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I. Introduction

1.1 History of mahindra Tractor

1.2 Company profile

1.2.1 Factory layout of mahindra

1.2.2 Market position

1.2.3 Award taken by mahindra

1.2.4 Main market areas

1.3 Technical development

1.4 Productivity

1.5 Different department in mahindra

1.6 Location of mahindra Plant

1.7 Total turnover of mahindra Tractors

II. About Institute

III. Products of mahindra tractors


4.1 Introduction

4.1.1 Types of Engine

4.1.2 2-Stroke of Engine
4.1.3 Main system of Engine

4.2 Standard Value of Engine settings

4.3 Engine parts

4.4 Engine models of mahindra Tractors

4.4.1 115NCET III –A

4.4.2 398 ED

4.4.3 S – 325 ( SYMPSONS)

4.4.4 S – 320 DED (SYMPSONS)

4.4.5 Engine Trouble shooting and their solution

V. Transmission

5.1 Gears

3.1.1 Types of Gear box

3.1.2 Gear Model in Eicher Tractors

3.1.3 Sliding mesh gear box

3.1.4 Synchromesh gear box

3.1.5 Hydrometric NT gear box

5.2 Differential

3.2.1 Function of differential


Chapter 1

I. Introduction

1.1 History of mahindra tractors

development of mahindra Forstern and Dingolfing factories. These pioneers made several tests
and carried out a patient work of clarification. The first evolution was marked by the construction
of an automatic mower and a three-wheeled tractor. The brothers Joseph and Albert mahindra were
born and grew up in an agricultural part of Germany. Their personal taste for agriculture favored
the development of ideas which led to the manufacturing of machines and modern devices.

In 1949, their manufacture of the first farm tractor with an engine with air cooling allowed to
rank among the most important manufacturers of tractors.

In 1959, mahindra set up the mahindra Tractor Corporation of India Private Ltd., along with the
Goodearth Company of New Delhi, India, and began production in 1960 of Indian-built mahindra
tractors. Since 1965, mahindra has been completely owned by Indian share holders. The German
mahindra was part of Massey Ferguson from 1970 when MF bought 30% of the company,
eventually buying out the German company 1973.
Tractors were manufactured first under the mahindra Goodearth name, and then mahindra,
mahindra Valtra and Euro power.

In 2005, mahindra Motors ltd. Sold the Tractors and Engines business to TAFE (tractor and farm
equipment), of Chennai, India, which set up a new subsidiary called TAFE MOTORS AND
In the small village, Forstern near Munich, in Bavaria, Germany, the first mahindra tractor was
made, in the 1930s, by Joseph and Albert mahindra. It was the beginning of considerable


 Profile of mahindra Motors

mahindra Motors Ltd is one of the leading manufacturers of commercial vehicles in India. Their
principal activity is manufacturing and selling of commercial vehicles, two wheelers and gears.
They are having their manufacturing facilities at Pithampur and Dewas in Madhya Pradesh,
Chennai in Tamil Nadu, Thane in Maharashtra and Gurgaon in Haryana. Eicher Motors Ltd was
incorporated in the year 1982. The company in technical collaboration agreement with Mitsubishi
Motor Corporation of Japan produced the Light Commercial Vehicle in India. The commercial
production was commenced in their plant at Pithampur in Madhya Pradesh, with the launch of
Canter truck in June 1986. The agreement with Mitsubishi ended in March 1994 after successful
transfer of technology and achieving total Indigenization. The demerger of Tractors, Two-
Wheelers, Engines and Gears businesses from mahindra Ltd was transferred to the company with
effect from April 1, 2003. In May 25, 2005, the company acquired 100% of the shares of Design
Intent Engineering Inc, USA, which is engaged in the business of providing computer aided
engineering & design services for a consideration of USD 2.5 million. The company's Tractor
division at Mandideep, Gears division at Parwanoo and Engines division at Alwar had been sold
to TAFE Motors and Tractors Ltd, a wholly owned subsidiary of Tractors and Farm Equipment
Ltd, for a consideration of Rs 310 crore with effect from June 1, 2005. The company acquired a
transmission gear manufacturing plant at Dewas having a gear cutting capacity of 5 lacs gears per
annum with effect form November 1, 2006. During the year 2006-07, the company acquired the
100% equity shares of Hoff and Associates (Hoff), Plymouth, Michigan (USA) along with Hoff's
two wholly owned subsidiaries in Beijing and Shanghai, China for a consideration of USD 3.5
million. In order to synergize the activities between the two subsidiary companies in USA, Hoff
and Associates merged with Design Intent Engineering Inc with effect from January 1, 2008 and
the name of Design Intent Engineering Inc was changed to Eicher Engineering Solutions Inc. In
May 2008, the company signed a definitive agreement with Aktiebolaget Volvo, Sweden for a
formation of a joint venture company through transfer of the existing Commercial Vehicle
Business along with related Components and Design Services Business. In August 2008, they
transferred the Components and Design Services Business to VECV, the joint venture company
with effect from July 01, 200




Vikram Lal-promoted mahindra group on Wednesday concluded an agreement to sell its tractor,
engine and gear businesses to Chennai-based Tractor and Farm Equipment (Tafe) for Rs 310 crore.
The mahindra group also announced plans to acquire a US-based engineeringQUALITY
firm for $2.5 million
(around Rs 11 crore) asMANUFACTURING
part of its future growth plans.
The combined venture - with a turnover of Rs 1,700 crore in 2004-05 - will become the second
largest tractor maker in the country with a 22% market share. The deal will give Tafe a toe-hold
in some key north and central Indian states such as Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Rajasthan.

Tafe will conclude the acquisition through a wholly-owned special purpose vehicle Tafe Motors,
Tafe director Mallika Srinivasan said. "We hope to record a combined turnover of over Rs 2,000
crore this fiscal... We will retain the mahindra brand on the tractors and try to grow the brand,"she

The deal will be financed through a mix of internal accruals and debt. "The definitive agreement
for the purchase will be signed shortly,"she added. Shares in Eicher rose 10.8% to Rs 357 soon
after the announcement of the deal.

Under the deal, Tafe will buy mahindra tractor division at Mandideep (Madhya Pradesh), gears
division at Parwanoo (Himachal Pradesh) and engine division at Alwar (Rajasthan). The deal will
mark mahindra exit from the tractor market, and is part of the group's plan to focus on the high
growth commercial vehicle and motorcycle segments.

mahindra Motors said the decision to disinvest the three ventures is based on a review of its
business portfolio which identified commercial vehicles as a major growth driver. "This is in line
with the company's strategy of focusing on select businesses in which it could attain a strong
market position," mahindra group chairman S Sandilya said.


 IN 1990 – 1991 best tractors award

 The company has received award from national productivity council for the best
performance in production


 mahindra ENGINE , Itarana road ,Alwar Rajasthan, India
Pin 301001
Call – 0144 270 2470


i. Research & development
ii. Production
iii. Quality & maintenance
iv. Sales and service


Tractors and farm equipment limited (TAFE) IS a tractor majaor
incorporated in 1960 at Chennai , with an annual turnover INR 96
BILLION (2013-14)
TEFE wields 25% market share of the Indian tractor industry with
sale of over 17000000.

Chapter II



iii. MAHINDRA 475 DI
vii. ARJUN 555 DI
viii. ARJUN NOVO 605 DI-MS
ix. Mahindra YUVO 575 DI 4WD
x. ARJUN NOVO 605 DI-i
xiv. ARJUN NOVO 605
xxii. MAHINDRA 415 DI
xxiv. MAHINDRA 255 DI Power Plus
xxv. MAHINDRA 265 DI
245 DI Orchard

 Mahindra Gen-set

A. Introduction
It is a type of machine that converts heat or chemical energy in mechanical energy.
Heat is a type of energy that travelled in low temperature region from high temperature region.
It is known as heart of any vehical because any movement starts from engine working.
It is power plant of any vehicle where from the power is meet to vehicle.
B. Types of engine

Internal combustion engine external combustion engine

Reciprocating engine rotary engine

Spark ignition engine (petrol engine) compression ignition engine (diesel


2-stroke engine 4-
stroke engine

Air cool engine

water cool engine
4-stroke engine compression engine:-when the engine complete all cycle in two revolutions or
720o of crankshaft or 180o rotation in each stroke.


i. Suction stroke
ii. Compression stroke
iii. Power stroke
iv. Exhaust stroke
a. It is assumed that the piston is at TDC and both valves are closed in initial position
or engine starting.
Suction stroke:-
i. At TDC inlet valve open and exhaust valve is closed.
ii. filtered air enter in combustion chamber.
iii. travelling of piston from TDC to BDC.
iv. 0 to 180o rotation of crankshaft from initial position.
v. First time stroke length is complete when piston approach to BDC.
vi. At BDC inlet valve become close and exhaust valve remain closed.

Compression stroke:-
i. At BDC Closed inlet and exhaust valve.

ii. Compression of air is starts .
iii. Travelling of piston from BDC to TDC.
iv. 180orotation of crankshaft from inlet stroke completion or 180o to 360o rotation of
crankshaft from initial position of crank shaft.
v. Second time stroke length is complete when piston approach to TDC.
vi. The injection of fuel is enter in between this stroke at a certain angle before from TDC
position(for example 9o angle BTDC for 241/242 tractor model of EICHER).
vii. The combustion in proper or effective way approach when piston approach to TDC

Power stroke:-
i. At initial of this stroke inlate and exhaust valve remain in closed position.
ii. Due to burnt fuel high pressure of combustion blast produce pressure on pistion so
sufficient that can move to piston position easily.
iii. Complete burning of mixture is take place here as well as proper utilization of their pressure
also too..
iv. Travelling of piston from TDC to BDC.
v. 180o rotation of crankshaft from compression stroke end or360o to 540o rotation of
crankshaft from initial position of crank shaft.
vi. Third time stroke length is complete when piston approach to BDC.

Exhaust stroke:-
1. At initial of this stroke inlet valve is open and exhaust valve is closed.
i. Exhaust of burnt/combusted gasses.
ii. Travelling of piston from TDC to BDC.
iii. 180o rotation of crankshaft from power stroke end or 540o-720o rotation of crankshaft from
initial position.
iv. Fourth time stroke length is complete when piston approach to TDC.
i. For further keep continuous of engine processing repeating of this stroke is
take place maintains .

D. Main systems in engine

Following are system of engine that is consists with
a. Combustion system:-
ii. Piston, Cylinder , piston rings, connecting rod, flywheel, crank gear, decompression lever,
a. Exhaust and intake system:-
iii. Cylinder head ,inflate and exhaust valve , push rod , rocker arm , cam shaft ,cam ,air
cleaner, gear , guide lifter , intake manifold , exhaust manifold ,silencer .
a. Lubrication system:-
iv. Lubrication oil(15W40) , sump , oil pump , suction tube and screen , filter element , safety
valve , pressure gauge , oil nozzle , front bush , crankshaft ,rear bush , rear bearing housing
,big end bush , capered oil hole in crankshaft ,lubrication gear, idler gear.
a. Cooling system:-

v. Air cooled system: - Blower fan, blower fan arm, fins, cover, v-belt, pulley, temperature
vi. Water cooled system:- Coolant(water) , radiator , thermostat valve , temperature sensor ,
water pump body , fan , fan belt etc.
a. Fuel system:-
vii. Diesel tank , fuel supply pipe , fuel valve , fuel filter(primary and secondary filter element)
,fuel pump(inline-mico-lubricates by lubrication oil have more clearance, rotary-TVs-
lubricates by diesel oil have less clearance ) , fuel gear , water separator , pressure pipe ,
nozzle/fuel injector , over flow pipe , solenoids , lock nut.
a. Governing system:-
viii. Governor assay- weight , sleeve , shaft , bearing, fork , accelerator lever.
a. Breathing system:-
ix. Air filter, pipe extension pipe, and strip.

E. Standard setting for engine

Tractor 241/2 278 312/364 368/485 548 333 380/4 5150 5660 557
model 42 80

Engine 115N 298E 298ED 398ED 398E S- S- S- 320D 320D

model CET 27 D/ED D/ED 49 324 325E 325F4 ED ED
III-A 1/E2
Actual 1557 1960 1960 2945 2945 2400 2500 2500 3298 3298

Bore / 115/1 100/ 100/ 100/ 100/ 88.9/ 91.44/ 91.44/ 108/ 108/
stroke 50 125 125 125 125 127 127 127 120 120

Horse 24 25 30/35 36/45 48 33 38/ 47 50 50

power 42

Sump 5.5 6.5 6.5 8 8 8 8 8 10.4 10.4

Air 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1
Tapp 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.35 0.35
et (IV)
clear - - - - - - - - - -
ance 0.15
(EV) 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.35 0.35

Bumpin 1.1 0.75- 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.03- 0.03-
g - 0.85 - - - 0.08 0.08
clearanc 1.2 0.85 0.85 0.85
Nozzle 260+8 240+ 240+8 240+8 240+ 240+ 240+ 260 270+ 270+
pressure 8 8 8 8 8 8
Fuel 90 130 130 130/ 160 130 130 100 14.50 14.50
timing 140
Compre 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 28 28
ssion - - - - - - - - - -
pressure 32 31 31 32 32 31 32 32 30 30
Liner 0.11 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.11 0.11
piston - - - - - - - - - -
clearanc 0.12 .011 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.16 0.16
Cranksh 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.1 0.1
aft free - - - - -0.35 - - - - -
end play 0.5 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.35 0.35
Idle 470+4 600+ 600+10 625+10 625+ 625 625 600+ 600+ 600+
speed 0 100 0 0 100 200 200 200
Rated 1600 2150 2150 2150 2150 2150 2150 2250 2150 2150
Full 1780+ 2300 2300+5 2300+5 2300 2375 2375 2350 2350 2350
speed 20 +50 0 0 +50 +-100 +-50 +-50
Oil 1.5 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 2.1 2.1 2.1 1.5 1.5
Oil 3.4 3.4 3.5/4 3.4 3.4 4.2 4.2 4.2 3.5 3.5

F. Engine models
1. 115NCET III-A :-
i. This engine is air cooled is manufactured by MAHINDRA Company.
ii. Engine uses in 241/242 tractor models of MAHINDRA company.
iii. In starting 1 is denoting to no. of cylinder.
iv. 115 stay for bore dia. Of cylinder.
v. By eliminate first 1 from 115 and putting 0(zero) in remain code denotes to stroke I
mean the digits become 150 denote to stroke length of cylinder.
vi. By eliminate first digit from 115 and putting 00(double zero) in end of remain digits
than it show to cubic capacity of that engine.

vii. Here it is equal to 1500 c.c.
viii. NCET-new combustion engine tractor III-A norms (III-B norms and III-C norms
also in emission rules)

2. 298 E27/EDD/ED:-
i. This engine is air cooled is manufactured by MAHINDRA Company.
ii. This engine models are uses in 278/312/364 tractor models of company.
iii. From 298 starting first digit stay for no. of cylinder Here :- 2 no. of cylinder.
iv. After eliminate to first digit and by putting 0(zero) in end of remain digits than
generated digit denote to cubic capacity of single cylinder
v. Here cubic capacity of cylinder:- 980 c.c.
vi. For complete engine:- 2×980=1960 c.c.

3. 398EDD/ED/49:-
i. This engine is air cooled is manufactured by MAHINDRA Company.
ii. This engine models are use in 368/485/548 tractor models of company.
iii. From 398 starting first digit stay for no. of cyl. Here:-3 no. of cyl.
iv. After eliminate to first digit and by putting 0(zero) in end of remain digits than
generated digit denote to cubic capacity of single cylinder
v. Here cubic capacity of cylinder:-980 c.c.
vi. For complete engine:- 3×980=2940 c.c.

4. S-324/S-325E1/S-325E2/S-325F4:-
i. This is water cooled type engine.
ii. Here for engine model ‘S’ stay for Simpson company manufacturing of engine.
iii. This engine models are uses in 333/380/480/5150 tractor models of company.
iv. The tractor model 5150 is uses rotary fuel pump.
v. In numerical digits first digit stay for no. of cylinder in engine . For here no. of
vi. Remain two last digits show to engine c.c. by putting 00(double zero) in end of
remain digits.
For here cubic capacity of engine is=2400/2500 c.c .
5. 320DED:-
i. This engine are power deration model of ultra engine that is launches by
company in 1998 as uro 6100 in tractor is power of 61 hp.
ii. This engine model is manufactures by MAHINDRA is design of Finland SISU
DIESEL company.
iii. This engine models are use in 5660/557 tractor models of company.
iv. This is special engine have high close tolerance is apply. This engine is design
most carefully.
v. In numerical digits specification first digit denotes to no. of cylinder=3 and end
of 320 we put a zero than it show the c.c. of engine=3200 c.c.
vi. This tractor have ultra engine is not most sales due to their unavailability of
skilled mechanic in local market.
vii. This ultra engine is most dashed so that designed tractor is so covered in fully
time and so compact that identification of part opening is not too easy.
viii. The 5660 is mostly design for farm utility.
ix. The 557 is mostly design for commercial utility

Engine-398 Ed
i. Suction screen(3kg-cm)
ii. Crank gear bush
iii. Thrust washer(2.3kg-cm)
iv. Crankshaft
v. Bearing housing(2.1kg-cm)
vi. Rear oil seal(2.1kg-cm)
vii. Thrust washer
viii. Crank shaft end play
ix. Crank gear
x. Flywheel(55kg)
xi. Flywheel nut(75kg-cm)
xii. Crankshaft weight(10kg-cm)
xiii. Cam gear
xiv. Idle gear
xv. Fuel gear
xvi. Pump gear
xvii. Timing cover
xviii. Pulley(30kg-cm)
xix. Liner-piston-ring-connecting rod setting
xx. Piston-connecting rod fitting
xxi. Liner-piston fitting
xxii. Connecting-crankshaft fitting(7kg-cm)
xxiii. Lifter(intake/exhaust valve)
xxiv. Air blower
xxv. Window
xxvi. Fan
xxvii. Cylinder head setting and fitting(8kg-cm)
xxviii. Pushrod sleeve
xxix. Inlate manifold
xxx. Exhaust manifold
xxxi. Inlate and exhaust valve
xxxii. Tappet clearance
xxxiii. Tappet cover(3.5kg-cm)
xxxiv. Filter(1.5kg-cm)
xxxv. Fuel pump, delivery valve(7kg-cm)

Tappet Clearance
For inlet valve = 0.1mm
Exhaust valve = 0.1mm
Mention method are applicable:

Bumping Clearance
Clearance = 0.75-0.85 mm

The clearance is check by dial indicator if clearance is not correct than it is adjust by putting
gasket/ sims
So company provide 7-sims to adjust clearance.
i. 0.55 mm
ii. 0.65 mm
iii. 0.75 mm
iv. 0.85 mm
v. 0.95 mm
vi. 1.05 mm
vii. 1.15 mm
Valve –Head Clearance
Clearance = 1.80-1.90 mm
It also measures by dial indicator
If it is not in above range than the valve sheet and valve is required to turning or to replace.
Compression spring free length :-

Valve leak checking

In simple way this test is doing by putting oil on valve and than the air is insert in intake
manifold if air booble is in presence than valves are leak otherwise valve are not leak.
Enter the oil from intake and exhaust manifold if oil leak than oil come out from valves.

Lubrication system
i. Oil is collect in sump.
ii. Oil is suck by oil pump through suction screen and suction pipe.
iii. Oil come out from oil pump.
iv. The oil come out is passes through pressure valve.
v. And go in filter.
vi. Oil come out from filter and go in crank shaft as well as in cam gear by gallery that is
provides in block in between crank bush and filter.
vii. Oil goes crank bush to bush oil gallery pipe. A hole also provides in btw front bush and
pipe that supply oil to head by pipe supply.
a. Oil come head in oil is lubricates to rockers and valves and go in push rod sleeve
to guid lifter to cam os cam shaft to sump.
viii. Oil come in pipe provies next to head pipe hole is supply oil to second and third bush
housing through it oil go in big end bush to lubricates crankshaft as wellas to piston cooling
nozzle to lubricates to piston and liner through spraying.

Gear timing system


Crank gear(35) cam gear(70) fuel gear(41)

cooling gear idler gear(41) fuel gear(41)298


Fuel Injection Time Setting

In this tractor model inline fuel pump is uses that consists governor fuel cams
And other fuel relates control systems
For this model injection angel is:- 14.50
To set fuel timing :
i. Check the timing is correct or not.
ii. For check we open a pressure pipe line.
iii. And leave out delivery valve from pump.
iv. Another pipe line which is in J-joint with bolt of fuel pump connecting.
v. By rotate engine and observing BTDC and TDC position with timing stopper we
can say fuel timing is correct or not.
vi. When engine is retard than the loose the fuel pump and push them in direction of
engine than tight pump and check timing by changing pump position with nut of its
tighten can make its correct timing.
vii. When engine is advance than the pump is pushes far away putting them in nut.
viii. When the timing is correct then tight them.

Engine S-325
Assay :-
i. Engine block
ii. Main journal bush housing is places(washing +oil)
iii. Thrust washer in rear bush outer and inner(grease)
iv. Crankshaft setting(dia. , oil running clearance , fillet radius , hole campered
)+fitting(washing +oil)
v. Crankshaft fitting(crank gear-25 teeth)
vi. Other remain journal housing fitting(washing +oil)
vii. Piston dimension checking
viii. Piston ring fitting
ix. Piston-connecting rod assay(oil)
x. Piston fitting in liner
xi. Connecting rod(oil) and crankshaft fitting(8.2 kg)
xii. Oil pump setting
xiii. Oil pump fitting(13-2.5/19)
xiv. Idler gear(21 teeth , oil on idler gear shaft)
xv. Idler gear C-lock
xvi. Timing case gasket fitting(grease)
xvii. Gear timing case
xviii. Idler gear(90 teeth)
xix. Cam gear(50 teeth)
xx. Fuel gear(50 teeth)
xxi. Sump joint gasket fitting on gasket
xxii. Sump gasket
xxiii. Sump fitting
xxiv. Flywheel housing gasket
xxv. Flywheel housing case
xxvi. Aluminium Seal housing
xxvii. Flywheel(11.8)
xxviii. Timing gear setting
xxix. Timing cover(3)
xxx. Filter body(4.5)
xxxi. Water body setting/fitting
xxxii. Head gasket
xxxiii. Head setting(valve leak/ height below head surface/valve gasket/guider height/removing
scaling of calsium)
xxxiv. Head fitting(10.00)
xxxv. Tappet fitting(washing+oil)
xxxvi. Head oil pipe fitting(washing+oil)
xxxvii. Head gasket
xxxviii. Head cover fitting(washing+oil)
xxxix. Pulley fitting
xl. Outer oil pipe line fitting
xli. Fuel supply pipe fitting

i. Truncating/taperness in liner
i. Temperature on head of piston,
ii. Lower lubrication of piston head so large friction area is face by liner,
iii. Wrong ring material.

1. Ovelity of liner
generally in wet type liner,
more side thrust application in wet liner region,

2. Scratch/lining on liner
Piston-liner clearance,
Oversize of ring/large end gape in spring/large groove clearance,
Wrong oil grade
Improper lubrication
Wrong ring alignment of rings

3. liner material cutting One side

Bending of connecting rod,

Wrong alignment of rings,
overloading of engine.


Reason behind engine overheating
i. Service timing period.
ii. Engine over loading.
iii. Way of vehicle driving.
iv. Oil grade mix-up or improper standard oil using.
v. Loosening of fan belt/brokering of fan blade/wrong blade positioning of air motion.
vi. Dust in fins.
vii. Wrong measurement of sensor/fault in sensor/problem in pointer of indicator.
viii. Brake position with wheel.
ix. Radiator gasket leaking/improper coolant level.
x. Chocking of radiator/damaging of radiator fins.
xi. Chocking of cooling pipe gallery of radiator fins.
xii. Leaking of water from pump body/broken impeller/slipping of impeller.
xiii. Improper Working of thermostat valve.
xiv. Improper locking/packing of head cover.
xv. Nozzle of oil(piston cooling).
xvi. Wrong Tappet clearance setting.
xvii. Lowering of Bumping clearance from minimum tolerance.
xviii. Advancing of fuel pump timing.

Reason behind loading problem in engine

i. Service timing
ii. Overloading of implement
iii. Loosen clutch setting/engagement
iv. Clutch surface is become wet
v. Oil leakage from rear oil seal
vi. Retardation of fuel pump
vii. Large bumping clearance
viii. Ring are out of validity condition
ix. Fuel pump/filter chocking
x. Improper Lubrication

xi. Piston/liner have scratches
xii. Incorrect crankshaft free end play

Reason behind more fuel consumption in engine

i. Service time duration
ii. Over load
iii. Bumping clearance
iv. Fuel pump retardation
v. Improper lubrication/cooling
a. Reason behind oil consumption in engine
vi. Service time duration
vii. Breather system problem
viii. Bearing housing/rear bush housing seal is leak or cutted
ix. Rings clearance is out of standard
x. Valve oil stem seal/gasket is leak
xi. Front seal is leak
xii. Grade of oil

III. Transmission/gear box:-

i. Reduce engine r.p.m.

ii. Increase torque by reducing r.p.m
iii. High- low speed according to field condition.
iv. Control on tractor.
v. Help to control tractor.
vi. To task as reduction unit.

Type of transmission:-
According to speed:-
i. High speed gear box
a. This kind of gears uses in speedy vehicles so in pulling such
kind of gear are not good perfomer.
ii. Low speed gear box
a. This kind of gears uses in high torque vehicle so they have
good pulling power.
iii. Sliding mesh gear box
i. Constant mesh gear box
ii. Syncromesh gear box

Sliding mesh gear box:-

When the engagement of gear in transmission is take place by making main shaft
gear sliding on lay shaft gear.

Constant mesh gear box:-

When the gear of main and lay shaft always remain in meshing and main shaft gear
kept free than the transmission is only take place by fixing the main gear fixing by attaching collar
to main shaft.
Syncromesh gear box:-
When the main shaft free gear remain in mesh with lay shaft fix gear than the
transmission is take place by syncro units.
Sliding Mesh Gear Box
Advantages :-
i. Low maintainance required.
ii. Easy service availability.
iii. Easy design.
iv. Oil change requirement can manage for more than the time.
i. High force requirement for shifting of gear.
ii. High noise and clashing.
iii. For engagement equal speed of both gear is necessary.

It is a mechanical device that is most useful for auto system.
It is a combination of gears and gear train that is work as reduction unit as well as
stability/control of vehicle.
Function of differential
i. Equal speed in both wheel when vehicle is running in straight path.
ii. When vehicle is in turn than the speed of inner wheel lower by some amount and the
outer wheel speed is increase by reduced amount.
iii. It works to transfer power at 900 / right angle.
iv. Reduction unit.
v. When one wheel is in stop than the complete power is transmit to free wheel.

Gear transmission models in Mahindra tractors:-

1. GT-51(5+1):-241/242
2. Syncro 755:-485/548/5660/557/380
3. GT-80(8+2):-
1. PTO>1000 r.p.m.:-242/312/333/364
2. PTO 540 STD r.p.m :-312/364/368/485/548/333/5150/5660
3. Hydromatic NT:-242/278/312/364/368/485/333/380/480

Tractor model Oil capacity(ltr.) Tripping(ltr.) Power steering (ltr.)

241 9.5 12 -
242 11.5 14 -

278 28 25 -
312/364 11.5/34 11.5/34 -
368/485 34/36 34/36 40
548 42 42 45
333 36 36 36
380/480 36 36 40
5150 44 44 50
5660 45 45 52
557 38 38 38

T-shooting in transmission:-
i. Slip of gear
ii. Noise in only one gear
iii. Clashing in all gear
iv. Huming noise in gear box
v. Gear not become neutral
vi. Gear shifting problem
vii. Noise in gear box only in duration of engagement
viii. Noise from differential
ix. Noise in neutral

Parts of gear box:-


Flywheel housing:-
i. Clutch assay
ii. Release bearing
iii. Fork
iv. Sleeve
v. Clutch pedal shaft
vi. Primary shaft
vii. Top shaft

g-1 :-
i. Gear lever attached to top plate
ii. Gear shifting fork
iii. Gear & box (rail, bolt & spring)
iv. Main shaft
v. Sliding gear

vi. Lay/counter shaft
vii. Spur gear/constant mesh gear/clutch gear
viii. High-low sliding gear
ix. High-low lever and fork
x. Reverse gear
xi. Idler gear

g-2 :-
i. Crown pinion shaft
ii. Differential assay housing
iii. Star and sun star gear
iv. FD pinion
v. Bool gear
vi. Rear axle and axle tube
vii. PTO shaft rear
viii. PTO shifting lever
ix. Brake assay

1. Crown wheel

Sliding contact gear in mahindra:-

This is mostly using transmission system in vehicles because their low cost, easy repair
/part availability, lower care etc.

In this system the power coming at clutch gear is engages with CM gear so the fixed gear
on lay shaft is move off. The main shaft consists of gear so that the can slide on it in any
position. whenever gear is changes than the main shaft gear are engage with lay shaft gear
so the main shaft starts moves off and power is transmits to differential from where the
power is devides according signal of steering on wheels.


Main settings in gt-51:-

i. Backless in star and sun star gear :- 0.10-0.35 mm

ii. Backless in CP shaft and crown wheel :- 0.10-0.35 mm
iii. Mounting distance of CP shaft :- as per required sims are inserts
Assay of GT-51:-
i. Idler (reverse)gear
ii. Rear lay roller bearing(506820)
iii. Lay shaft + gear setting
iv. Lay shaft + front bearing(6202)
v. PTO lever setting(outer side setting is possible)
vi. Differential housing
vii. Star gear + rod+ crown wheel

viii. Sun gear
ix. Sun-star backless setting
x. Bearing(621363)
xi. Left + right plate
xii. Crown pinion
xiii. Crown pinion and crown wheel backless setting
xiv. Gear box()
xv. Gears of main shaft
xvi. Dog housing
xvii. Dogs
xviii. Capsules
xix. Bolls
xx. Springs
xxi. Cylinder
xxii. Cover
xxiii. Lever
xxiv. Level guage

main settings is:-

i. Sun-star gears backless setting:- 0.1- 0.25 mm
ii. CP gear and crown wheel backless setting:- 0.10- 0.35 mm
iii. CP gear mid distance setting according to sims requirement.
iv. Preloading of CP pinion taper roller bearing:-2.0 – 2.5 kg load.

GT 80 >1000
1. Double axle 2. Cut axle 3. Portal axle 4. Reducing axle



4 5


A 4 3 2 1 Main shaft
A 3 2 1

Lay shaft

GT – 80 540 STD PTO

GT – 80 MS PTO 540

Syncromesh Transmission

It is special kind of gear mechanism utility for gear engaging and shifting. In this different kind of
syncro unites are uses to transmit power one gear to another and to differential.
In this arrangement the power is come at clutch/primary shaft gear than this power is transmites to
CM gear that is fixed on lay shaft so the power is come in lay shaft than lay shaft consists 3 other
fixed gear which is live in engagement with main shaft 3 gear that are free on main shaft.
So the power is come in all main gear. The syncro units hace inner tooth splines is kept on the
spline of main shaft they are in better meshing. When the syncro unit sleeve have internal tooth is
shift fork on the gear have external tooth of main shaft than the syncro unit also rotate with rotation
of free gear as we know that the syncro unit spline is fitted on main shaft so the power is comes to
main shaft that rotates to main shaft.


i. Gear shifting is smoothen.

ii. No noise and clashing in gears.
iii. Lower load is requires for shifting of gear.
iv. Wear and tear of gear is neglects.
v. Life of gear is rises.
vi. Lower gear shifting headache for driver.
vii. High speed gear shifting facility.
viii. Lower maintainance is requires (time to time service requires).

i. Skilled mechanic requires for repairing.

ii. Parts of it is costly so part availability in market is a big problem.
iii. Interchangeability in this is not possible with other gears.
iv. Service is more recommended for long life.
v. Design is compact and critical.
vi. Manufacturing cost is high.


Hydraulic system

This word is born in Itly , this word consist of hydro means a type of liquid and lic means tube or
The complete hydraulic system is following to the law of Paskal.
According to Paskal law if any liquid is filed in a close container than that liquid exerts equal force
at every internal point of container in perpendicular direction when the force exert by liquid on
every internal point is beyond to tolerable force than the liquid is starts leak from container.

Function :-
i. lift, stay and stop to emplement at required position and adjust to implement
automatically to make them is safe working.
ii. Draft control
iii. External circuit making.

Draft :-
Draft is a resistance due to soil that make safe to tractor as well to emplement.
Eicher tractor starts ADDC in their product from 1980 is designed by Itly.

ADDC system:-
Automatic Depth And Draft Control System
Company uses 4 type of hydraulic in his product till now.
1. Non mix mode:-
i. Company use it 1982-1998.
ii. No repair.
iii. More hunting.

iv. No any external circuit for trolley tripping.
2. Mix mode:-
i. 1998-till now in use
ii. Reduced hunting.
iii. Available in repairing mode.
iv. Low cost.
v. The external port exist in it for external joining improper on draft utility.
vi. Draft lever is work properly in defined rang beyond it it gets overload.
vii. Position of stay is at defined movement of draft lever.
viii. Jamming of spool lever.
3. Position sensitivity:-
i. 2005-till now in use
ii. Draft overloading is eliminate almost.
iii. Stay positions are more in available.
iv. Design of mode selector is improve for easy setting.
4. Hydromatic NT:-
a. 2007-till now in use

Main hydraulic system

i. Hydraulic pump:-
o 80-120 kg/cm2
 PRV:-
i. Divide/control on pressure according to lever signal
ii. Work as mind of hydraulic
iii. It opens ports of oil functioning
ii. Lever/shield assay:-
a. Position control /yellow lever:-
i. It lift, stay and down the emplements
ii. Depth in field
iii. Tripping trolley operation
b. Finger tip/draft/black lever:-
i. It manage the load on empliment
ii. Safe mode can easily updates
c. Location/red lever:-
i. Lock to draft lever
iii. Mechanical linkage:-

Using linkage the signal is send to PRV as requires.

iv. Ram cylinder assay:-
The oil in pressure enter in cylinder and press to piston to move him as the piston is
moves the arms are rotates and lifts to tri linkage.

PRV(pressure release valve) Assay

2.Differential valve



4.check valve valve

1. Main spool lever:-

Lift, stay and down

Retainer, spring, 3mm spacer , spool lock valve, spool, sleeve, o-ring etc.

2. Differential lever:-
This lever work according to path selected by spool lever.

Valve, spring, retainer, o-ring etc .

3. Pump safety valve:-

This valve safe to PRV if the pressure is more then the tolerance by bypassing oil
in ADDC housing.

Sheet/poppet valve, o-ring, back up ring(white) o-ring, valve, spring, retainer,

adjusting screw, o-ring, cap etc.

4. Check valve:-unary valve

Oil is enter only through it not exits through it.

Same parts as pump safety valve.

5. Cylinder safety valve:-

This is safe to cylinder to work only in sustainable load beyond sustainable pressure
the pressure release valve is open and maintain safety of cylinder.

Valve, backup o-ring, o-ring, ball, spring, retainer, o-ring, cap etc.
6. Mode selector valve :-
By loosen it. it works for emplements.
By tight it. it works for external tripping.


Clutch is a device for gradual engagement and disengagement of power between the engine and
rest of the transmission.
It is a coupling used for connecting or disconnecting the engine power to gear box. The clutch is
field between engine and gear box. A clutch is a machine membrane used to connect the driving
shaft. A clutch thus provides an interruptible connection between two rotating shafts.


i. To engage or disengage the engine power from gear box as and when required.
ii. To allow the engine to take up the load gradually without shock.
iii. It should have higher capacity to transmit maximum power without slipping.
iv. The control should be easy and require little pedal pressure to operate.
v. It should be easy to adjust.

vi. It should have good ability of taking load smoothly without dragging and chattering.


Type of clutch Tractor model

1.Single clutch plate (with 9.5 inch) 241/242

2. Single clutch plate (with 11 inch) 321/333/380/480/368/364/485/278

3. Single diaphragm clutch plate ( with 11 485/480/380/368/333/312/364/5660

4. Duel clutch plate (with 11 inch)


i. Clutch pedal free play- 20 to 25 mm.

ii. Single clutch plate (with 9.5 inch) finger setting

a. Single plate hub to finger distance 33.5 ± 5 mm.

iii. Single clutch plate (with 11 inch) finger setting

a. Clutch plate hub to finger distance 17.5 mm

iv. Dual clutch plate finger setting

a. i.Mainfinger of PTO clutch plate of hub to main finger distance-22.8 or 23mm.
b. ii.PTO clutch plate hub to finger distance -14.8 or 15 mm

v. No setting for single diaphragm clutch plate only clutch free play setting 20 to 25 mm.

1. clutch slippage

A. Oil /grease on the lining to clean with the petrol /replace.

B. Lack of the clutch free play Adjust.
C. Weak pressure spring fit new set of spring.
D. Worn out lining replace.

2. Clutch noises

A. Weak pressure spring replace affected spring.

B. Excessive worn splines on the shaft and clutch plate replace affected part.
C. Worn/dry release bearings replace affected parts.

i. Due to long time use, the clutch facing gets worn out. Similarly when the clutch has been
used wrongly, facing get worn out quickly.
ii. Hence the distance between pressure plate and flywheel reduces, this results in increase in
distance between release bearing and fingers.
iii. Under this circumstance when the clutch pedal is pressed the release bearing can not press
the fingers to the required distance, hence the clutch pedal does not disengaged properly.
Hence clutch adjustment essential.
iv. The only normal adjustment required throughout the life of clutch friction lining is to
readjust the free movement of the clutch pedal periodically i.e. movement of pedal before
release bearing comes in contact with the fingers.
v. The clutch free play is related with the clearance between the release bearing and fingers.
vi. On some tractor, this clearance is adjusted by linkage, whereas on others it is adjusted by
moving clutch release shaft.


i. We studied every product of engine, transmission, hydraulic of Mahindra Tractors.

ii. The training was based on product detail and its concept of every system.
iii. We assembled and dissembled of five engine ,three types transmission, two types
iv. We had best facility by the company.
v. Every work we had to done by our self.
vi. We also took theoretical as well as practical classes.
vii. Safety and precaution classes were also given by company.
viii. Our faculty who took our classes was cleared our every confusion.
ix. We enjoyed our summer training program.
x. We visited plant also each department.


a. for history and award.

d. Also from notes which was we wrote in the training classes