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C Programming Language Standard

--> C99 (previously known as C9X) is an informal name for ISO/IEC 9899:1999, a past
version of the C programming language standard.[1] It extends the previous version
(C90) with new features for the language and the standard library, and helps
implementations make better use of available computer hardware, such as the IEEE
754-1985 arithmetic, and compiler technology.[2] The C11 version of the C
programming language standard, published in 2011, replaces C99.

--> History of C programming language standard

C89 :
In 1983, the American National Standards Institute formed a committee, X3J11, to
establish a standard specification of C. The standard was completed in 1989 and
ratified as ANSI X3.159-1989 "Programming Language C." This version of the language
is often referred to as "ANSI C". Later on sometimes the label "C89" is used to
distinguish it from C99 but using the same labelling method.

C90 :
The same standard as C89 was ratified by the International Organization for
Standardization as ISO/IEC 9899:1990, with only formatting changes,[2] which is
sometimes referred to as C90. Therefore, the terms "C89" and "C90" refer to
essentially the same language.

This standard has been withdrawn by both ANSI/INCITS[3] and ISO/IEC.[4]

C95 :
In 1995, the ISO published an extension, called Amendment 1, for the ANSI-C
standard. Its full name finally was ISO/IEC 9899/AMD1:1995 or nicknamed C95. Aside
from error correction there were further changes to the language capabilities,[5]
[6] such as:

C99 :
Main article: C99
In March 2000, ANSI adopted the ISO/IEC 9899:1999 standard. This standard is
commonly referred to as C99. Some notable additions to the previous standard
include:

New built-in data types: long long, _Bool, _Complex, and _Imaginary
Several new core language features, including static array indices, designated
initializers, compound literals, variable-length arrays, flexible array members,
variadic macros, and restrict keyword
Several new library headers, including stdint.h, <tgmath.h>, fenv.h, <complex.h>
Improved compatibility with several C++ features, including inline functions,
single-line comments with //, mixing declarations and code, and universal character
names in identifiers
Removed several dangerous C89 language features such as implicit function
declarations and implicit int
Three technical corrigenda were published by ISO for C99:

C11 :
Main article: C11
As of 2018, "C11" is the previous standard for the C programming language. Notable
features introduced over the previous revision include improved Unicode support,
type-generic expressions using the new _Generic keyword, a cross-platform multi-
threading API (threads.h) and atomic types support in both core language and the
library (stdatomic.h).

One technical corrigendum has been published by ISO for C11:


C18 :
Main article: C18
As of October 2018, "C18" is the current standard for the C programming language.
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What is external names and internal names?

"External" names are ones that are visible to other compilation units, like non-
static functions and variables declared with the "extern" keyword. These names
have to be exposed to linkers and loaders. In Ye Olden Days, some linkers and
loaders could only handle very short names.

"Internal" names are ones that are not made visible outside of the module being
compiled -- basically anything with "static" scope, or anything local to a
function. C compilers have to handle these names, but not anything else.
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only underscore and no other special character is allowed in a variable name, it
results in an error.
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