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Statistics

the practice or science of collecting and analysing numerical data in large quantities,

especially for the purpose of inferring proportions in a whole from those in a representative

sample.

Level of measurement

A variable has one of four different levels of measurement: Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, or

Ratio. (Interval and Ratio levels of measurement are sometimes called Continuous

or Scale). ... In fact, the Free download below conveniently ties a variable'slevels to

different statistical analyses.

Nominal

Statistics a discrete classification of data, in which data are neither measured nor ordered

but subjects are merely allocated to distinct categories: for example, a record of students'

course choices constitutes nominal data which could be correlated with school

resultsCompare ordinal scale, interval scale, ratio .

Ordinal

Ordinal data is a categorical, statistical data type where the variables have natural,

ordered categories and the distances between the categories is not known. These data exist

on an ordinal scale, one of four levels of measurement described by S. S. For Example

Likert scale.

Interval (Jeda)

Interval estimation. statistics. Interval estimation, in statistics, the evaluation of a

parameter—for example, the mean (average)—of a population by computing aninterval, or

range of values, within which the parameter is most likely to be located.

Ratio (Nisbah)

Ratio data can be multiplied and divided because not only is the difference between 1 and 2

the same as between 3 and 4, but also that 4 is twice as much as 2. Interval and ratio

data measure quantities and hence are quantitative. Because they can be measured on a

scale, they are also called scale data.

Mean (Average) Purata

The "mean" is the "average" used to, where add up all the numbers and then divide by the number

of numbers. The "median" is the "middle" value in the list of numbers. To find the median, your

numbers have to be listed in numerical order from smallest to largest, so you may have to rewrite

your list before you can find the median. The "mode" is the value that occurs most often. If no

number in the list is repeated, then there is no mode for the list.

Find the mean, median, mode, and range for the following list of values:

The mean is the usual average, so I'll add and then divide:

(13 + 18 + 13 + 14 + 13 + 16 + 14 + 21 + 13) ÷ 9 = 15

Note that the mean, in this case, isn't a value from the original list. This is a common result. You

should not assume that your mean will be one of your original numbers.

The median is the middle value, so first I'll have to rewrite the list in numerical order:

There are nine numbers in the list, so the middle one will be the (9 + 1) ÷ 2 = 10 ÷ 2 = 5th

number:

The mode is the number that is repeated more often than any other, so 13 is the mode.

The largest value in the list is 21, and the smallest is 13, so the range is 21 – 13 = 8.

mean: 15

median: 14

mode: 13

range: 8

Note: The formula for the place to find the median is "([the number of data points] + 1) ÷ 2", but

you don't have to use this formula. You can just count in from both ends of the list until you meet

in the middle, if you prefer, especially if your list is short. Either way will work.

Variance

Variance measures how far a data set is spread out. The technical definition is “The average of

the squared differences from the mean,” but all it really does is to give you a very general idea of

the spread of your data. A value of zero means that there is no variability; All the numbers in the

data set are the same.

The standard deviation is a statistic that measures the dispersion of a dataset relative to its mean

and is calculated as the square root of the variance. It is calculated as the square root

of variance by determining the variation between each data point relative to the mean. If the data

points are further from the mean, there is higher deviation within the data set; thus, the more spread

out the data, the higher the standard deviation.

ASSIGNMENT B

Tests of Normality

Kolmogorov-Smirnova Shapiro-Wilk

gender Statistic df Sig. Statistic df Sig.

age Female .101 27 .200* .977 27 .800

Male .156 23 .153 .962 23 .495

*. This is a lower bound of the true significance.

The test of normality shows that the data for female is normal where the p value is greater than

0.05 and it is significant. The data below 1000 respondent which used shapiro-wilk.

The test of normality shows that the data for male is normal where the p value is greater than

0.05 and it is significant. The data below 1000 respondents which used shapiro-wilk.

One-Sample Statistics

N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean

age 50 24.00 2.857 .404

One-Sample Test

Test Value = 26

95% Confidence Interval of the

Difference

t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference Lower Upper

age -4.950 49 .000 -2.000 -2.81 -1.19

The mean is 24.00 but the test value is 26 for age. The difference is 2.00 of age is shows that

there a difference and its have the relationship between male and female. Therefore the null

hypothesis (Ho) is rejected and alternative (H1) is accepted. For this case the value t which age

26 is significant where p >0.05.

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