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Steeltec ETG ® 88/100

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Steel for more competitiveness

Steel has been one of the most important


materials going back centuries. We
manufacture it in the grade and quality
that allow our customers to succeed in
the increasingly tough competitive environ-
ment. Steel from Steeltec is employed
where precision components need to fulfil
the highest requirements, in the millions,
safely and reliably over the years. Com-
ponents that have to be produced effi-
ciently and at low cost. The requirements
placed on steel have changed. What
hasn’t is our passion to continually opti-
mise the way we fulfil them: yesterday,
today and in the future.
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ETG®: High-Strength Special Steels


for new challenges

Stronger competitors, declining prices, ETG ® steels open up undreamt-of For the production of demanding com-
shorter deadlines and higher demands re- possibilities in shaping and structuring ponents, manufacturers can strengthen
garding the quality and safety of the the manufacturing processes: their competitiveness through the use
components to be manufactured: these – elimination of extra operations such of High-Strength Special Steels:
are the challenges of the market. Those as hardening, straightening, grinding – smaller sizes save on weight
who aim to meet these demands and and deburring – shorter process times
make a profit turn to new variations of – shorter processing times through faster – fewer rejects and improved quality
steel. Steels that enable producers to machining – high processability
reshape and restructure their manufactur- – longer tool life – motivated machine operators
ing processes and techniques. And thus – less machine downtime – fewer interfaces and less administration
make them safer and more cost-effective. – multi-machine operation – satisfied customers
– possibility of running unmanned shifts
These are steels that In short: Those who replace standard
– feature a high strength as drawn, The added costs of using a higher- steels with ETG® High-Strength
– possess a high fatigue strength and quality material are more than made Special Steels save on costs, improve
abrasion resistance, up for with the savings in the manu- their quality and gain added safety.
– have outstanding machining properties facturing process.
and are distinguished by short chipping
length during machining,
– exhibit a high degree of uniformity from
heat to heat,
– have low residual stresses and maintain
dimensional stability even with asym-
metrical machining
– guarantee consistent mechanical prop-
erties over the entire cross section and
dimension range.

The unique properties of ETG® 88 and


ETG® 100 High-Strength Special Steels
revolutionise operational processes and
manufacture of components.
Comparison of component costs ETG®/hardening steels

10

ETG® 2
Hardening steels
Total ETG®
Total hardening steels 0 Material Turning Drilling Tools Heat
treatment
6

ETG® steels: A unique combination


of properties

The properties of ETG® steels are the out- – Efficient IT solutions through which
come of a combination of know-how processes can be analysed, improved
and production possibilities. These include: and directed. The stringent checks
– State-of-the-art plants that make it during production guarantee consistently
possible to link different manufacturing high quality within very close tolerances.
processes together to form a single – State-of-the-art testing procedures at all
production system. Melting, shaping and stages of processing, such as 100 %
manufacturing of components can be surface crack testing of all ETG® steels.
controlled as a whole. – Motivated employees, taking respon-
– Effective knowledge management al- sibility in their thoughts and actions.
lowing data, experiences and acquired – A network of external partners. In asso-
know-how to be utilised where they ciation with customers and suppliers,
are needed: with the customer, in the universities and research institutes, we
distribution organisations, in the factory. put the emphasis on continually pushing
Everywhere and at all times. the existing boundaries.
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Short chipping length makes for safe production processes

Product range
ETG® steels are available in various categories, finishes and sizes:

Steel category Processes Size range mm Tolerance – Bar lengths: 3 – 6.5 m


ETG® 88 round drawn ≥ 5.0 – ≤ 20.5 h9 – Colour coding: ETG® 88 white end face,
> 20.5 – ≤ 64.0 h11 ETG® 100 gold end face
> 64.0 – ≤ 114.3 h12 – Bright-turned and bright-turned/ground
ground ≥ 5.0 – ≤ 100.0 ≥ IT6 to special order
ETG ® 100 round drawn ≥ 6.0 – ≤ 64.0 h11 – Other categories to meet special requirements
> 64.0 – ≤ 70.8 h12 (e.g. mechanical properties) are available to
ground ≥ 6.0 – ≤ 70.8 ≥ IT6 special order.
ETG ® 88 hexagonal drawn SW 13 – 27 h11 – Regular sizes are available from stock.
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Material properties and fabrication


information

Complex components and demanding Information of a more general nature – For bolts, screws and gear wheels,
manufacturing processes require the right regarding the use of our ETG® steels: the applicable standards should be con-
material. The more complex the compo- – As with all drawn steels, loads should sulted.
n ents and the more sophisticated the be applied longitudinally wherever pos- – ETG® is suitable for threaded bolts with
manufacturing process, the more impor- sible. With lateral loading, the tensile clamping nuts. It is not suitable though
tant it is to use the right material. The job strength and proof stress are reduced. for screws with heads under stress
of our technical support staff is to sup- Wall thicknesses of less than 1 mm are except in the case of special fabrication
port customers in choosing the materials. in the critical boundary range. solutions. ETG® 88 and ETG® 100
– In view of the notch sensitivity, sharp- do not meet the strength required for
edged changes in cross-section should classes 8.8 and 10.9 according to
be avoided, especially if sudden DIN EN ISO 898-1.
stresses may occur. Particular care
should be taken when using this mate-
rial at temperatures below 0 °C.

Uniform mechanical properties over the entire cross section and dimension range

Proof stress related to diameter Hardness at different points of cross section


>

> > ETG® 100


> > ETG® 88 ETG®
Rp0,2 [N/mm2 ]

Conventional steel
Conventional steel

>

Diameter [mm]
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Chemical composition ETG® 88/100, analysis by mass in %:

Element C Si Mn P S
min. 0.42 0.10 1.35 0.24
max. 0.48 0.30 1.65 0.04 0.33

The analysis corresponds to SAE1144 and 44SMn28 (1.0762).


Piece analysis and melt analysis may vary according to EN 10087, table 2.

Mechanical properties (typical values)

ETG® 88 ETG® 100

Static
Dimensions Ø mm 5.0 – 114.3 6.0 – 70.8
Proof stress drawn Rp0,2 N /mm2 ≥ 685 ≥ 865
ground Rp0,2 N /mm 2 ≥ 685 ≥ 800
Tensile strength Rm N /mm2 800 – 950 960 – 1,100
Ultimate elongation A5 % ≥7 ≥6
Reduction of area Z % ap. 30 ap. 20
Elastic modulus N /mm2 ap. 200,000 ap. 200,000
Tensile strength (transverse) Rm N /mm2 ap. 600 ap. 720
Hardness
HRC ap. 28 ap. 32
HB 30 ap. 280 ap. 320
Lateral shear strength τs N /mm2 ap. 510 ap. 590
Torsional shear strength τt N /mm2 ap. 440 ap. 540
Notched impact energy Av RT J ap. 25 ap. 10

Dynamic
Tension/compression σw N /mm 2 ap. 345 ap. 390
Pulsating σ sch N /mm2 ap. 490 ap. 540
Reverse bending σ bw N /mm2 ap. 390 ap. 440
Torsional reversal τ tw N /mm2 ap. 195 ap. 225
Torsional pulsating τ sch N /mm2 ap. 345 ap. 390

Fatigue strength values for gear wheels

ETG® 88 ETG® 100

Tooth root stress for pulsating load


as drawn σFLim N /mm2 248 272
nitrocarburised σ FLim N /mm2 301 327

Tooth root stress for alternating load


as drawn σ WLim N /mm2 174 190
nitrocarburised σ WLim N /mm2 211 229

Straigth teethed gears (m = 2 mm, z= 17)


Tooth system quality 7 acc. to DIN 3961...67
Standard values acc. to DIN 3990 resp. ISO 6336
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ETG ® opens up new possibilities


in the manufacture of components:

– Greater safety
– Higher quality
– Lower costs

The use of ETG® helps to optimise


production processes:

– Shorter process cycles


– Elimination of some individual
operations
– Weight savings
>

Considerable cost savings throughout


the entire process chain

Steeltec ETG ® and standard steels:


We bring energy to steel A comparison of the mechanical
properties

ETG® steels can be used instead of a


whole range of standard steels. This cuts
down on logistics expenditures, reduces
the risk of material confusion and lowers
complexity costs. At the same time,
individual components can be made in
smaller size: they become lighter and
less expensive.
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Strength values of standard steels compared to ETG®

Guaranteed proof stress Rp0.2 [N/mm2] according to EN 10277

Steel category
Size range mm
Material number EN reference Process 5 – 10 10 – 16 16 – 40 40 – 63 63 – 100

Free-cutting tempering steels


1.0726 35S20 +C 480 400 315 285 255
1.0756 35SPb20 +C+QT 380 320 320
+QT+C 600 580 550 530 530
1.0760 38SMn28 +C 600 530 460 425 350
1.0761 38SMnPb28 +C+QT 420 400 380
+QT+C 700 680 650 650 500
1.0762 44SMn28 +C 550 500 420 400 390
1.0763 44SMnPb28 +C+QT 420 410 400
+QT+C 710 710 660 660 660
1.0727 46S20 +C 570 470 375 325 305
1.0757 46SPb20 +C+QT 430 370 370
+QT+C 680 650 620 620 620
1.0728 60S20 +C 645 540 430 355 335
1.0758 60SPb20 +C+QT 570 570 490 450 450

Hardening steels
1.0501/1.0502 C35/C35Pb +C 510 420 320 300 270
1.1181 C35E +C+QT 370 320 320
1.1180 C35R +QT+C 650 600 530 430 360
1.0503/1.1195 C45/C45Pb +C 565 500 410 360 310
1.1191 C45E +C+QT 430 370 370
1.1201 C45R +QT+C 700 650 570 470 380
1.0540 C50 +C 590 520 440 390
1.1206 C50E +C+QT 460 400 400
1.1241 C50R +QT+C 720 670 600 540 470
1.0601/1.0602 C60/C60Pb +C 630 550 480
1.1221 C60E +C+QT 520 450 450
1.1223 C60R +QT+C 750 720 640 560 480
1.7033 34Cr4 +C+QT 590 460 460
1.7037 34CrS4 +QT+C 800 800 690 560 480
1.7035 41Cr4 +C+QT 660 560 560
1.7039 41CrS4 +QT+C 900 850 770 640 580
1.7218 25CrMo4 +C+QT 600 450 450
1.7213 25CrMoS4 +QT+C 800 770 670 520 450
1.7225 42CrMo4 +C+QT 750 650 650
1.7227 42CrMoS4 +QT+C 920 900 830 730 650
1.6582 34CrNiMo6 +C+QT 900 800 800
+QT+C 950 950 950 850 820

High-Strength Special Steels

ETG® 88 drawn 685


ETG® 100 drawn 865

+C Cold-drawn
+C+QT Cold-drawn and tempered
+QT+C Tempered and cold-drawn

The guaranteed proof stress for all sizes it will be used for. Optimised sizes enable
means that ETG® can be used for a very significant savings in weight and cost.
wide range of applications. ETG® can
be used instead of a whole range of stan-
dard steels. The deciding factor is what
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Changes of the mechanical properties


in relation to temperature

Longitudinal strength in relation to stress-relieving temperature


Typical values, stress-relieving time approx. 2 h

Proof stress Rp0,2 [N/mm 2 ] ´


1,200

1,100
R m ETG® 100

1,000
R p ETG ® 100

900 Rm ETG® 88

800 R p ETG ® 88

700
Tensile strength Rm

600

500

16

14

12
´

10 ETG® 88
Elongation A5 [%]

8 ETG ® 100

0 100 200 300 400 500 600

Stress-relieving temperature [°C] ´

High-temperature longitudinal strength for ETG® 100


in relation to hardening temperature
Typical values
´

1,100
Tensile strength Rm Proof stress Rp0,2 [N /mm2 ]

Rm
1,000 Rp0,2

900

800

700

600

500

400

0 100 200 300 400 500 600

Testing temperature [°C] ´


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In contrast with cold-drawn steel bars,


ETG® 100 has low internal stress. How-
ever, this stress can cause distortion in
situations such as:
– asymmetrical machining
– long, narrow components
– thin-walled components
We recommend stress-relieving the ma-
terial for workpieces of this nature.
The stress-relieving temperature should
be at least 300 °C.

Stress-relieving is not usually necessary


with ETG® 88, as its internal stress levels
are so low.

For high-precision threaded spindles


(i.e. lead screws), ETG® 100 should only
be used in stress-relieved form
(approx. 580 – 600 °C, min. 2 h ).
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Processing information

The special manufacturing processes Orientation values for various machining processes
used for ETG® steels result in a unique Machining guidelines Vc [m/min] and f [mm/rev]
combination of high strength combined
ETG® 88 ETG® 100
with outstanding machining properties. Multi-spindle – CNC turning Vc roughing 240 – 280 210 – 250
(Carbide tooling, coated) f 0.20 – 0.60 0.20 – 0.60
Vc finishing 250 – 290 220 – 260
f 0.20 – 0.60 0.20 – 0.60
Vc plunging/parting-off 160 – 240 140 – 220
f 0.15 – 0.50 0.15 – 0.50
Multi-spindle – CAM turning Vc roughing 180 – 220 170 – 210
(carbide tooling, coated) f 0.05 – 0.20 0.05 – 0.20
Vc finishing 190 – 230 180 – 220
f 0.05 – 0.20 0.05 – 0.20
Vc plunging/parting-off 120 – 180 110 – 170
f 0.10 – 0.40 0.10 – 0.40
Short-bed turning – CNC Vc roughing 240 – 280 210 – 250
(Carbide tooling, coated) f 0.20 – 0.60 0.20 – 0.60
Vc finishing 250 – 290 220 – 260
f 0.10 – 0.30 0.10 – 0.30
Vc plunging/parting-off 160 – 240 140 – 220
f 0.15 – 0.50 0.15 – 0.50
Plain turning – CNC Vc roughing 140 – 180 110 – 150
(Carbide tooling, coated) f 0.05 – 0.35 0.05 – 0.30
Vc finishing 160 – 200 130 – 170
f 0.05 – 0.25 0.05 – 0.20
Vc plunging/parting-off 80 – 140 60 – 120
f 0.05 – 0.25 0.05 – 0.25
Drilling Vc 120 – 180 110 – 170
(Solid carb. drill) f 0.10 – 0.30 0.10 – 0.30
Drilling Vc 60 – 100 50 – 90
(HSS, coated) f 0.05 – 0.25 0.05 – 0.25
Reaming Vc 30 – 40 30 – 40
(HSS, coated) f 0.10 – 0.30 0.10 – 0.30
External/internal threading Vc 70 –160 60 – 150
(Chase threading, carbide/HSS, coated)
Internal threading Vc 8–9 8–9
(Cutting, carbide tooling, coated)
Internal threading Vc 10 – 20 10 – 20
(Forming, carbide tooling, coated)

Values as a function of machine and machining parameters


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Surface finish Welding Surface finishing


The surface finish of ETG® 88/100 cor- ETG® 88/100 have a limited weldability. Most surface finishes can be applied to
responds to the specifications in Austenitic electrodes should be used and ETG® 88/100. For example, they can
EN 10277-1. ETG® 88/100 are tested for it should be noted that the strength will be hot-galvanised, chromated, chromium-
cracks as standard. We guarantee a decrease significantly. The fracture strength plated, nickel-plated or alkaline-black-
surface finish of 3 for round bars and a depends on the strength of the weld ened without difficulty. Due to the man-
surface finish of 2 for hexagonal bars. metal. In order to avoid failures, we rec- ganese sulphide in the steel, special care
Please note that for a standard bar, the ommend carrying out tests before welding must be taken when pickling and neu-
ends of the bar (up to 50 mm) cannot be the part itself. Best results are achieved tralising. The temperature at which surface
tested. using tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding. finishing is carried out should not exceed
500 °C. Ground material is recommended.
If surface imperfections might cause prob- – Welding procedure: tungsten inert gas For changes in mechanical properties, see
lems (e.g. notch-stress concentration – Welding consumable: X15CrNiMn 18-8 diagram of strength values on page 14.
effect with surface hardening), the surface (1.4370)
of the material must be removed to at – Preheat: 300 °C
least the allowable depth of imperfection. – Tensile strength of the welded joint:
490 – 670 N /mm2
Non-cutting forming, thread rolling
Threads can be rolled on ETG®. However, ETG® is not suitable for laser welding.
worms, trapezoidal threads, etc., should
be cut, not rolled. Brazing
ETG® can also be brazed, but with con-
Other non-cutting processes sequent loss of strength. It must be
Punching, bending, swaging, forging, etc., allowed to cool slowly, as there is a dan-
should not be carried out on ETG® 88 ger of stress cracks.
and ETG® 100.
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Information for heat-treating


ETG® steels

The high strength of ETG® steels lies in Induction hardening (HF)


Hardness pattern
the range of tempered steels, which
means that in most cases no additional 700
heat treatment is necessary. If greater
abrasion resistance or fatigue strength is
needed, various surface hardening proc- 650
esses can be used. The high basic
strength guarantees a good underlying
structure and ideally fulfils the pre- 600
requisites for the following heat treatment
processes:
– Induction hardening (high frequency) 550
– Nitrocarburising
– Salt bath nitrocarburising
– Gas nitrocarburising 500
– Plasma nitrocarburising

Induction hardening (HF) 450


– Treatment temperature: 840 – 870 °C
– Quenching media: oil, polymer
– Achievable hardness: 50 – 55 HRC
´

400
Microhardness HV 0,3

The depth of hardening should be kept


to a minimum, generally not more 350
than 1 mm. For complicated parts, an
initial stress-relieving at 550–580°C is
recommended. Using water as a quench 300
medium results in higher hardness,
however there is a danger that quench 0 1 2 3 4

cracking will occur.


Distance from surface [mm] ´
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Nitrocarburising
Hardness pattern

900

800

700

600

500

400
´
Microhardness HV 0.25

300

200

100

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Distance from surface [mm] ´

The hardness of the white layer cannot be measured for technical reasons.
According to the literature, the hardness is approx. 1,000 HV.
23

Salt bath nitrocarburising Gas nitrocarburising Recommendations


– Treatment temperature: 570 °C – Treatment temperature: 570 °C – Avoid hardening over sharp edges,
– Treatment duration: 60 – 180 min – Treatment duration: 1 – 3 h keyways or lateral holes.
– The treatment time affects the thick- – Thickness of compound layer: – Do not harden thin-walled components
ness of the hard compound layer. approx. 15 µm through the full thickness of the wall.
– The usual treatment time is 90 min. – Quench medium: water, oil, gas – End faces or spherically shaped areas
– Thickness of compound layer: should be stress-relieved at 180 – 200 °C
15 – 20 µm; the quenching medium Pretreatment is the same as for bath before hardening.
must be appropriate for the workpiece: nitrocarburising. A similarly abrasion- – With induction hardening, avoid hard-
water (warm) for ø < 15 mm, oil for resistant surface is created. The process ening to a depth greater than 1 mm.
larger workpieces. results in a loss of substrate strength – Like all rolled-and-drawn material,
amounting to approx. 10 %. ETG ® has a slightly decarburised
The bath nitrocarburising process creates boundary zone, which means that the
an abrasion-resistant surface. It also Plasma nitrocarburising hardening effect in this zone is re-
reduces notch sensitivity and increases – Treatment temperature: 480 – 510 °C duced.
fatigue strength for reverse bending. Salt – Treatment duration: 20 – 36 h – When hardening gear wheels, the tooth
bath nitrocarburising results in a loss of – Thickness of compound layer: root should also be hardened to a
substrate strength amounting to approx. approx. 10 µm depth of 0.2 mm.
10%. After bath nitrocarburising, no more – Hardening of the drawn surfaces
machining can be carried out. For this This process – glow-discharge nitrocar- should be avoided due to the possible
reason, if high dimensional accuracy is re- burising in a vacuum – has produced presence of surface imperfections. Due
quired, the workpiece must be stress- good results with ETG®. Due to the lower to the notch effect, hardening stresses
relieved at 550 – 580 °C before final ma- treatment temperature, there is less at the imperfections can cause cracks.
chining. reduction in the core strength than with – To avoid the occurrence of hardening
salt bath or gas nitrocarburising. cracks due to hardening stresses,
After bath nitrocarburising, it is advanta- the hardened components should be
geous to remove salt residues from work- tempered (200 °C, 1 h).
piece surfaces by brushing. – There is less danger of hardness
cracks occurring in ETG® 88 than in
ETG® 100 due to its lower residual
stress.
– Depending on the nitrocarburising proc-
ess employed, tempering at 350 °C
for at least 2 h may be necessary to
remove the hydrogen that has been
introduced.

Depth of decarburised zone


(experimental values)

Dimension Decarburisation
Ø ≤ 20 mm max. 0.20 mm
Ø > 20 mm max. 0.40 mm

The technical information contained in this document reflects current results obtained using generally
accepted testing procedures on production quantities. They do not give a guarantee of the suitability for
any particular application. The responsibility lies with the user.

© Steeltec AG, 07.07


Steeltec AG
Postfach, CH-6021 Emmenbrücke
Telephone ++41 41 209 63 63, fax ++41 41 209 52 94
www.steeltec.ch

Group Companies

Steeltec AG
Salen, Postfach, CH-9536 Schwarzenbach SG
Telephone ++41 71 929 94 94, fax ++41 71 929 94 95

Steeltec Praezisa GmbH


Postfach 6, D-78074 Niedereschach
Telephone ++49 7728 649-0, fax ++49 7728 825 or 1781

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Boîte postale 81, F-74302 Cluses Cedex
Telephone ++33 4 50 98 41 88, fax ++33 4 50 96 25 99

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Via R. Sanzio 52, I-20021 Cassina Nuova di Bollate (MI)
Telephone ++39 02 33 260 360, fax ++39 02 33 260 365