Sie sind auf Seite 1von 15

Dinas Kebudayaan dan Pariwisata

Provinsi Jawa Timur


BKS-PTSI UPT. Pemberdayaan Lembaga Seni Wilwatikta

PROCEEDING
THE 1st INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR
BY ASSOCIATION OF INDONESIA ART INSTITUTES 2018
July 7”, 2018

Art
Identity
and Reality

INSTITUT
SENI BUDAYA INDONESIA
ISBI TANAH PAPUA
INSTITUT SENI BUDAYA INDONESIA
ACEH
PROCEEDING
THE 1st INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR
BY ASSOCIATION OF INDONESIA ART INSTITUTES 2018
July 7”, 2018

SENI, IDENTITAS, & REALITAS

Koko Hari Pramono and Bramantijo - STKW Surabaya


M Dwi Marianto. - ISI Yogyakarta
Sarwanto and Sri Rochana W - ISI Surakarta
I Nyoman Sedana - ISI Denpasar
F Yulika and S F Dewi - ISI Padangpanjang
Lusy Esterina - Institut Kesenian Jakarta
Benny Yohanes Timmerman - ISBI Bandung
I Wayan Rai S. - ISBI Tanah Papua
Mirza Irwansyah - ISBI Aceh

WILWATIKTA PRESS
STKW Surabaya

I
ART, IDENTITY, & REALITY
PROCEEDING
INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR

Dr. Hedi Hinsler -Univ. Leiden Ned.herland


Prof. Dr. David Harnish, M.A. - Univ. of California Sandiego-USA
Mayco A Santaella, Ph.D. -Univ. Sunway-Malaysia
Koko Hari Pramono and Bramantijo - STKW Surabaya
M Dwi Marianto - ISI Yogyakarta
Sarwanto and Sri Rochana W - ISI Surakarta
I Nyoman Sedana - ISI Denpasar
FYulika and S F Dewi - ISI Padang panjang
Lusy Esterina - Institut Kesenian Jakarta
Benny Yohanes Timmerman - ISBI Bandung
I Wayan Rai S. - ISBI Tanah Papua
Mirza Irwansyah - ISBI Aceh

Editor :
Sal Murgianto
Bramantijo
Dewi Yulianti

Reviewer :
I Wayan Dibia
Santoso

Cover Design :
Agus Priyanto

Layout :
Novy Rosandy

Publisher :
Wilwatikta Press

Redaction:
Jl. Klampis Anom II (Perumahan Wisma Mukti) Sukolilo - Surabaya 60117
Telp/Fax : (031) 5949945
Email : stkw_sby@ymail.com
Website : stkw-surabaya.ac.id
ISBN : 978-602-52652-2-8
Cetakan Pertama, Juli 2018
Hak cipta dilindungi undang-undang
Dilarang memperbanyak karya tulis ini dalam bentuk dan dengan cara apapun,
tanpa ijin tertulis dari penerbit.

Printed By Detail Advertising

II
Foreword
Dr. H. Jarianto M.Si
The Head of Surabaya Wilwatikta Art Institution

Cultural greeting,

Let us thank God the almighty for giving us a chance to hold 10th Indonesia Art Festival
which is hosted by Surabaya Wilwatikta Art Institution. This festival is held biennial and as the
streering commitee containing 9 art institutions joined in cooperation body of art institutions in
Indonesia (BKS- PTSI) and in 2018 as the organizing commitee, it is Surabaya Wilwatikta art
institution.

Indonesia Art Festival aims firstly to present the success of creavity practice including
the presetvation and development of our culture in their own areas. Secondly, to grow and
develop qualified communication forum and art interaction among art institutions in Indonesia
through art performances, exhibitions, workshops, and art seminars. Thirdly, to strengthen the
cooperation among the nine Indonesia art institutions. Increasing national and international
society's participation and participation towards art institutions' activities in Indonesia.
Therefore, the theme chosen is "Art, Identity, an Reality", this theme has a meaning that in
running art education, including creativity is a part of national education system which pay
attention on cultural identity of the art which is the area of responsibility to keep responding
creatively and critically the culture reality happening today.

This Indonesia Art Festival is held with the cooperation of BKS- PTSI with East Java
department of culture and tourism, The empowerment of institution unit in Wilwatikta art
institution, which has a functional duty to manage Surabaya Wikwatikta Art Institution. This
festival is financed independently by each of the art institution, while the operating cost at
Surabaya wilwatikta Art Institution is financed by the Regional Revenue and Expenditure
Budget of East Java province through the Department of Culture and Tourism, Empowerment
Institution Unit of Surabaya Wilwatikta Art Institution, we thank deeply to East Java governor.

At last we congratulate all of you especially keynote speakers from America, Duch, and
Malaysia and 9 Indonesian Institute Of Art thank you for your comming in Wilwatikta Institute
Of Art Surabaya. may this event be beneticial.

III
COMMITTEE OF INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR
IDONESIA ART FESTIVAL - X
at STKW SURABAYA
JULY 07 2018

1. Proceeding Title : The 1st INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR


BY THE ASSOCIATION OF INDONESIA ART INSTITUTES 2018
2. Seminar Theme : Art, Identity, And Reality
3. Place and time : Hall Taman Chandra Wilwatikta, Pandaan, Pasuruan,
Jawa Timur, Tanggal 07 Juli 2018
4. Committee :

Steering : Prof. Dr. I Gede Arya Sugiarta, S.SKar. M.Hum.


(ISI Denpasar Indonesia/Ketua BKSPTSI)
Chairman : Dr. H. Jarianto, M.Si.
Secretary : Dr. Bramantijo, M.Sn.
Treasurer : Drs. Arif Rofiq, M.Si.
Presentation : Dr. Koko Hari Pramono, M.Pd.
Secretaria : Widitaningsih Tri Kursanti, ST., Novy Rosandy, S.Sn.
Documentation : Taufiq Sholekhuddin, S.Sn.,M.Hum.
Accommodation : Catur Wahyuliani, SE.
Transport Section : Ismadi, SE
Supplies : Saiful Anam
Consumption : Siti Maryam

5. Editor : Dr. Sal Murgianto


Dr. Bramantijo, M.Sn
Dr. Dewi Yulianti

6. Reviewer : Prof. Dr. I Wayan Dibia, SST.,MA


Prof. Dr. Santoso

IV
CONTENTS

Foreword
Dr. H. Jarianto M.Si
The Head of Surabaya Wilwatikta Art Institution III

Committee Of International Seminar IV


Content V

University of San Diego


David Harnish 1

Univ. Leiden Ned.herland


Dr. Hedi Hinsler 7

Sunway University, Kuala Lumpur


Mayco A. Santaella, PhD 14

Yogyakarta Indonesian Institute of the Arts


Andre Indrawan 22
Irwandi 47
Prof. Dr. M Dwi Marianto, M.FA. 56

Surakarta Indonesian Institute of the Arts


Dr. Sri Hesti Heriwati, M.Hum 65
Sarwanto and Sri Rochana W 72

Denpasar Indonesian Institute of the Arts


Prof. I Nyoman Sedana, Ph.D. 80
Indra Sadguna 102

Padangpanjang Indonesian Institute of the Arts


Dr. Sahrul N, S.S., M.Si 113
F Yulika dan S F Dewi 129

Indonesia Institute of the Arts and Culture Bandung


Dr. Benny Yohanes Timmerman, S.Sen, M.Hum 139

Jakarta Art Institute


Lusy Esterina and Nyak Ina Raseuki 151

Indonesia Institute of the Arts and Culture Aceh


Mirza Irwansyah 158

Indonesia Institute of the Arts and Culture Tanah Papua


I Wayan Rai S. 159

Wilwatikta College Of Art Surabaya


Koko Hari Pramono and Bramantijo 160
Wahyudiyanto 168
Roci Marciano 175
Yekti Herlina 182

University of Udayana Denpasar


Ngakan Ketut Acwin Dwijendra 188

V
PROCEEDING THE 1st INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR 2018 INDONESIAN ART FESTIVAL 2018
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

ART EDUCATION OF KI HAJAR DEWANTARA AND ITS


RELEVANCE IN ART EDUCATION IN INDONESIA

1) Koko Hari Pramono, 2) Bramantijo


Teater, Sekolah Tinggi KesenianWilwatikta Surabaya, email: koko.sake@yahoo.co.id
Seni Murni, STKW Surabaya, email: bramantijo@stkw-surabaya.ac.id

ABSTRACT
The aim of this research is to analyze the thought of art education by Ki
HadjarDewantara and its relevance in art education in Indonesia. The research method is
using Jurgen Habermas critical method which has six steps of analysis those are:
empirical history philosophy, language, hermeneutics, ideological criticism, functionalist,
and construction of historical materialism. The methodusedis focuson critical analysis.
The result of research are: (1) the education of art by Ki HadjarDewantara is defined as
educational system oriented to education that liberate and inculcate the values of
character through art. (2). critical analysis: the philosophy of empirical history, language,
ideological criticism, functionalism, and historical materialism, in the scope of art
education that imply in choosing of the philosophical principle of art education applied to
the awareness of cultural itself. (3). the art education in response to the development of
human resource, it deals with the capability of delivering the Nation beyond the
competition of the world of science, technology and art, with the basic of human
creativity, and cultural manifestation as a source of knowledge.
Keywords: Education, Art

PREFACE
Art is a mysterious phenomenon, asSugiharto (2013) said, at a glance it is
something that is not essential, unimportant. When all these activities of life which are
organized based on the main of scientific-technological activity that depend on
calculation, objectivity and efficiency, art does seem to be something trivial,useless,
exaggerated, cunning, subjective.The impact of art education must give a support of
education in Indonesia, the analogy cannot be separated from the process of thinking that
science and technology will bring people in the construction of structured action which
isdirected, in other words human is generated to be described as working man. However,
the mediation of art as a creative effort in art education will certainly providebalance in
addition to be able to work in a structuring, the effect of art education will make people
reflectively able to respond and create.The theoretical debate in art education lead to a
complete debate and questioning all aspects of the purpose of art education, thus the
students will no longer understand science and art as the only intellectual learning
purpose,but will also learn about the values and social life. Therefore, the actual method

160
PROCEEDING THE 1st INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR 2018 INDONESIAN ART FESTIVAL 2018
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

of education is none other than the set of various educational experiences that include the
problems of science, society and culture, which must be learned by students not only at
school but also outside the school, for example in the environment of family and social
environment.
Education is a teaching-learning process that the education system is always
different and changeable, from one society to another society. This is because of every
society has a particular social, philosophical and lifestyle system in line with the basic
aim and values that exist in the community itself. (Nazili, 2011: 3). The concept of art
education that has been initiated by Ki HadjarDewantara it seems have not optimized yet
in the national education curriculum. This is the basic of research that the concept of
national education by Ki HadjarDewantara can actually makeIndonesia‘s education into
an education which has character. However it still seems less optimal in addressing and
applying the concept of art education by Ki HadjarDewantara.
A minor study conducted by Ki Tato Darmanto-chairman of the central family
of ―Tamansiswa‖of 100 respondents of high school and vocational high school students
only 40% know about Ki HadjarDewantaraand only 10% know his thoughts. In
conclusion, from 100 respondents, only 4 people know about the thought of Ki
HadjarDewantara. Whereasthe Minister of Education and CultureAnis Baswedan says,
―When we always refer and admire Finnish education, Ki HadjarDewantara has
formulated and done it a century ago. Kompas, Daily, No 297 / 2016. Surabaya.
Based on the research of result by Ki Toto Darmanto (2016) it seems clear that
from 100 respondents only 4 who understand about the thought of Ki HadjarDewantara.
The greatest strength of the educational system is history. If the history cut off, it will be
uprooting of national identity. Then why the stuttering identity of education can be
eroded regardless of how the primacy of education is done. In the globalization era the
target is focused on two important things namelydevelopment of knowledge and
technology. Indonesia is one of the country that accelerates development and it is
required to follow the competitiveness of the world progress. The impact of education
which are focus on knowledge and development become the critical identity who
experienced by the student in personality values, thus there are often some cases of
violence and moral acts.On this research there are several problems as follows: (1) How
the construction of art education of Ki Hadjar Dewantara through ontology, epistimologi,
and axiology? (2) How is art education thought by Ki Hadjar Dewantara which isstudied

161
PROCEEDING THE 1st INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR 2018 INDONESIAN ART FESTIVAL 2018
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

with critical methodology ofJurgen Habermas? (3) How is the relevance of art education
of Ki Hadjar Dewantara to art education nowadays?

THE RESEARCH METHODS


This research is a qualitative research, that is analyzing the criticism of art
education ideology of Ki Hadjar Dewantara in critical method of Jurgen Habermas in art
education of Indonesia.Josef Bleicher (1980) explains in a number of literature on
philosophical study, it is mentioned that hermeneutic term is derived from the Greek
verb, which has meaning to understand, to interpretor to translate. The same opinion is
also mentioned by David Ingram (1985).
Kneller (1984: 65-98), describes hermeneutics in relation to education. He said
that hermeneutic quite influential on the process of education and learningas one effort to
achieve educational goal. Josef Bleicher in Kneller (1984) divided hermeneutics into
three categories; hermeneutictheory, hermeneuticphylosophy, criticalhermenutic.
Fromthose three categories, the thought of Hans Georg Gadamer, belongs to the second
category (hermeneutic phylosophy). Therefore, Gadamer's hermeneutic theory is
appropriately used in this study.Gadamer hermeneutic theory abovecan be used as a
method in learning a text, including the text of ideology of art education by Ki Hadjar
Dewantara. Gadamer hermeneutic concept is used as a method in this research can be
formulated as follows:

The World of Text

The World of Author Productive Hermeneutic

The World of Reader


The data of this study is obtained by researcher through literature review to
construct the thought of Ki HadjarDewantara related to national education in general and
art education in particular that is used in several books.Data collection use literature
review to collect data which is obtained as supporting data analysis in this research so
thatwill be verified as data obtained through literature research. In line with (Meztika,
2004: 1-2).Data collection techniques conducted by researcher in a dissertation is using
documentary study. Document study is done on documents relating to research issues,

162
PROCEEDING THE 1st INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR 2018 INDONESIAN ART FESTIVAL 2018
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

including a review of the literature, archives, and various reports in the library. Thus, the
technique of collecting data of secondary whichis got from documentary study.
In the analysis process, the researcher uses descriptive technique, through three
activities, namely: (1) data reduction (2) data presentation, (3) withdrawal verification, as
something that related to before, during and after data collection in parallel form to build
general insight Miles & Huberman (Rohidi, 1992). For more details it will be presented
in the form of the following images:
Results and Discussion
Educational conceptof KiHadjarDewantara is not the system of ―Kejawen‖
education, it uses the term inJavanese language with two reasonable reasons. First, it is
consistent with cultural concentration. The culture(knowledge) that got universally is
applied in the cultural practitioners of the archipelago in a concentric way and not leaving
the "local wisdom". The second reason, there is no Youth Pledge with lingua franca of
Indonesian in his era (1922). So the cultural concentration is "forced" to use the Javanese
term.
Among system is inspired by Frobel‘s concept with the implementation of "tut
wurihandayani" so that the child can be independent inward and outward. Among system
is prohibit the existence of fain punishment to the child because it will inhibit the growth
of his/her free soul. The personal talent of the child are naturally born, which must be
grown and the guardian or teacher can ―handayani‖ or coaching at a certain stage. Ki
Hadjar's concept of "ngerti-ngroso-nglakoni" is identical to "cognitive-affective-
psychomotoric".

1. Character
The concept education of 2. Mind
"Taman Siswa" 3. Child's body

1. Tetep, antep, mantep


Education of "Fatwa" 2. Ngandel, kandel, kendel, bandel
3. Neng, ning, nung, nang

1. nature 2. independence
KHD

Principle of Education 3. culture 4. nationality


5. humanity

1. Ngemong
Method 2. Momong
3. Among

163 Ing ngarsa sung tuladha,


Motto Ing madya mangun karsa,
Tut wury handayani
PROCEEDING THE 1st INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR 2018 INDONESIAN ART FESTIVAL 2018
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Philosophical Analysis of Empirical History


According to Sastrapratedja (1982) human is a historical being. The essence of
human can only be seen in the historical journey, an event and not merely a datum.
Thus,something about the essence of human can only be seen in their historical journey,
in the history of the human race.According to Francis in Russell (2007) empirical theory
is deny the theory that has been developed before, namely rationalist theory. In this
theory empirical become the subject of rationalist discussion which is only based on
human strength in conducting investigation. Ki Hadjar is arenaissance human. In the
perspective of science, what it has been initiated by Ki Hadjar is the basic of the maturity
of mindset, so that in creating a theory of education based on the discourse which is got
from reading book and the history.
Language Analysis
According to Langer in Sastrapratedja (1982) the progress of language as discursive
symbols cannot be denied to support of other sciences. The language is a container in
which ideas are born in a streak. The development of science should not be run up to the
study of concepts and theories but can be formulated as a language of science. Therefore,
Languagethoroughly opens the field of where the science can be invested.
Analysis of Hermeneutics
Hermeneutical analysis is a process, principle, and procedure that used to approach the
problem and to seek the answer. Actually hermeneutic analysis is influenced bythe
theoretical perspective to conduct research of Ki HadjarDewantarain order to know the
possible explanatory to understand the data and to connect the complicated data with
other event and situation.This means when conducting a critical analysis of art education
and national education initiated by Ki Hadjar is necessary to analyze the events occurring
in the life of Ki Hadjar. Because of a theory will not be separated from the context of
space and time that build a construction of the theory.
Analysis of Ideological Criticism
Horkheimer in Hardiman (2009) reveals the ideology of firm positivistic theory in
traditional theory. He shows three basic presuppositions that show traditional theory to
ideology in the strict meaning. Traditional theory presupposes that human knowledge is
not historic or ahistorical.Hencethe resulting theory is also ahistorical and asocial.
Traditional theory claims to be independence. Principally, ideological criticism analysis
is an assessment of the paradigm influence on the education system in the concept and
theory of education and teaching of Ki Hadjar Dewantara.
164
PROCEEDING THE 1st INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR 2018 INDONESIAN ART FESTIVAL 2018
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Functionalist Analysis
Education is an enlightenment, it is the proper meaning of education function of Ki
Hadjar, in the literal meaning of education is a tool that make people thinking about the
various meanings and functions of life as human being who hasintelligence and character.

Gen-Xer Gen-Z

1946-1944 1946-1944 1946-1944 1946-1944

Baby Boomer Millennials


Generation Picture
Based on the research ofalvara research center in 2015 found data that each generation
has its own characteristics and character. Baby boomers tend to have an idealistic
character. They firmly hold the principles that they profess, especially related to tradition
that have been hereditary. In addition they also have a conservative mindset (rather old-
fashioned), which is why this generation more risk-taking than other generation. In this
category also including the generation of Ki HadjarDewantara.

Th
e
P
dy
na E
mi
cs N
of
a X G X
chi 3 4
X
ld D X
2D R A
lif R D5
e X Child
L
D R
jo 1
R DD X
R R
ur
D
A R
R D
D 6
ne X D X
y 9
M DX 7
A 8
EDUCATIONAL ECOSYSTEM
N

Y : a civilized human profile X5 : history D : impact


Picture 6.12 ecological education adopted from Djohar&Istiningsih
X1 : family X6 : politic/ nation R : response

X2 : friend/ school ecosystem 165 X7 : IPTEK

X3 : society X8 : global system

X4 : nature/ geography X9 : Geneticts


PROCEEDING THE 1st INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR 2018 INDONESIAN ART FESTIVAL 2018
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Adaptation that is done in this research is to show the data, besides environmental
factors that dominate the cause of the uniqueness of child who must be considered in
learning is a genetic factor. Among the nine common environmental factors for all
children of nation is state of politics, politics also determines the policy direction of a
curriculum system in learning, kalua in the era of Ki HadjarDewantara national politics
must be a character that is combined with freedom of the soul is preferred. But now the
politics of the Indonesia has changed direction and needart education is directed
according to the results of world art meetings that build creative capacity and cultural
awareness. However it must be also realized that the character of every child has a
difference. Character difference is a consequence of various culture, in this case of course
the implementation of the learning process must be adjusted.
CONCLUSION
Art education get special attention by the father of Education Ki HadjarDewantara,
because in the educational system of Ki Hadjar iscultural engineering that has meaning,
culture is the most important aspect in education, so that art education will make student
become person who has‖ kasempurnan‖or perfect life. The purpose of art education
conceptualized byKiHadjar is to teach student to be perfect human by having the
characteristics as follows: ‖kawaskitaan‖, ―kawicaksanaan‖, and ―kawiryaan‖.
Nevertheless in the world changing nowadayswe are certainly required to make a
criticism which is structurally to evaluate art education of Ki Hadjar in order to be
utilized in art education at this time. Thus we will be a nation that has characteron culture
of the archipelago.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bleicher, Josef (1980). Contemporary Hermeneutics, Hermeneutics as method
Phylosophy andCritique. London: Routledge & Paul Kegan.
Cavallaro, Dani. 2004. Critical and Cultural Theory. Jogjakarta. Futuh Printika
Daito, Apollo. 2011. Pencarian Ilmu Melalui Pendekatan: Ontologi, Epistimologi,
Aksiologi. Jakarta. Mitra Wacana Media
Gademer G. Hans.2004. Kebenaran dan Metode. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar
Habermas, Jurgen. 1981. Teori Tindakan Komunikatif Buku Satu: Rasio Dan
Rasionalisasi Masyarakat. Suhrkamp Verlag.
Kneller, George F. (1984). Movements of Thought in Modern Education. New Delhi-
India: Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd.
McCarthy, Thomas. 2009. Teori Kritis: Jurgen Habermas. Bantul: Kreasi Wacana.
Miles, Matthew B dan huberman, A Michael. 1992. Analisis Data Kualitatif. Jakarta.
Universitas Indonesia Press

166
PROCEEDING THE 1st INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR 2018 INDONESIAN ART FESTIVAL 2018
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Rohidi, Tje Tjep. 2016. Pendidikan Seni : Isu dan Paradigma. Semarang: Cipta Prima
Nusantara
Sugiharto, Bambang. 1996. Postmoderenisme: Tantangan Bagi Filsafat. Yogyakarta:
Kanisius.
UNESCO.2006. Road Map for Arts Education. The World Conference on Art Education
Building Creative Capasitesfor the 21st Century. Lisbon, 6-9 March.
Zed, Mestika. 2008. Metode Penelitian Kepustakaan. Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia.

167