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# INDEX

## 1 CALCULATIONS FOR BUSBAR & CONDUCTOR SIZING A

1 REV A
INPUT LIST FOR CALCULATION OF CONTINUOUS CURRENT CARRYING CAPACITY
OF PANTHER CONDUCTOR.

## 2 The value of DC resistance RT at 200 C is RT 0.136 Ω/km

(As per IS 398(P-II)

## 3 Temperature coefficient of electrical resistance α 0.00403 k-1

(As per IEC 1597 clause 4.2-Page-23)

4 Initial temperature T1 20 C
0

293 K
5 Final temperature T2 75 C
0

348 K

6 Frequency f 50 Hz

## 7 Factor determined by conductor construction µr 1

1 for circular, stranded, compacted and sectored.

## 1.0 for Black body

0.5 for average oxidized copper
0.35-0.45 for naturally weathered (i.e. dulled surface)
Increase with aging
0.15-0.25 for extruded surface
Increase with aging

13 Ambient Temperature T1 50 C
0

323 K

## 14 Cross Wind speed (minimum-90' to the Line) v 1 m/s

15 Thermal conductivity of the air film in contact with the conductor λ 0.02585 W.m-1.K-1

## (As per IEC 1597 clause 3.7)

2
CALCULATION FOR CONTINUOUS CURRENT CARRYING CAPACITY
OF PANTHER CONDUCTOR.

4.1 General

The current carrying capacity (CCC) of a conductor is the maximum steady state current inducing a given temperature
rise in the conductor , for given ambient conditions.

## 4.2 The heat balance equation is :

The steady state temperature rise of a conductor is reached whenever the heat gained by the conductor from various
sources is equal to the heat losses. This is expressed by equation (1)
Pj + Psol = Prad + Pconv ----------------- (1)
(As per IEC 1597 equation no (1))

Where,

## Pj is the heat generated by joule effect

Psol is the solar heat gain by the conductor surface
Pcov is the convention heat loss.

## 4.3 Joule effect

Power losses Pj (W) , due to Joule effect are given by equation (2)

Pj = RT I2 ----------------- (2)
Where, (As per IEC 1597 equation no (2))

## RT is the electrical resistance of conductor at a temperature T (Ω/m)

I is the conductor (A)

## The DC resistance of a conductor at a temperature T2 is given by :

----------------- (3)
Hence , RT2 =RT1 [ 1+α (T 2−T 1 )] (As per IEC1597 equation (9) )

2.67E-01 Ω/miles

## 4.4 Calculation of AC resistance.

If the conductor is composed of one or more concentric circular elements, then the centre portion of the conductor will be
enveloped by a greater magnetic flux than those on the outside. Consequently the self induced back-emf will be greater
towards the centre of the conductor, thus causing the current density to be less at the centre than the conductor surface.
This extra concentration at the surface is known as skin effect, and results in an increase in the effective resistance of the
conductor.

## Now for the calculation of skin effect coefficient ,a factor X is defined as

Hence,
X S =0 . 063598×
√ μr × f
R dc
----------------- (4)

Xs = 8.70E-01

For this value of Xs the skin effect coefficient obtained from Table

X K X K X K X K

## 0.0 1.00000 1.0 1.00519 2.0 1.07816 3.0 1.31809

0.1 1.00000 1.1 1.00758 2.1 1.09375 3.1 1.35102
0.2 1.00001 1.2 1.01071 2.2 1.11126 3.2 1.38504
0.3 1.00004 1.3 1.01470 2.3 1.13069 3.3 1.41999
0.4 1.00013 1.4 1.01969 2.4 1.15207 3.4 1.45570
0.5 1.00032 1.5 1.02582 2.5 1.17538 3.5 1.49202

3
0.6 1.00067 1.6 1.03323 2.6 1.20056 3.6 1.52879
0.7 1.00124 1.7 1.04205 2.7 1.22753 3.7 1.56587
0.8 1.00212 1.8 1.05240 2.8 1.25620 3.8 1.60314
0.9 1.00034 1.9 1.06440 2.9 1.28644 3.9 1.64051

## For X =1.3 K = 1.01470

For X = 8.70E-001
K = 1.01271

= 1.68E-04 Ω/m

## Psol = γ D Si ----------------- (5)

(As per IEC1597 equation (3) )
Where ,

Hence
Psol = 9.45 W/m

## Prad = s π D Ke (T24 - T14) ----------------- (6)

(As per IEC1597 equation (4) )
Where ,

Hence ,

## 4.7 Convention heat loss

Only forced convention heat loss, Pconv (W) , is taken into account and is given by equation

## Pcov = λ Nu (T2-T1) π ----------------- (7)

(As per IEC1597 equation (5) )
Where,

λ is the thermal conductivity of the air film in contact with the conductor, assumed constant .

## Nu = 0.65 Re 0.2+0.23.Re 0.61 ----------------- (8)

4
(As per IEC1597 equation (6) )
Where,

## Re = 1.664 . 109 v D [(T1+0.5(T2-T1)]-1.78 ----------------- (9)

(As per IEC1597 equation (7) )
Where,

Hence,
Re = 1115.9376

Nu = 19.271111

## By putting Nu value in equation no 7

Pconv = 39.105421 W

## Imax = [ (Prad+Pconv-Psol)/RT2]0.5 ----------------- (10)

Where,

Pconv= 39.1054207 W

## For Trafo Bay

i Maximum Power Output of Two Trafo 3.2 MVA
ii Net Power Output of Two Trafo. 3.2 MVA
iii Secondary Rated Voltage 33 kV
MVA RATING X 1000
Total current = 56 A
RATED VOLTAGE X 1.73

4.10 Conclusion
As per Above calculation the required continous current for bus is 56Amps. And Single PANTHER conductor can take
462Amps current so the conductor size is sufficent to take such load.

5
SHORT TIME WITHSTAND CAPABILITY

## Reference Document : (IEC 865 PART-I)

Short time withstand capability for aluminium conductor (ACSR) can be calculated by equation

K I
S thr = =
√T kr A
(As per IEC 865 part-I clause A9 figure 13 page no.113)

Where ,

Sthr is rated short -time withstand current density (r.m.s.) for 1 sec.

## K is factor for calculating Sthr which is given by equation

K=

Where,

κ 20 ×C× ρ 1+ α 20(θ c−20 0 C )
α 20
In 0
1+ α 20 (θ b−20 C )

C

## θc is the conductor temperature at end of short circuit. 200 0

C

Where , As per IEC 865 part-I clause A9 figure 13 page no.113 table for aluminium conductor)
7
Κ20 3.48 x 10 /Ωm
Κ20 = 3.48E+07 1/Ωm Specific Conductivty at 20 deg.C.

## Cross-sectional Area for Single Panther 2.61E-04 m2

Short time withstand capability for single Panther 2.24E+04 A for 1 sec

Short time withstand capability for Single Panther 22373 A for 1 sec

## Conductor Fail In Short Circuit

Required Short time withstand capability 25kA for 1 sec. (As per Tech. Specification)