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STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF “The Wood Products Council” is a Registered Provider with The$

POST-FRAME BUILDINGS: American$Ins.tute$of$Architects$Con.nuing$Educa.on$Systems$(AIA/CES).


Credit(s) earned on completion of this program will be reported to

A CONCEPTUAL AIA/CES for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for both AIA
members and non-AIA members are available upon request.


PRESENTATION

This program is registered with AIA/CES for continuing professional
education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed
or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any
material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using,
distributing, or dealing in any material or product. "
"
Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will
be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.

Copyright © 2011 National Frame Building Association

Learning Objectives!

At the end of this program, participants will be able to:"

Copyright Materials! 1. Identify the primary structural components of post-frame (PF) building systems
" 2. Identify two PF structural design methodologies
3. Understand how to conduct structural design of PF systems without diaphragm
This presentation is protected by US and action
International Copyright laws. Reproduction, 4. Understand how to conduct structural design of PF systems with diaphragm
action
distribution, display and use of the presentation 5. Identify post-frame design resources available to architects and engineers
without written permission of the speaker is "
prohibited."
"
© The Wood Products Council 2012"
LEARNING OBJECTIVES STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF
•  Identify the primary structural components of POST-FRAME BUILDINGS:
post-frame (PF) building systems A CONCEPTUAL
•  Identify two PF structural design methodologies
PRESENTATION
•  Understand how to conduct structural design of
PF systems without diaphragm action
•  Understand how to conduct structural design of
PF systems with diaphragm action
•  Identify post-frame design resources available to
architects and engineers

Copyright © 2011 National Frame Building Association

TYPICAL POST-FRAME BUILDING


SYSTEM
Sheathing

COPYRIGHT @ 2011 BY
THE NATIONAL FRAME BUILDING ASSOCIATION Purlins

Truss

Wood Wall girts


columns
POST OR PIER FOUNDATIONS PF BUILDING DESIGN: FEATURES
•  Diaphragm design procedures are unique, but
well formulated and documented
•  Sidewall framing often uses mechanically or
glued laminated sidewall and endwall posts
•  Embedded wood posts or concrete piers often
serve as the building foundation

PRIMARY PF DESIGN METHODS PF SYSTEMS WITHOUT


•  2-dimensional frame design method
DIAPHRAGM ACTION
–  Without diaphragm action
•  3-dimensional diaphragm design method
Unsheathed
–  With diaphragm action walls

Unsheathed
walls
PF SYSTEM WITH DIAPHRAGM LATERAL LOADS: WITHOUT
ACTION DIAPHRAGM ACTION
Sheathed Version of
This Building
Wind
Wind
direction
direction

LATERAL LOADS: WITH DIAPHRAGM ADVANTAGES OF DIAPHRAGM


ACTION DESIGN
•  Smaller sidewall posts
•  Shallower post or pier embedment depths
Wind direction
•  Benefits:
∆1
–  More economical design
–  Greater structural integrity
–  More durable post-frame structures
FULL-SCALE PF BUILDING TESTS DIAPHRAGM VS NO DIAPHRAGM
ACTION
29 ga ribbed steel sheathing

Load cell
Hydraulic
cylinder 16 ft

5 ft

40 ft W x 80 ft L x 16 ft H

WHEN TO USE 2-D FRAME DESIGN EMBEDDED POST/PIER


METHOD FOUNDATIONS
•  Side or endwalls are open, or not sheathed
•  Common post-soil fixity models for embedded
•  PF Building with L:W ≥ ≈ 2.5:1 post or pier foundations:
•  Connections and other structural detailing don’t –  Constrained post or pier
develop a continuous load path for transfer of –  Unconstrained post or pier
in-plane shear forces
–  Through the roof sheathing
–  Between the diaphragm and the top of the endwall
–  Through the endwall or shearwall
–  Between bottom of the endwall and the endwall
foundation
POST/PIER EMBEDMENT DESIGN POST FOUNDATIONS:
½-inch horizontal Horizontal movement
UNCONSTRAINED MODEL
movement prevented by floor and
permitted connection •  Embedded into the ground
•  Not constrained from
displacing horizontally at
the ground line
d0 •  Pin located 0.1d above the
bottom of the embedded
post and a vertical roller
located about 1/3 the
embedment depth below
Unconstrained Constrained
the ground line

POST FOUNDATIONS: CONSTRAINED DESIGN METHODS: 2-D POST FRAME


SOIL-POST MODEL Each frame is designed
Wind Direction to carry its full tributary
•  Embedded into the ground lateral and gravity loads
•  Horizontal displacement s x qwr s x qlr
Constrained
prevented by properly post H2
designed connection Hp

between the post and floor


Floor slab Post-to-truss connections
slab at the ground line usually modeled as a pin
H1
•  Soil interaction is modeled Pin

with a vertical roller 0.7d d 0.7d W


Vertical roller
below ground line and
The post-to-ground reaction is modeled consistent
with a pin at the ground with post embedment details
line
2-D DESIGN ANALYSIS SIMPLIFIED 2-D PF DESIGN METHOD
ASCE-7 Governing Load Combinations
V = Roof truss end reaction
•  Dead + ¾ snow + ¾ wind (or seismic) Wind direction P = ½ (Resultant lateral
or roof load from truss)

0.6 dead + wind (or seismic)


–  Usually controls post design ½ (qww+qlw) x s Sidewall post
or
•  Dead + snow Max(qww, qlw) Floor slab

–  Usually controls roof-framing design Model post-to-soil


0.7d interaction; specify
d
dead & snow loads for
Then design the post truss manufacturer
for the design lateral
load combinations

DIAPHRAGM DESIGN METHOD DIAPHRAGM TEST PANEL


bsp = Slope length (roof
•  Incorporates in-plane shear strength and diaphragm length)

stiffness of the roof and wall sheathing to


Test panel
transfer design lateral loads to the foundation length, b
Test panel width, a
•  Three-dimensional structural analysis method
Roof sheet
•  Significantly decreases wall-post size and post- θ
end joint

foundation embedment depth Roof span


Test panel
(basic
Building length = LB
element)
Endwall ap

Building width
DIAPHRAGM TEST PANEL CANTILEVER TEST CONFIGURATION
Sheathing/ ∆s
Purlin b = Test diaphragm length
cladding
(chord) P = applied
force
Truss top chord

Purlin
Cladding

diaphragm
a = Test

width
Direction of corrugations
Rafter or truss
top chord (strut)

DIAPHRAGM TEST RESULTS, IN- DIAPHRAGM DESIGN-TEST VS. ROOF


PLANE STRENGTH & STIFFNESS PANEL
∆ bsp = Slope length
P (roof diaphragm
Test panel length)
Diaphragm Test length, b
Panel Schematic Test panel
width, a

P θ
Ultimate
Strength = Pult Roof<Slide
30> Test panel
Design shear span Building length =
strength = 0.4 Pult C = design shear End wall ap LB
c stiffness (slope)
1 ∆
∆1
Building width
DIAPHRAGM DESIGN METHOD –
DIAPHRAGM DESIGN METHOD-ROOF
ROOF PANEL STIFFNESS
•  Shear stiffness of a roof diaphragm panel
PANEL STRENGTH
–  test panel stiffness, c
–  roof panel width, ap •  In-plane strength is a linear function of
–  roof panel roof slope length bsp diaphragm length, bsp
–  roof slope Θ
V = [unit shear](roof diaphragm length)
ch = c (a/b) (bsp/ap )cos2Θ V =[0.4(Pult/b)](bsp)

DIAPHRAGM DESIGN METHOD- DIAPHRAGM DESIGN METHOD


BARE FRAME STIFFNESS, K PF diaphragm design
procedures based on:
1.  compatibility of post-
frame and roof panel
eave deformations and
2.  Equilibrium of
horizontal forces at
each eave
DIAPHRAGM DESIGN METHOD DIAPHRAGM DESIGN METHOD
•  Equilibrium of forces at each PF eave •  Compatibility of roof and PF deformations at
Pi = Pfi + Pri each PF eave
–  Pi = design eave load in ith PF Δri = Δfi
–  Pfi = portion of the design eave load carried by the ith PF
–  Pri = portion of the design eave load carried by the roof diaphragm panel
at the ith PF
–  Δri = roof panel eave deformation at the ith PF
(dependent upon ci, ki, and Pi )
–  Δfi = Pfi/ki

DAFI&COMPUTER&PROGRAM& DAFI COMPUTER PROGRAM


•  DAFI program calculates
•  Windows&based&program& –  Eave displacement of each post frame
•  Calculates&porBon&of&lateral&load&carried& –  Portion of eave load carried by each post frame
by:&& –  Shear forces carried by each roof diaphragm panel
& &F&Each&post&frame& in the building system
& &F&Roof&diaphragm&
•  Available&at&no&cost&at&
www.posJrameadvantage.com&
DAFI INPUTS DIAPHRAGM DESIGN METHOD
•  Total number of bays in the building
•  Design eave loads at each post frame, Pi
•  Bare frame stiffness of each post frame, ki
•  In-plane shear stiffness of each roof diaphragm
panel, chi

DIAPHRAGM DESIGN – STRUCTURAL


DAFI: UNDEFORMED POSITION
ANALOG
Panel/PF structural analog of a 3-bay building
PF 1 1 2 3 4
(k1) 1 2 (k2) (k3) 3 (k4) 4

Diaphragm
Panel

1(ch1) 2(ch2) 3(ch3)


Datum Datum

P3 P4
P1 P2
DAFI: DEFORMED EQUILIBRIUM DAFI COMPUTER PROGRAM
POSITION
Pf1
1 2 3 4

Pf2

Datum Datum
Pf3

Pf4

DAFI COMPUTER PROGRAM DAFI: HIGHLY FLEXIBLE


•  Can be used for post-frame building systems
where:
–  Stiffness, ki, of the post frame elements are not the
V1#
V2# same
–  Stiffness, chi, of the diaphragm panel elements are
V3# not the same
–  Stiffness, ki of the two endwalls are not the same
•  Available at no cost to designers at
PostFrameAdvantage.com
DAFI: MINI DEMONSTRATION DAFI: MINI DEMONSTRATION

•  48-ft-wide by 96-ft-long post frame


•  Post frames 8-ft o.c.
•  Number of bays —12
•  Post-frame stiffness (k) — 300 lbs/in.
•  Endwall stiffness (ke) —10,000 lbs/in.
•  Roof diaphragm stiffness (C) —12,000 lbs/in.
•  Horizontal eave load at interior post frame —
800 lbs
 

DAFI: MINI DEMONSTRATION DAFI: MINI DEMONSTRATION


DAFI: MINI DEMONSTRATION POST/PIER EMBEDMENT DESIGN
½-inch horizontal Horizontal movement prevented
movement permitted Ma, Va by floor and connection

Unconstrained Constrained

POST/PIER EMBEDMENT DESIGN POST AND PIER FOUNDATIONS:


•  Post-embedment details must resist
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
–  Shear force and moments from lateral loadings
–  Uplift post loads
–  Downward acting gravity loads

Concrete collar and preservative


treated wood cleats
POST/PIER EMBEDMENT DESIGN:
POST/PIER EMBEDMENT DESIGN:
UNCONSTRAINED POST; NO COLLAR
•  d2 = (6Va + 8 Ma/d)/(S΄b)
CONSTRAINED POST; NO COLLAR
•  d = the embedment depth Embedment depth design equation for lateral
resistance for a constrained post without any
•  Va, Ma = the shear and bending moment applied
partial depth attached collars or cleats
to foundation at ground surface
•  S΄ = the adjusted allowable lateral soil
d = [4 Ma/ S΄ b]1/3
pressure
•  b = 1.4B =the effective post width of the
post or pier
•  B = the narrow width of the post

POST/PIER EMBEDMENT DESIGN: POST/PIER EMBEDMENT DESIGN:


POSTS WITH BOTTOM COLLARS UPLIFT FORCES
•  Design equations in:
Mass of soil in
shaded truncated
cone resists post
ASAE EP 486, Shallow Post Foundation withdrawal due to
uplift forces
Design
Post must be
mechanically
attached to the
www.asabe.org collar or wood
cleat Mass of attached
collar or wood
cleat
POST/PIER FOUNDATION DESIGN: POST EMBEDMENT DETAILS
UPLIFT DESIGN
•  Design Equations for Uplift Resistance of •  Place footings below frost line
Embedded Posts with Collars •  Do not use partial concrete collars immediately
below ground line (top collars)
1. Post Frame Building Design Manual •  Provide good drainage away from post holes
(www.nfba.org or •  Use only preservative treated wood for all wood
www.postframeadvantage.com) elements in contact with the ground
2. ASAE EP 486, Shallow Post Foundation
Design (www.asabe.org)

PF DESIGN: POST-FRAME TECHNICAL


SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS RESOURCES
•  Designer or architect should use hot-dipped
galvanized or stainless steel hardware Provides structural
–  In all below-ground applications design procedures for
–  When hardware is in contact with preservative- post-frame building
treated wood systems
PF TECHNICAL RESOURCES PF STRUCTURAL DESIGN
•  ANSI/ASAE (ASABE) EP 484
RESOURCES
–  Diaphragm design procedures •  AWC/AF&PA (2005)
•  ANSI/ASAE (ASABE) EP 486 •  ASCE 7 (2005, 2010)
–  Shallow post foundation design •  AWPA’s U1-09
•  ANSI/ASAE (ASABE) EP 559
–  Requirements and bending
properties for mechanically
laminated columns
–  asabe.org or nfba.org

OTHER PF TECHNICAL RESOURCES Design No. V304 January 20, 2012


Bearing Wall Rating - 3-1/2 Hr
5/8 Gyp Board (SCX)
4 layers, both sides

•  DAFI
•  Framing Tolerance Guidelines
•  Metal Cladding Installation Tolerance Guidelines
•  Post Frame Construction Guide
•  Design Documents for Engineers & Architects: Nail-lam post

Wind and Seismic


4-ply, 2x6

•  Guide specification for PF Building Systems


Vertical blocking
•  1 hour and 3 hour PF Firewall Reports 2x4 wall girts
MORE PF DESIGN GUIDANCE?
Ques*ons?#
•  Visit PostFrameAdvantage.com
This&concludes&The&American&
•  Take PFMI Online University courses InsBtute&of&Architects&ConBnuing&
EducaBon&Systems&Course&
–  Six 1-hour session course on engineering-based
information
–  Three 1-hour session course on PF for architects Harvey#B.#Manbeck#
Manbeck&Engineering,&LLC&
–  Free
hmanbeck@psu.edu&
–  CE credits available for design professionals

Copyright © 2011 National Frame Building Association

KEY WEBSITES FOR POST-FRAME


DESIGN

WWW.POSTFRAMEADVANTAGE.COM

WWW.NFBA.ORG