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# BFF 2233

Thermodynamics
Prepared by : Dr. Ahmad Redza
H/P : 0193075371 (Office Hour only)
Room : DG5
BFF 2233 THERMODYNAMICS

COURSE OUTCOMES

## CO1: Analyze thermodynamics fundamental concepts.

CO2: Analyze the properties of pure, simple compressible
substances and ideal gases.
CO3: Analyze the concept of 1st law in closed and open
systems.
CO4: Analyze entropy change in 2nd law.
CO5: Design engineering project on thermodynamics.
CO6: Communicate effectively regarding principles of
thermodynamics aspects of engineering design.
BFF 2233 THERMODYNAMICS

Assessment Methods:
Distribution (%) CO1 CO2 CO3 CO4 CO5 CO6
Quiz 10 % ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
Mid semester
30 % ✓ ✓
test
Project 20% ✓ ✓
Final
40 % ✓ ✓
Examination
Total 100 %

Learning References:
1. Cengel, Y.A and Boles, M.A, Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach (8th Edition),
McGraw Hill, New York.
2. Nag P.K., Engineering Thermodynamics (5th Edition), Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi.
3. Mahesh M. Rathore, Thermal Engineering, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi
BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
LEARNING OUTCOMES:
By the end of this chapter, students should be able to

## ❑ Identify the unique vocabulary associated with thermodynamics through

the precise definition of basic concepts to form a sound foundation for
the development of the principles of thermodynamics.

## ❑ Explain the basic concepts of thermodynamics such as system, state, state

postulate, equilibrium, process, and cycle.

## ❑ Review concepts of temperature, temperature scales, pressure, and

absolute and gage pressure.

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BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
1.1 Thermodynamics and Energy

## Thermodynamics Fluid Mechanics

(Principle of heat and its relation (Principle of fluid and the forces on
with energy and work) them)
Fluid statics, fluid dynamics, bernoulli,
1st law, 2nd law, etc.
etc.

## Dynamics and Kinematics

(Motions of body and its causes) Strength of Materials
Force, Torque, moments, newton laws, etc. (Principle of deformation and destruction
Position, displacement, velocity, of body)
http://savewithhydrogen.com/a
acceleration, etc bout-hh2/ Stress, strength, strain, deflection, etc.

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BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
1.1 Thermodynamics and Energy
HEAT
⚫Heat is one type of energy. + Heat losses
in exhaust

http://savewithhydrogen.com/a
bout-hh2/

## FUEL (ENERGY WORK + AIR

SOURCE) CONDITIONING,
LIGHT, heat
losses, sound,
friction,etc

http://www.maserati.org.au/images/EventPhotos/
http://www.topnews.in/fuel-shortage-affects- Targa99/T99Beable.jpg
urban-transport-buenos-aires-246996 6
BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
1.1 Thermodynamics and Energy
HEAT

## ⚫Heat is one type of energy. + Heat losses

⚫Heat, Energy, and Work in exhaust
can change to each other.

http://savewithhydrogen.com/a
bout-hh2/

## FUEL (ENERGY WORK + AIR

SOURCE) CONDITIONING,
LIGHT, heat
losses, sound,
friction,etc

http://www.maserati.org.au/images/EventPhotos/
http://www.topnews.in/fuel-shortage-affects- Targa99/T99Beable.jpg
urban-transport-buenos-aires-246996 7
BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
1.1 Thermodynamics and Energy
HEAT

## ⚫Heat is one type of energy. 90 Unit + Heat losses

⚫Heat, Energy, and Work in exhaust
can change to each other.
10 Unit
1stLaw of Thermodynamics
⚫Energy cannot be destroyed,
but can change forms.
http://savewithhydrogen.com/a
⚫Conservation of energy. bout-hh2/

## FUEL (ENERGY WORK + AIR

SOURCE) CONDITIONING,
20 Unit LIGHT, heat
losses, sound,
friction,etc
100 Unit
70 Unit
http://www.maserati.org.au/images/EventPhotos/
http://www.topnews.in/fuel-shortage-affects- Targa99/T99Beable.jpg
urban-transport-buenos-aires-246996 8
BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
1.1 Thermodynamics and Energy

## ❑ Thermodynamics stems from the Greek words therme (heat) and

dynamis (power). It is the science of energy that deals with heat and work
and properties of substance that bear a relation between them.
❑ Energy: The ability to cause changes and exist in many forms namely
thermal, mechanical, electric, chemical, and nuclear. Heat is the transfer
of energy to or from a body of matter due to temperature difference.
Work is the transfer of energy to or from a body of matter due to external
forces acting on them.
❑ Conservation of energy principle: During an interaction, energy can
change from one form to another but the total amount of energy remains
constant. But Energy cannot be created or destroyed.
❑ The first law of thermodynamics: An expression of the conservation of
energy principle. It asserts that energy is a thermodynamic property.

Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it can only change forms (the first law)
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BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
1.1 Thermodynamics and Energy
Gasoline heating value,
kJ/L 35000 Efficiency = C×g×m
HV
Sedan weight, m Normal kg 1200 HV
Hybrid kg 1380

## Classification Model Year CC Consumption , C [km/L] Price[Yen &RM] Efficiency [%]

①Hybrid Prius 2011.12 1800 38 217 82460 14.7
②New Civic Ferio 2005.2 1670 17.6 140 53200 5.9
③Old Toyota Corola 1991.6 1330 16 108 41040 5.4
④Sport Skyline GTR 34 2000.1 2600 8.1 500 190000 2.7
① ② ③ ④

## •Most Efficient •Modesty •Modesty •Most powerfull

•Higher price •Slightly more •Less power •3.6x higher price
efficient than old car •Less efficient due to •2.0x fuel consumption
but better power high mileage 10
BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
1.1 Thermodynamics and Energy

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BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
1.1 Thermodynamics and Energy

Applications of Thermodynamics

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BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
1.2 Importance of Dimensions and Units
❑ Any physical quantity can be characterized by dimensions.
❑ The magnitudes assigned to the dimensions are called units.
❑ Some basic dimensions such as mass m, length L, time t, and temperature T are
selected as primary or fundamental dimensions, while others such as velocity V,
energy E, and volume V are expressed in terms of the primary dimensions and are
called secondary dimensions, or derived dimensions.
❑ Metric SI system: A simple and logical system based on a decimal relationship between
the various units.
❑ English system: It has no apparent systematic numerical base, and various units in this
system are related to each other rather arbitrarily.

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BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
1.2 Importance of Dimensions and Units

## Dimension SI Unit English Unit

Mass kg lbm
Length m ft
Time s s
Temperature K R
Amount of matter mol Lbmol
Electrical current A A
Amount of light cd candles

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BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
1.2 Importance of Dimensions and Units

## Definition Symbol Equation Unit

Density Objects mass per unit ρ m/v kg/m3
volume
Relative density Ratio of a substance - - -
(Specific to the density of
gravity) water at 4°C
Specific weight Weight per unit ϒ ρg N/m3
volume
Specific volume Volume per unit mass vg v/m m3/kg

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BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
1.2 Importance of Dimensions and Units
The SI unit prefixes are used in all branches of engineering.

## Work = Force  Distance

1 J = 1 N∙m
1 cal = 4.1868 J
1 Btu = 1.0551 kJ
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BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
1.3 Systems and Control Volume

## System, Boundary and Surrounding

a. System
The quantity of matter or region in space chosen
for study
b. System Boundary
❑ The real and imaginary surface that separates
the system from the surrounding.
❑ Boundary can be fixed or movable.
❑ May be closed or open
c. Surroundings
The immediate mass or region outside the
system
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BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
1.3 Systems and Control Volume

## System, Boundary and Surrounding

Closed system or control mass is one in which heat and work crosses the
system when undergoing a process without any mass transfer.
W (+)
W (+)
Work

System
Surrounding
System

Boundary
Q (+)
Heat

Q (+)
Schematic Diagram Block Diagram 18
BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
1.3 Systems and Control Volume

## System, Boundary and Surrounding

Open system or control volume is one in which heat and work crosses the
system when undergoing a process with mass transfer.

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BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
1.3 Systems and Control Volume

## System, Boundary and Surrounding

Examples: Closed System
System
boundary

Flexible
Rigid closed system closed system
in pressure cooker In cooking pan
Closed system in refrigeration cycle
comprises of many components of open system
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BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
1.3 Systems and Control Volume

## System, Boundary and Surrounding

Examples: Closed System

System
boundary

Closed system in steam power cycle comprises of many components of open system
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BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
1.3 Systems and Control Volume

## System, Boundary and Surrounding

Examples: Closed System

System
boundary

## Air inlet Exhaust gas

Open system in gas power cycle comprises of many components of open system 22
BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
1.3 Systems and Control Volume

## System, Boundary and Surrounding

Examples: Open System

Condenser

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BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
1.4 Properties of a System

## Properties, Intensive and Extensive Properties

❑ Properties are any measurable characteristics of a system. eg.
Pressure p, temperature T, volume V, mass m and density ρ.
❑ Extensive properties are the mass-dependent properties of a
system. i.e. the properties that will vary proportionally with
mass of the system. e.g. volume V
❑ Intensive properties are the properties that are independent on
mass. e.g. temperature T, density ρ.
NB: If any Extensive Property is divided by the mass we would
also obtain an intensive property.

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BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
1.6 State and Equilibrium

## Thermodynamics deals with equilibrium states in which a system

maintains thermal, mechanical, phase, and chemical equilibrium and
will experience no changes when isolated from its surroundings.
❑ Thermal Equilibrium is one in which the temperature is the same
throughout the system.
❑ Mechanical Equilibrium is one in which there is no change in
pressure at any point of the system with time.
❑ Phase Equilibrium is one in which a system involving two phases
where the mass of each phase reaches an equilibrium level and
stays there.
❑ Chemical Equilibrium is one where the chemical composition of a
system does not change with time i.e no chemical reactions occur.

## NB: In practice, thermodynamics systems undergoing a process

remains infinitely close to equilibrium state or quasi-static
equilibrium. 25
BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
1.6 State and Equilibrium

## A system at two different states. A closed system reaching thermal

equilibrium.

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BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
1.6 State and Equilibrium
The State Postulate
Simple Compressible System exist in the absence of external
forces including electrical, magnetic, gravitational, motion and
surface tension effects.
State Postulate / Principle states that the state of a simple
compressible system is completely specified by two
independent intensive properties e.g. temperature and
pressure for single phase system.

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BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
1.7 Process and Cycles

## Thermodynamics Process is any change that a system undergoes from one

equilibrium state to another.
Quasistatic or quasi-equilibrium process proceeds in such a manner that the
system remains infinitesimally close to an equilibrium state at all times.
p
2
p2

p1 1

V
V2 V1

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BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
1.7 Process and Cycles

## Process Path is the series of states through which a system

passes during a process.
p
2
p2
Compression
Process
Path

p1 Work 1
W(-)
V
V2 V1

W (-)

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BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
1.7 Process and Cycles

p

2
p2
W21 (+)

W12 (-)
p1 1

V
V2 V1

## W21 (+) W12 (-)

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BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
1.7 Process and Cycles

NB: Work and heat are not system properties because both are
dependent on process.
p T

p2 2 2
T2
W12
Q12

W12 Q12
p1 1 T1
1

V2 V1 s2 s1 s
V
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BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
1.7 Process and Cycles

## a) Adiabatic Process: No heat loss

b) Isobaric Process: Constant pressure
c) Isochoric Process: Constant volume
d) Isothermal Process: Constant temperature
e) Isentropic Process: Constant entropy
f) Polytropic Process: 𝑝𝑉 𝑛 = 𝐶
Index, n = 0 Constant pressure
n=∞ Constant volume
n=1 Constant temperature
𝐶
n = k = 𝑝ൗ𝐶𝑣 Adiabatic ideal gas
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BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
1.7 Process and Cycles
❑ The term steady implies no change with time. The opposite of steady is
❑ A large number of engineering devices operate for long periods of time
under the same conditions, and they are classified as steady-flow devices.
❑ Steady-flow process: A process during which a fluid flows through a control
❑ Steady-flow conditions can be closely approximated by devices that are
intended for continuous operation such as turbines, pumps, boilers,
condensers, and heat exchangers or power plants or refrigeration systems.

o Mass and energy contents of a control
volume remain constant
o Fluid properties within the control volume
may change with position but not with time
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BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
1.8 Temperature and The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

## ❑ The zeroth law of thermodynamics: If two bodies are in thermal equilibrium

with a third body, they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other.
❑ By replacing the third body with a thermometer, the zeroth law can be
restated as two bodies are in thermal equilibrium if both have the same
temperature reading even if they are not in contact.

## Two bodies reaching thermal

equilibrium after being brought into
contact in an isolated enclosure.

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BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
1.8 Temperature and Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

Temperature Scale
❑ All temperature scales are based on some easily reproducible states such as the
freezing and boiling points of water: the ice point and the steam point.
❑ Ice point: A mixture of ice and water that is in equilibrium with air saturated with
vapor at 1 atm pressure (0°C or 32°F).
❑ Steam point: A mixture of liquid water and water vapor (with no air) in equilibrium at
1 atm pressure (100°C or 212°F).
❑ Celsius scale: in SI unit system
❑ Fahrenheit scale: in English unit system
❑ Thermodynamic temperature scale: A temperature scale that is independent of the
properties of any substance.
❑ Kelvin scale (SI) Rankine scale (E)
❑ A temperature scale nearly identical to the Kelvin scale is the ideal-gas temperature
scale. The temperatures on this scale are measured using a constant-volume gas
thermometer.

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BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
0th law of Thermodynamics
Systems are said to be in equilibrium if they are able to transfer heat between each other.
If A and C are thermal equilibrium with B, A is also in equilibrium with C

Ａ Ｂ Ｃ Ａ Ｂ Ｃ
50℃ 30℃ 10℃ 30℃ 30℃ 30℃

Thermal equilibrium
Thermal equilibrium lead to scale definition of Temperature
The way to indicate temperature

## ? Boiling point (100℃) Boiling point (32°F)

Divided equally

Divided equally
Temperature

to 100

to 180
? Freezing point (0℃) Freezing point (212°F)
1. Celcius 2. Fahrenheit 36
BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
The way to indicate temperature
Water based
? (100℃)Boiling point (212 °F)Boiling point
Divided equally

Divided equally
Temperature

to 100

to 180
? (0℃)Freezing point (32 °F)Freezing point
1. Celcius 2. Fahrenheit

## Farenheit is Brine based: 0°Ｆ is freezing point of Brine

100
t C =
180
( t  F − 32 )

5
t C =
9
( t  F − 32 )
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BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
The way to indicate temperature
Water based Brine based
? 100℃, 373.15K 212 °F, 672 °R

Divided equally
Divided equally
Temperature

to 180
to 100

## ? 0℃, 273.15 0 °F, 460 °R

Celcius & Kelvin 2. Fahrenheit & Rankine

Celcius & Kelvin or Fahrenheit & Rankine have same scale but different
refered temperature
Absolute zero = the lowest temperature
Celcius: freezing and boiling point of water
Kelvin: Absolute zero
Fahrenheit: freezing point of brine
Rankine: Absolute zero 38
BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
1.8 Temperature and Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

Temperature Scale

## A constant-volume gas P versus T plots of the experimental

thermometer would read data obtained from a constant-volume
-273.15°C at absolute gas thermometer using four different
zero pressure. gases at different (but low) pressures.
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BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
1.8 Temperature and Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

## International Temperature Scale

Comparison of magnitudes of
various temperature units.
❑ The reference temperature in the original Kelvin scale was the
ice point, 273.15 K, which is the temperature at which water
freezes (or ice melts).
❑ The reference point was changed to a much more precisely
reproducible point, the triple point of water (the state at which
all three phases of water coexist in equilibrium), which is
assigned the value 273.16 K. 40
BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
1.9 Pressure

## Pressure: A normal force exerted 68 kg 136 kg

per unit area (P=F/A)

## 1 atm is equal to,

Afeet=300cm2
1.013 bar (English unit)
101.325kPa (SI unit)
0.1MPa (SI that is accepted to describe 1atm)
14.7 psi (lbf/in2) 0.23 bar 0.46 bar
760 mmHg (milimeter of mercury) P=F/A=68/300=0.23 bar
760 Torr(not SI unit)
Normal stress or pressure on the
feet of a chubby person > a slim
person. 41
BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
• Absolute pressure: measured relative to absolute vacuum (i.e.,
absolute zero pressure).
• Gage or Gauge pressure: measured relative to atmospheric
pressure.
• Vacuum pressures: Pressures below atmospheric pressure. Degree
of vacuum is also usually used.
Pressure increase

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BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
1.9 Pressure

## Pressure in a liquid at rest increases In a room filled with a gas, the

linearly with distance from the free variation of pressure with
surface. height is negligible.
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BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
1.9 Pressure

## Application of Pascal’s law

Pascal’s law: The pressure applied to a confined fluid increases the pressure
throughout by the same amount

## The area ratio A2/A1 is called the

the hydraulic lift.

## Lifting of a large weight by a

small force by the application
of Pascal’s law.

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BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
1.10 Manometer

## Measure pressure drop

Contains one or more fluids (mercury, water, alcohol, oil) to measure small and
moderate pressure differences.

## Measuring the pressure drop across a flow section or

a flow device by a differential manometer The basic manometer

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BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
1.11 The Barometer and Atmospheric Pressure
❑ Atmospheric pressure is measured by a device called a barometer; thus, the
atmospheric pressure is often referred to as the barometric pressure.
❑ A frequently used pressure unit is the standard atmosphere, which is defined as the
pressure produced by a column of mercury 760 mm in height at 0°C (Hg = 13,595
kg/m3) under standard gravitational acceleration (g = 9.807 m/s2).

## The length or the cross-sectional area of the tube

has no effect on the height of the fluid column of a
barometer, provided that the tube diameter is large
The basic barometer. enough to avoid surface tension (capillary) effects. 46
BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
Example 1-8: Measuring Atmospheric Pressure with a Barometer
Determine the atmospheric pressure at a location where the barometric
is 740 mm Hg and the gravitational acceleration is g 9.81 m/s2. Assume the
temperature of mercury to be 10oC, at which its density is 13,570 kg/m3.
BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
Example Prob 1-92: Local Atmospheric Pressure
Calculate the local atmospheric pressure of a city over which a plane at 9000 m
altitude reads an absolute pressure of 25 kPa. Assume density of air 1.15 kg/m3
and density of mercury is 13,600 kg/m3.
Altitude: 9000 m
P = 25 kPa

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BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
Example Prob 1-110: Pressure Drop in Flow
Determine the value h if the pressure at the bottom of the tube is 120 kPa and
density of water is 103 kg/m3.

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BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
SUMMARY
❑ Thermodynamics and energy
➢ Application areas of thermodynamics
❑ Importance of dimensions and units
➢ Some SI and English units, Dimensional homogeneity, Unity conversion ratios
❑ Systems and control volumes
❑ Properties of a system
❑ Density and specific gravity
❑ State and equilibrium
➢ The state postulate
❑ Processes and cycles
❑ Temperature and the zeroth law of thermodynamics
➢ Temperature scales
❑ Pressure
➢ Variation of pressure with depth
❑ The manometer and the atmospheric pressure
❑ Problem solving technique
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BFF2233 THERMODYNAMICS
Topic 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
END

THANK YOU

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