cubic yards [cubic meters] in this load.

(24) Cumulative total cubic yards [cubic meters] batched for job on date of delivery.

(25) Maximum allowable water addition at the job site.

(26) Number of revolutions at mixing speed before leaving for job site.

(27) Amount of mixing time for central mixer.

(28) Coarse and fine aggregate sources (Department assigned Pit No.).

(29) Actual weight of coarse and fine aggregates batched in pounds [kilograms].

(30) Percent of free moisture in coarse and fine aggregates.

(31) Cement producer and type.

(32) Total weight of cement batched in pounds [kilograms].

(33) Producer, brand name and class (whichever might apply) of Pozzolan or Slag.

(34) Total amount of Pozzolan or Slag batched in pounds [kilograms].

(35) Producer, supplier, type and total amount of air entraining agent used.

(36) Producer, supplier, type and total amount of admixtures used.

(37) Total amount of water batched at the plant in gallons [liters] or pounds
[kilograms].

(38) Statement of compliance with Department specifications.

(39) Original signature of Plant Operator and Technician Identification Number.

Quality Control Of Concrete 9-2-20


Topic No.: 675-000-000
Materials Manual Effective: June 20, 2002
Concrete Production Revised: September 4, 2002

ATTACHMENT “A”

CONCRETE Production Facility inspection checklist

PLANT NUMBER: __________


INSPECTION DATE: _____ / _____ / _____
Inspected for: 346 _______, 347_______, Both _______
Today’s Inspection: Initial _________, Routine __________, Reinspection __________
Concrete Supplier: Plant Inspected By:
Plant Address: Plant Location:
Plant Telephone No.: Plant Fax Number:
QUALITY CONTROL PERSONNEL
Quality Control Manager: CTQP Batch Plant Certification Date:
QC Manager Location: Quality Control Telephone No.:
Quality Control Mobile No.: Quality Control Fax. No.:
PLANT PERSONNEL Y N
1 The plant personnel are certified through the CTQP program.
2 The plant personnel are indicated in the Quality Control Plan.
Batch Operator: CTQP TIN: Expiration Date:
QC Manager: CTQP TIN: Expiration Date:
Other: CTQP TIN: Expiration Date:
Other: CTQP TIN: Expiration Date:

Based on today’s inspection, this plant is placed on the following status:


APPROVED __________ CONDITIONALLY APPROVED__________ NON-APPROVED __________

________________________________________ ______________________________________
FDOT PLANT INSPECTOR PLANT REPRESENTATIVE
Plant Representative signature does not indicate agreement or disagreement with inspector findings.

AREA REMARK OR DEFFICIENCY Y N N/A


CEMENT
POZZOLANS / SLAG
COARSE AGGREGATE
FINE AGGREGATE
ADMIXTURES
WATER
PLANT RECORDS
SCALES
MIXING CONCRETE
RAW MATERIALS
MIXERS

Quality Control Of Concrete 9-2-21


Topic No.: 675-000-000
Materials Manual Effective: June 20, 2002
Concrete Production Revised: September 4, 2002

THIS INFORMATION IS COLLECTED INSIDE THE BATCH HOUSE

No. Item Y N N/A

CEMENT

The certification for cement complies with AASHTO M-85 & FDOT
1
specification.

2 The cement is identified in the Quality Control Plan.

POZZOLANS / SLAG

The certification for Fly Ash complies with ASTM C-618 (Class F) or ASTM C-
3
311 (Class C) and FDOT specification.

4 The certification for Blast Furnace Slag complies with ASTM C-989 and FDOT
specification.

5 The fly ash and slag are identified in the Quality Control Plan.

Material Type Brand Source Delivery Date Mill Cert. Date

REMARKS OR DEFFICIENCY:
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

Quality Control Of Concrete 9-2-22


Topic No.: 675-000-000
Materials Manual Effective: June 20, 2002
Concrete Production Revised: September 4, 2002

No. Item Y N N/A

COARSE AGGREGATE
1 The coarse aggregates are indicated in the Quality Control Plan.

2 The coarse aggregates meet all specification requirements.

3 The Gradation / Absorption tests is being performed by approved personnel or


lab. Technician Identification Number (TIN) ______________________

4 The Gradation / Absorption tests is being performed in a timely manner (at


least once per 30 days).

5 The free moisture test is being performed by an approved method.


(cook out or towel drying)
6 The plant is verifying the accuracy weekly if the towel method is being used.
Pit No. Grade FDOT Code Delivery Date Date Certified

REMARKS OR DEFFICIENCY:
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

Quality Control Of Concrete 9-2-23


Topic No.: 675-000-000
Materials Manual Effective: June 20, 2002
Concrete Production Revised: September 4, 2002

No. Item Y N N/A

FINE AGGREGATE
1 The fine aggregates are indicated in the Quality Control Plan.

2 The fine aggregates meet all specification requirements.

3 The Gradation / Absorption tests is being performed by approved personnel or


lab. Technician Identification Number (TIN) ______________________

4 The Gradation / Absorption tests is being performed in a timely manner (at


least once per 30 days).

5 The free moisture test is being performed by an approved method.


(cook out, moisture probe reading, speedy moisture tester or Chapman flask)

6 The plant is verifying the accuracy weekly if the speedy moisture tester or
Chapman flask method is being used.

7 The plant is verifying the accuracy at least weekly if the moisture probe is
being used by the recommendation of the manufacture.
Pit No. Grade FDOT Code Delivery Date Date Certified

REMARKS OR DEFFICIENCY:
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

Quality Control Of Concrete 9-2-24


Topic No.: 675-000-000
Materials Manual Effective: June 20, 2002
Concrete Production Revised: September 4, 2002

No. Item Y N N/A

ADMIXTURES
1 All admixtures are indicated in the Quality Control Plan.
2 All admixtures are on the Qualified Products List as approved for FDOT.
3 The number of measuring devices is sufficient.
Material Identification (Brand) Delivery Date Dispenser Calibration Date

REMARKS OR DEFFICIENCY:
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

Quality Control Of Concrete 9-2-25


Topic No.: 675-000-000
Materials Manual Effective: June 20, 2002
Concrete Production Revised: September 4, 2002

No. Item Y N N/A

WATER
1 The source of the water is indicated in the Quality Control Plan.

2a The source of water is from the city. (no testing needed)


The source of water is from a well and tested once every three months, unless
2b the past eight consecutive tests pass in which only require once every six
months. (last test date of: ____________________)

2c The source of water is from a stream or lake and tested once every thirty
days. (last test date of: ____________________)

2d The source of water is recycled and tested once every thirty days.
(last test date of: ____________________)

2e The source of water is reclaimed wash water and tested once every thirty
days. (last test date of: ____________________)

3 The source of water was tested at an approved laboratory.


(name of laboratory: ____________________)

REMARKS OR DEFFICIENCY:
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

Quality Control Of Concrete 9-2-26


Topic No.: 675-000-000
Materials Manual Effective: June 20, 2002
Concrete Production Revised: September 4, 2002

No. Item Y N N/A

PLANT RECORDS
The various Applicable Specifications on File (both English and Metric if
1
applicable).

2 The Plant Quality Control Plan on file.


3 A copy of the Federal Poster posted.

4 A daily record of concrete batched for the Department on file.

5 Copies of the manufacturers design showing dimensions and arrangements of


blades for each mixer available.
6 All approved Design Mixes are on file.
7 The records for the Coarse Aggregates are available.

8 The records for the Fine Aggregates are available.

The records for moisture probe and other methods of determining the free
9
moisture being verified at least once per 7 days.

10 The plant deviated from the standard 24-hour aggregate watering.

If the plant deviated from the standard 24-hour aggregate watering, the
11 deviation is shown in their quality control plan and approved by the District
Materials Engineer.

12 Project information was recorded (fill in below).

13 Concrete test data was recorded (fill in below).

Concrete Test Data:


Mix # Date Plastic Strength
FIN Project # (Mix Class) Cast Property 28-Day Chloride Results

REMARKS OR DEFFICIENCY:
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

Quality Control Of Concrete 9-2-27


Topic No.: 675-000-000
Materials Manual Effective: June 20, 2002
Concrete Production Revised: September 4, 2002

No. Item Y N N/A

SCALES
A company registered with the Bureau of Weights and Measures of the
1 Department of Agriculture calibrated the scales and water meters for
accuracy.

2 Company Name & Registration #:


3 Cement scale was calibrated (date: ____________________).

Course & Fine Aggregates scale was calibrated (date :


4
____________________).

5 Water measuring device was calibrated (date : _____________________).


6 There is an automatic cutoff for water measuring device.

7 The scale company report includes observed scale deviations.

8 The scale deviations were checked within 0.5% of maximum load.

9 Suitable means were provided to hold poises on beam type scales.

10 Scales permit reading to 0.1% of capacity.

11 A device to indicate the required load is being reached is provided.

12 All weighing devices are in view of the operator.

Cementitious materials are measured within an accuracy of 1% of the required


13
amounts.

14 Aggregates are measured within an accuracy of 1% of the required amounts.

15 Water is measured within an accuracy of 1% of the required amounts.

REMARKS OR DEFFICIENCY:
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

Quality Control Of Concrete 9-2-28


Topic No.: 675-000-000
Materials Manual Effective: June 20, 2002
Concrete Production Revised: September 4, 2002

No. Item Y N N/A

MIXING CONCRETE
1 The batching sequence is in accordance with the specifications.

2 The mixing is at proper drum speed.


3 If a truck mixer is used, the drum revolutions are according to specifications.

4 The maximum mixer volume is not exceeded.

5 All water going into the mixer is metered or weighed.

6 If a central mixer is used, the concrete is mixed a minimum of two minutes or


as approved in the quality control plan.
7 The central mixer is equipped with an approved timing device.
8 Admixtures are measured separately.
9 Admixtures are added with the mixing water.

10 Cement is weighed independently from other materials.

11 Cement is weighed first when using a cumulative weigh hopper.


Cementitious materials are being protected from loss in handling after
12
weighing.

REMARKS OR DEFFICIENCY:
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

Quality Control Of Concrete 9-2-29


Topic No.: 675-000-000
Materials Manual Effective: June 20, 2002
Concrete Production Revised: September 4, 2002

THIS INFORMATION IS COLLECTED OUTSIDE THE BATCH HOUSE

No. Item Y N N/A

RAW MATERIALS
1 The cement is stored in a weatherproof facility that is labeled.

2 For the cementitious materials there is a suitable, safe and convenient means
of collecting samples.
Aggregates are handled and stored in silos, ground storage, or batch bins,
3
free of contamination & segregation, and clearly labeled.

4 Aggregates are in a well-drained condition.


5 Aggregates stockpiles are formed properly.

6 Aggregate silos are kept in a reasonably full condition.

The entire surface of the coarse aggregate is continuously and uniformly


7 sprinkled with fresh water 24-hours immediately preceding introduction into
the concrete mix (unless otherwise identified in the Quality Control Plan).
8 All scales have adequate protection from the elements.

9 All scales are clean to assure accurate and efficient operation.

REMARKS OR DEFFICIENCY:
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

Quality Control Of Concrete 9-2-30


Topic No.: 675-000-000
Materials Manual Effective: June 20, 2002
Concrete Production Revised: September 4, 2002

No. Item Y N N/A

MIXERS / MAINTENANCE OF MIXERS


1 Mixers are free of hardened concrete.

2 All Blades are greater than 90% of design height.


The supplier examines the mixers weekly for hardened concrete and blade
3 wear and a record of the truck inspection being kept (both in the cab of the
truck mixer and in the plant).

The manufacturer metal rating plate (consisting of mixing speed, agitation


4 speed, rated capacity and unit serial number) of the drum is available,
attached, and legible on each truck mixer.

The mixer is equipped with a hatch in the periphery of the drum, revolution
5 counter, and a clean operating water gauge (calibrated annually) that are all in
good operation.
Either central or truck (circle one) mixers demonstrate the capability to
6 combine the concrete component materials into a thoroughly mixed and
uniform mass.

7 Either central or truck (circle one) mixers demonstrate the capability to


discharge the concrete with a satisfactory degree of uniformity.
8 Mixers were inspected and recorded (fill in below).

Mixer Inspection:
Truck Counter Blade Drum Rating Water
Number Condition Condition Condition Plates Gauge Remarks

*Superficial Inspection, hatch need not be open (E) English (M) Metric (B) Both

REMARKS OR DEFFICIENCY:
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

Quality Control Of Concrete 9-2-31


Topic No.: 675-000-000
Materials Manual Effective: June 20, 2002
Concrete Production Revised: September 4, 2002
ATTACHMENT "B"

Sample Delivery Ticket for Structural Concrete


Financial Project No.: Serial No.:

Plant No.: Date:

Concrete Supplier: Delivered to:

Phone Number: Phone Number:

Address: Address:

__

Truck No. DOT Class DOT Mix No. Cubic Yards This Load

Allowable Jobsite Time Loaded Mixing revolutions Cubic Yards Total Today
Water Addition

Cement Fly Ash or Slag


_____________ ______________ _____________ _____________ ______________ _____________
Source Type Amount Source Type Amount
Coarse Agg. Air Entrainment Admixture
_____________ ______________ _____________ _____________ _____________ ______________ _____________
Pit Num. % Moisture Amount Source Brand Type Amount
Fine Agg. Admixture
_____________ ______________ _____________ _____________ _____________ ______________ _____________
Pit Num. % Moisture Amount Source Brand Type Amount
Batch Water (gals. or lbs.) Admixture
_____________ _____________ _____________ ______________ _____________
Amount Source Brand Type Amount

Issuance of this ticket constitutes certification that the concrete batched was produced and information recorded in
compliance with Department specification requirements for Structural Concrete.

CTQP Technician Identification Number Signature of Batcher Plant Operator

Arrival time at job site Number of revolutions upon arrival at job site

Water added at job site (gal. or lbs.) Additional mixing revolutions with added water

Time concrete completely discharged Total number of revolutions

Initial Slump Initial Air Initial Concrete Temp. Initial w/c Ratio

Acceptance Slump Acceptance Air Acceptance Concrete Temp. Acceptance w/c Ratio

Issuance of this ticket constitutes certification that the maximum specified water cementitious ratio was not exceeded
and the batch was delivered and placed in compliance with Department specification requirements.

CTQP Technician Identification Number Signature of Contractor’s Representative

Quality Control Of Concrete 9-2-32