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INDEX

S.No. Description Rev

1 CALCULATIONS FOR BUSBAR & CONDUCTOR SIZING A

1 REV A
INPUT LIST FOR CALCULATION OF CONTINUOUS CURRENT CARRYING CAPACITY
OF PANTHER CONDUCTOR.

S.No. Description Symbol Value Unit

1 Conductor Type - Panther -

2 The value of DC resistance RT at 200 C is RT 0.136 Ω/km


(As per IS 398(P-II)

3 Temperature coefficient of electrical resistance α 0.00403 k-1


(As per IEC 1597 clause 4.2-Page-23)

4 Initial temperature T1 20 C
0

293 K
5 Final temperature T2 75 C
0

348 K

6 Frequency f 50 Hz

7 Factor determined by conductor construction µr 1


1 for circular, stranded, compacted and sectored.

8 The solar radiation absorption coefficient γ 0.5

9 Diameter of conductor D 0.021 m

10 Intensity of solar radiation Si 900 W/m2

11 Stefan - Boltzmann constant S 5.67E-008 W.m-2.K-4

12 Emissivity coefficient in respect to black body Ke 0.45

1.0 for Black body


0.5 for average oxidized copper
0.35-0.45 for naturally weathered (i.e. dulled surface)
Increase with aging
0.15-0.25 for extruded surface
Increase with aging

13 Ambient Temperature T1 50 C
0

323 K

14 Cross Wind speed (minimum-90' to the Line) v 1 m/s

15 Thermal conductivity of the air film in contact with the conductor λ 0.02585 W.m-1.K-1

(As per IEC 1597 clause 3.7)

2
CALCULATION FOR CONTINUOUS CURRENT CARRYING CAPACITY
OF PANTHER CONDUCTOR.

4.1 General

The current carrying capacity (CCC) of a conductor is the maximum steady state current inducing a given temperature
rise in the conductor , for given ambient conditions.

4.2 The heat balance equation is :

The steady state temperature rise of a conductor is reached whenever the heat gained by the conductor from various
sources is equal to the heat losses. This is expressed by equation (1)
Pj + Psol = Prad + Pconv ----------------- (1)
(As per IEC 1597 equation no (1))

Where,

Pj is the heat generated by joule effect


Psol is the solar heat gain by the conductor surface
Prad is the heat loss by radiation of the conductor.
Pcov is the convention heat loss.

4.3 Joule effect

Power losses Pj (W) , due to Joule effect are given by equation (2)

Pj = RT I2 ----------------- (2)
Where, (As per IEC 1597 equation no (2))

RT is the electrical resistance of conductor at a temperature T (Ω/m)


I is the conductor (A)

The value of DC resistance RT at 20 0C is 1.36E-04 Ω/m

The DC resistance of a conductor at a temperature T2 is given by :


----------------- (3)
Hence , RT2 =RT1 [ 1+α (T 2−T 1 )] (As per IEC1597 equation (9) )

RT2 = 1.66E-04 Ω/m


2.67E-01 Ω/miles

4.4 Calculation of AC resistance.

If the conductor is composed of one or more concentric circular elements, then the centre portion of the conductor will be
enveloped by a greater magnetic flux than those on the outside. Consequently the self induced back-emf will be greater
towards the centre of the conductor, thus causing the current density to be less at the centre than the conductor surface.
This extra concentration at the surface is known as skin effect, and results in an increase in the effective resistance of the
conductor.

Now for the calculation of skin effect coefficient ,a factor X is defined as

Hence,
X S =0 . 063598×
√ μr × f
R dc
----------------- (4)

Xs = 8.70E-01

For this value of Xs the skin effect coefficient obtained from Table

X K X K X K X K

0.0 1.00000 1.0 1.00519 2.0 1.07816 3.0 1.31809


0.1 1.00000 1.1 1.00758 2.1 1.09375 3.1 1.35102
0.2 1.00001 1.2 1.01071 2.2 1.11126 3.2 1.38504
0.3 1.00004 1.3 1.01470 2.3 1.13069 3.3 1.41999
0.4 1.00013 1.4 1.01969 2.4 1.15207 3.4 1.45570
0.5 1.00032 1.5 1.02582 2.5 1.17538 3.5 1.49202

3
0.6 1.00067 1.6 1.03323 2.6 1.20056 3.6 1.52879
0.7 1.00124 1.7 1.04205 2.7 1.22753 3.7 1.56587
0.8 1.00212 1.8 1.05240 2.8 1.25620 3.8 1.60314
0.9 1.00034 1.9 1.06440 2.9 1.28644 3.9 1.64051

For X =1.2 K = 1.01071

For X =1.3 K = 1.01470

For X = 8.70E-001
K = 1.01271

Therefore AC resistance at T2 temperature Rt2 = K X RT2

= 1.68E-04 Ω/m

4.5 The Solar heat gain

Solar heat gain ,Psol is given by equation

Psol = γ D Si ----------------- (5)


(As per IEC1597 equation (3) )
Where ,

γ is the solar radiation absorption coefficient

D is the diameter of the conductor

Si is the intensity of solar radiation

Hence
Psol = 9.45 W/m

4.6 Radiated heat Loss

Heat loss by radiation , Prad (W) is given by equation

Prad = s π D Ke (T24 - T14) ----------------- (6)


(As per IEC1597 equation (4) )
Where ,

s is the Stefan - Boltzmann constant ( 5.67 X 10 -8 W.m-2.K-4)

D is the conductor diameter (m)

Ke is the emissivity coefficient in respect to black body

T is the temperature (K)

T1 is the ambient temperature (K)

T2 is the final temperature

Hence ,

Prad = 6.3624522 W

4.7 Convention heat loss

Only forced convention heat loss, Pconv (W) , is taken into account and is given by equation

Pcov = λ Nu (T2-T1) π ----------------- (7)


(As per IEC1597 equation (5) )
Where,

λ is the thermal conductivity of the air film in contact with the conductor, assumed constant .

Nu is the Nusselt number , given by equation

Nu = 0.65 Re 0.2+0.23.Re 0.61 ----------------- (8)

4
(As per IEC1597 equation (6) )
Where,

Re is the Reynolds number given by equation

Re = 1.664 . 109 v D [(T1+0.5(T2-T1)]-1.78 ----------------- (9)


(As per IEC1597 equation (7) )
Where,

v is the wind speed in m/s

D is conductor diameter (m)

T is the temperature (K)

T1 is the ambient temperature (K)

T2 is the final temperature

Hence,
Re = 1115.9376

By putting Re value in equation No 8

Nu = 19.271111

By putting Nu value in equation no 7

Pconv = 39.105421 W

4.8 Steady state current carrying capacity (CCC)

The steady -state current capacity can be calculated by :

Imax = [ (Prad+Pconv-Psol)/RT2]0.5 ----------------- (10)

Where,

Prad = 6.36245223 W

Pconv= 39.1054207 W

Psol = 9.45 W/m

Rt2 = 1.68E-04 Ω/m

Hence single Panther conductor can carry continuous current I = 462.67 A

4.9 Required continuous current rating of 33 KV Bus

For Trafo Bay


i Maximum Power Output of Two Trafo 3.2 MVA
ii Net Power Output of Two Trafo. 3.2 MVA
iii Secondary Rated Voltage 33 kV
MVA RATING X 1000
Total current = 56 A
RATED VOLTAGE X 1.73

4.10 Conclusion
As per Above calculation the required continous current for bus is 56Amps. And Single PANTHER conductor can take
462Amps current so the conductor size is sufficent to take such load.

5
SHORT TIME WITHSTAND CAPABILITY

1) SHORT TIME WITHSTAND CAPABILITY FOR PANTHER CONDUCTOR

Reference Document : (IEC 865 PART-I)

Short time withstand capability for aluminium conductor (ACSR) can be calculated by equation

K I
S thr = =
√T kr A
(As per IEC 865 part-I clause A9 figure 13 page no.113)

Where ,

Sthr is rated short -time withstand current density (r.m.s.) for 1 sec.

Tkr is Rated short time.

K is factor for calculating Sthr which is given by equation

K=

Where,

κ 20 ×C× ρ 1+ α 20(θ c−20 0 C )
α 20
In 0
1+ α 20 (θ b−20 C )

θb is the conductor temperature at beginning of short circuit. 75 0


C

θc is the conductor temperature at end of short circuit. 200 0


C

Where , As per IEC 865 part-I clause A9 figure 13 page no.113 table for aluminium conductor)
7
Κ20 3.48 x 10 /Ωm
Κ20 = 3.48E+07 1/Ωm Specific Conductivty at 20 deg.C.

C = 910 J/kg0C Specific Thermal Capacity

ρ = 2700 kg/m3 Specific Mass

α 20 = 0.004 1/0C Temp. Coefficient

hence K is 8.57E+07 A*s/m2

For Single Panther

Cross-sectional Area for Single Panther 2.61E-04 m2

Short time withstand capability for single Panther 2.24E+04 A for 1 sec

Short time withstand capability for Single Panther 22373 A for 1 sec

Conductor Fail In Short Circuit

Required Short time withstand capability 25kA for 1 sec. (As per Tech. Specification)