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Introduction and Terms of Reference

1. Introduction

Poverty and unemployment contribute to slow progress of our nation. To reduce poverty the youths
employable are identified and trained in a large scale. The Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD),
Government of India has been laying special emphasis on skill development as means to poverty
alleviation to fill the employment potential of 70 million jobs that is expected to be created during the 11 th
Plan (2007-12). It has been providing grant-in-aid to various State Governments, NGOs and Corporates to
undertake employment linked skill development programmes. The objective of the MoRD is to enable 20
lakh rural BPL families to cross the Poverty Line through placement linked skill development programmes
during the 11th Five Year Plan. “Young people are a major human resource for development, key agents for
social change and driving force for economic development and technological innovation. But harnessing
these resources is a major challenge. The youth challenge is considered as the most critical of the 21 st
century’s economic development challenge” (Mahendra Dev and Venkatanarayana, 2011).

Although many prosperous steps have been taken by the Central and State governments to address this
poverty problem, still an effective solution has not yet reached. In this context, it is considered important to
develop the skills of the poor people to get suitable employment opportunities, through which they can
raise, their income level for a better living.

In order to find out apt solutions on this issue, this skill development project is taken up. This project, based
on the industrial sector’s employment opportunities led by the IL&FS Clusters Development Initiative,
evaluates the trainees well-being through their job opportunities availed by IL&FS skill development training
programmes. In recent decades, many companies, even small and medium enterprises seem to be
accepting and fostering the concept of corporate social responsibility for the society they serve and from
which they benefit. The need to go beyond profits and give back something to the community has sunk in
into the corporate psyche. Infrastructure Leasing and Financial Services (IL&FS) through its initiative
SPRING (Skills Program for Inclusive Growth) endeavours to catalyze, facilitate and manage largescale,
demand driven skills training and placement programs, with twin objectives of enabling poverty alleviation
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in rural areas and meeting requirements of various industries for skilled workers. SPRING aims to provide
vocational training to 5 lakh rural youth from BPL families and place them for employment with various
manufacturing and service industries. Under the aegis of SPRING, IL&FS has successfully trained and
secured employment to a large number of BPL youths in apparel sector through Skills for Employment in
Apparel Manufacturing (SEAM) program.

2. Scope of Work and Terms of Reference

A. Geographical Coverage: The impact evaluation study has covered 54 training centres and placement
partners in the three states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. The study assesses the five
components: a) Relevance; b) Effectiveness in Achieving the Targets / Outcome; c) Efficiency in Achieving
the Targets / Outcome; d) Sustainability of the program and e) Impact of the Program on the Socio-
Economic status of beneficiaries.

B. The Scope of Evaluation Study has the Following Objectives :


 To evaluate the process involved in mobilization, selection of beneficiaries and organizing the
training programme.
 To evaluate the quality and availability of infrastructure and the faculty / trainers, norms and
requirements.
 To evaluate post-training placement, tracking system and its effectiveness.
 To assess the impact of the training on the beneficiaries attitudes and performance.
 To understand the scale of drop-outs, post training jobs retention / attrition and its reason there of.
 Salary sent back home by the migratory beneficiaries as support income for their families and its
utilization purpose.
 Increase in income and their movement from BPL to APL.
 Highlights of best practices followed in mobilization, training, placement and tracking.
 Documentation of case studies and success stories.
 Identify constraints of the program and suggest meaningful measures for improving the training
programme and making these training programme more effective.
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 Document the best practices and lessons learnt to improve the quality of the coming-up training
programme.

While addressing the objectives, it is envisaged that the following issues to be probed in detail

 Coverage of the beneficiaries from various categories such as, age, gender, religion, caste,
economic, educational background etc.

 Socio-economic aspects of beneficiaries before and after the programme.

 Career advancement / prospects of the beneficiaries after training & Placement.

 Extent of financial contribution of the beneficiaries from the salaries as support income for their
families.

 Economic status of the family pre and post training of the beneficiaries.

 Adherence to terms and conditions indicated in the sanction order and retention / tracking of placed
candidates.

 Comparative analysis of the training and employment outcomes for pass-outs of the training
centres and those individuals who dropped out or did not take trainings.

 Feedback from key stakeholders – MORD, NIRD, Placement-Partners etc.

 Swot (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis of the programme and
suggestions.

C. Methodology

The methodology of study covers the following activities:

 Sampling procedure and validation of statistical acceptance of 7.5% of the total trained population.
 Focus group discussions with beneficiaries, communities, trainers, master trainers.

The research design adopted for conducting the survey is detailed vividly in a separate section in this
report.
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D. Expected Outcome

 A detailed report covering the Scope and Objectives of the study.


 The report should be in MS word and MS Excel files.
 All the raw data in tabulated form, together with relevant summary tables should be provided in MS
excel as annexure to the report.
 Graphical representations based on the data, which highlight the performance and result.

SWOT Analysis of the program

 Highlight the strengths of the existing model so as to scale up the program.


 Highlight the existing weakness, lacuna and gaps in the implementation model with suggestions for
improvement.
 Highlight perceptions of various stakeholders of the program.

E. Time Frame

 The total exercise will be completed within three months from the date of award of the study.

Based on the terms of reference let us examine the functioning of the SEAM program implemented by
IL&FS in the three southern states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
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The Genesis of SEAM Program Initiated by IL&FS CDI – An IL&FS View*

Preamble: The present size of the Indian textile and apparel industry is estimated at around Rs. 2500
crores. According to a CRISIL study, the Indian textile and apparel industry can achieve a potential size of
Rs. 5280 crores by 2012, growing at 13% per annum. The domestic market is expected to grow to Rs.
2880 crores from the current level of Rs. 980 crores (at 10% per annum). The export market is expected to
grow to Rs. 2400 crores from current level of Rs. 864 crores, growing at 19% during this period.

This rapid economic growth has led to a huge demand for vocational skills across all levels of Textile
Industry. Simultaneously, there is a need to ensure that this growth is inclusive, in order to have positive
impact on poverty levels. Alongside a young and growing labour force, there is a significant shortage of
skilled manpower, essentially due to gaps in skill availability and skill needs. Accelerating growth and
providing productive employment for the continuously increasing labour force is an integral part of the
objective of inclusive growth. In this context, let us analyse the role of Infrastructure Leasing & Financial
Services Limited (IL&FS) in achieving this growth.

IL&FS is one of India's leading infrastructure development and finance companies promoted by the Central
Bank of India (CBI), Housing Development Finance Corporation (HDFC) and Unit Trust of India (UTI). The
IL&FS has a distinct mandate, focussed on the commercialisation and development of infrastructure
projects and creation of value added financial services in the country. From concept to execution, IL&FS
houses the expertise to provide all services necessary for successful project completion: visioning,
documentation, finance, development, management, technology and execution.

IL&FS Cluster Development Initiative Limited (IL&FS CDI) is a subsidiary of IL&FS (for more
information visit www.ilfsindia.com), set up to leverage on the experience gained from design and execution
of several programs for development of Small Medium Enterprises on cluster-based approach. Set up as a
strategic business unit in IL&FS in June 2005, it is a separate entity initiated operations in April 2007. In a
short span of time, IL&FS CDI has developed a high degree of expertise in the development,
implementation, financing and management of Cluster Development Initiatives across a wide range of
sectors especially
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* This section heavily draws from the IL&FS Website - www.ilfsindia.com

involving diverse and multiple stakeholders. The vision of IL&FS CDI is to provide commercially
sustainable, integrated business and institutional framework and solutions for development of Micro, Small
and Medium Enterprise (MSME) clusters on Public Private Partnership (PPP) basis that would enable them
to become globally competitive

The approach to cluster development is to help the clusters to graduate to commercial sustainability. The
strategy is to identify the critical constraints in clusters through diagnostic studies, sensitize and organize
the user/beneficiary Small Medium Enterprises in the form of Special Purpose Vehicles, and develop and
execute the identified projects in PPP mode. The focus is shifting from non-profit approach to a commercial
one with strong institutional framework in place. This approach is to eventually equip the cluster to attract
private investment on its own and transform it into a thriving growth hub (see fig for details).

Source: www.ilfs-spring.com

The Context: Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD), GoI has been laying special emphasis on skill
development as means to poverty alleviation to fill the employment potential of 70 million jobs to be created
during the XI Plan (2007-12). It has been providing grant-in-aid to various State Governments, NGOs and
Corporates to undertake employment linked skill development programmes. The objective of the MoRD is
to enable 20 lakh rural Below Poverty Line (BPL) families to cross the Poverty Line through placement
linked skill development programmes during the XI Five Year Plan. IL&FS through its initiative SPRING
(Skills Program for Inclusive Growth) endeavors to catalyze, facilitate and manage largescale, demand-
driven skills training and placement programs, with the twin objectives of enabling Poverty Alleviation in
Rural areas and meeting requirements of various industries for skilled workers. SPRING aims to provide
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vocational training to 5 lakh rural youth from BPL families and place them for employment with various
manufacturing and service industries. Under the aegis of SPRING, IL&FS has successfully trained and
secured employment to a larger number of rural BPL youth in the apparel sector through Skills for
Employment in Apparel Manufacturing (SEAM) program.

Effectiveness and Method of Functioning of SEAM Program


Funding & Implementation
The SEAM project was initiated in September 2007 initially covering 30,000 rural BPL youth, is being partly
funded by the Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India, under the Swarnajayanti Gram
Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) scheme and remaining funds were mobilized from the user industry. IL&FS
Clusters has strong linkages with the textile industry and is assisting the Ministry of Textiles, Govt. of India
and the textile industry in establishing many Integrated Textile Parks throughout the country. In order to
effectively implement such programs for enhancing the competitiveness of the manufacturing industry, the
IL&FS Cluster Development Initiative Limited has been set up. IL&FS CDI has also been working
extensively in the field of training and education, particularly related to development of multimedia teaching
aids and content.

Outreach & Mobilisation

1. Objectives of IL&FS CDI


a) Building awareness about the skill development training for livelihood generation within the target
communities.
b) Mobilising large number of potential beneficiaries to enroll for the training program.
c) Ensuring successful completion of the training program for the target number of beneficiaries within the
scheduled project period.
d) Create awareness for SPRING in project towns.

2. Training: IL&FS Sewing Machine Operators Programme

The Sewing Machine Operators program will be of one-month duration with an intake of 32 trainees per
batch. It is expected that training will be organized in two shifts with a total output of 64 trainees per center
per month (for details of state wise number of training centres linked to serve the purpose see appendix
1).
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The chart gives us information on method of functioning of SEAM program


Public-Private Partnership based Implementation Process

Source: www.ilfs-spring.com
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3. Strategy
a) Use of mass media for mass coverage (Television, Radio, Newspaper etc).
b) Use of local media for focused awareness and low spill over (Community, Block, and District).
c) Volunteering (Educational, Higher Educational Institutions, Retd. Professionals, Corporate CSRs, PSU /
Defence service personnel etc).

Multimedia Training Content


Innovative content development with inputs from the industry to meet the global best practices has been
specially developed. The content is multimedia based for impact, standardization, and scaling up. Updating,
translation and customization of the training content will be continuously ensured to meet industry specific
needs. The use of multimedia technology in addition to providing audio-visual content will also enable: a)
Standardization of content; b) Increase the number of people that can be trained and enable faster
acquisition of skills; c) Enable candidates to learn at their own speed thus offering them flexibility; d)
Address the shortage of quality trainers; e) Simulate intricate techniques and 'difficult to teach' topics; f)
Share best practices across locations; and g) Provide improved learning experience for the trainees.

Training Aids
The multimedia courses will be delivered by trained faculty with the help of K-YAN, an innovative teaching
aid that will eliminate the need for multiple traditional teaching aids such as computers, projectors, etc. The
K-YAN, developed and patented by IETS (IL&FS Education & Technology Services Ltd), is a fully integrated
unit - high-performance computer, projector, CD/DVD writer and audio system all rolled into one.

4 Machinery & Equipment


Each training centre will be equipped with requisite plant & machinery and support infrastructure similar to
the actual industrial working environment (for details of machinery and equipments used in the three
selected States see appendix 2). For details of SMO Machinery and Support infrastructure in 25 training
centres in Tamil Nadu see appendix 2A.

Skill Sets
The objective of the program is to impart basic skills necessary to become a shop floor level operator, so
that the initial wages are at least equal to the prescribed minimum wages.

Technical Skills
Sewing Machine Operator program, Garment designing, Quality evaluation, Machine maintenance etc.

Soft Skills
Health & hygiene, Social security, Self-management, Workplace etiquette, Group/team behaviour etc.
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5 Duration: One-Month Basic Course


Certification of trainees: All the centres across all states follow a training module and grading pattern
(such as A, B, C, D) prescribed by an organisation known as Methods Workshop 1 (an international
organisation based in South Africa, which specializes in developing industrial engineering solutions, training
and certification for the apparel industry).

6 Placements
The involvement of the training centre would not end with just providing training to the candidates but will
culminate in providing placement assistance to the trainees in order to enable them to deploy the skills
learned. The unique feature of this proposal would be a holistic approach to provide gainful employment to
the persons from BPL households. The proposed target provides employment to the trainees by fulfilling
the immediate requirements of the existing apparel clusters and bring in constant touch with the Industry
associations, trade bodies, and exporters to understand their future requirements. More importantly,
assured placement for every trainee is ensured. The pre-requisite of the program is the commitment of the
industry to employ the trained persons (for details of industries, which absorbed the trainees for
employment through SEAM program in the three States see appendix 3).

7 Potential Employers
Several established associations such as Bannari Amman Textiles, Intimate Fashions, Lineas Fashions, SP
Apparels group, KPR groups, Shahi Exports, Texport Garments, Textile Testing Development Corporation
and Textiles & Garments Exports Association (TGEA) etc have placed confirmed requirement of manpower
thereby assuring placement for every single trained BPL youth (For details see appendix 2A). My personal
experience while attending one of the IL&FS related conclaves held in Hyderabad indicate that both the
industrialists and the IL&FS executives have been working together hand-in-hand to increase the area of
operation of this programme across the country. For this purpose, the IL&FS Coordinators, the Managers of
industries such as Human Resource & Administration, Heads of the industrial units and above all the
Trainers and Training Partners participated and discussed several issues to make this program a success.

Based on the above understanding of the SEAM program let us examine the actual implementation of this
program, which has been initiated in several parts of the country since 2007.

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For more information on Methods Workshop see http://www.methodsworkshop.com/home.php.
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The SEAM Program – The Evaluators Perspective

The Setting: India’s massive population base is a threat to sustainable development, which demands
immediate attention. Our population has grown from 845 million in 1951 to more than 1210 million by 2011
(The Census of India, 2011) and is still growing by around 17 million a year. This growth leads to important
implications for socio-economic development and quality of life in India. The problem of a rapidly growing-
population is reflected in widespread hunger, poverty, unemployment, lack of physical and health
infrastructure, increasing scarcity of basic needs such as food water and shelter in several parts of India
despite concerted developmental efforts since independence. According to “Global Economic Prospects”
report, one-fourth of India’s population would be below extreme poverty line, less than $1.25 a day, by
2025. India’s NSS in 61st Round report indicates a poverty ratio of 27.5% in 2004-5. This figure shows that
around 30 crore still don’t have enough income to afford even two square meals a day. Hence, the growing
population has a major challenge to socio-economic progress and sustainable development. How to face
this ever-growing population challenge in India?

One of the answers lies with programmes implemented by IL&FS through Skills Program for Inclusive
Growth (SPRING). This program aims at Public – Private Partnership (PPP) at the grass root level in the
rural areas. To implement this programme, IL&FS has started a skill development programme called Skills
for Employment in Apparel Manufacturing (SEAM) the flagship program for the Apparel Industry. The twin
objectives of this program are: Meeting the skill requirements of the apparel industry and enable
rural poverty alleviation. The target of this approach is to train and place 5 lakh rural BPL youth in
Apparel Sector in the next 5 years. To test the viability of this approach a pilot project was started to train
and place 30,000 rural BPL youths in the Country in three years since Sept 2007. This program was
successfully completed in 12 states in more than 70 training centres (see appendix 1). After its initial
successful implementation, now the IL&FS have expanded the SEAM activity in 19 states in 212 training
centres (Table 3.1) To test its effectiveness in implementation of the program three southern states,
namely, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka were taken for reporting based on the impact
evaluation study.
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Table 3.1 State wise Number of Training Centres and Contact Persons as on 31.5.2012
Sl no State No. of Training Centres Contact Persons
1 Andhra Pradesh 28 Mr. Imandi Srinivasa Rao
2 Bihar 10 Mr. Tapas Ranjan Behera
3 Chhattisgarh 2 Mr. Sangram Das
4 Gujarat 3 Ms. Vibha Desai
5 Haryana 8 Mr. Abhishek Singh
6 Jharkhand 2 Mr. Vikash Kumar
7 Karnataka 51 Mr. Sanjeeb Nayak
8 Kerala 2 Mr. Anandan Ramasami
9 Madhya Pradesh 8 Mr. Gitesh Gunjan
10 Maharashtra 8 Mr. Ridip Huzuri
11 Manipur 1 Mr Abhijit Das
12 Orissa 9 Mr. Sangram Das
13 Punjab 1 Mr. V.P. Goyal
14 Rajasthan 7 Mr. V.P. Goyal
15 Tamilnadu 55 Mr. V. Padmanabhan
16 Tripura 4 Mr. CN Bose
17 Uttar Pradesh 3 Mr. Imran Siddiqui
18 Uttarakhand 2 Mr. Abhishek Singh
19 West Bengal 8 Mr. Abhijit Das
Total 212 17
Note: The training centres exclude closed and non-functional centers.
Source: http://seam.skillschools.com/?q=node/137

As indicated above, in order to achieve the target employment of five lakh unemployed youths in India the
SEAM programme has been expanded from SEAM I clusters to SEAM XI clusters and it will also expand
year by year till it achieves its target employment. As per the data given in Table 3.2 there have been so
far, XI batches of programmes conducted with a coverage of 1.21 lakh unemployed youths enrolled
throughout India. Among these enrollments about 85% of trained youths have already placed with suitable
employment and further 10% of trained youths are in the process of getting suitable placement. The data
clearly indicate that all-India level the SEAM Program moves effectively to achieve its fixed target.

Table 3.2 Cumulative Details of Trainee Status in SEAM I to SEAM XII as on 31-05-2012.
Details Seam I Seam II Seam III Seam IV Seam V Seam VI Seam VII Seam VIII Seam IX Seam X Seam XI Total
Enrolled 32548 18425 16784 8373 8245 8092 7970 8374 3784 5960 2268 120823
Completed 30042 17006 16033 7895 7878 7872 7877 7911 3318 5549 2070 113451
Placed 27955 14728 14322 6643 7759 6747 7876 7062 3033 4290 1653 102068
Placement in Progress 2087 2278 1711 1252 119 1125 1 849 285 1259 417 11383
Undergoing Training 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 397 239 144 780
Dropped out 2506 1419 751 478 367 220 93 463 65 168 46 6576
Source: seam.skillschools.com, Date: 31.05.2012
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Salient Features of the SEAM Project:

 Started in September 2007 for a period of three years, with a target to train and place
30000 rural below poverty line (BPL) people.

 Twin objectives: To meet the skill requirements of the apparel industry and enable rural
poverty alleviation.

 Trainees are mostly women and all in their late teens to mid 30s with 5 th Std and above
qualification. They should be from rural BPL families.

 IL&FS Cluster Development Initiatives is implementing this program.


 The programme is implemented through more than 212 centres in 19 States (See Table
3.1)

 The MoRD, GOI, funds the Project.

 As on March 31, 2012 there were 1.2 lakhs trainees placed in apparel industry.

 Proposed Training Domains are: 1. Sewing Machine Operator; 2. Power Loom Weaver; 3.
Handloom Weaver; and 4. Spinning Mill Operator. 5. Garment Checkers 6. Finishers and
7. Helpers

 Training duration is one month. The training centres have been equipped with imported
Juki machines. Also equipped with knitwear and woven machines based on the industries
skill requirements (for more details see appendix 2).

 The two types of skill sets developed are: Technical Skills – comes under 4 training
domains. Soft Skills – Health & Hygiene; Social Security; Self-Management; Workplace
Etiquette, Group/Team Behaviour etc.

 Skill based assessment certification is given after one month training.

 Placement Linkages are arranged with apparel manufacturing and export companies (for
trained labour absorption industries see appendix 3).

 Indicative Earnings are based on minimum wages as per respective State regulations with
social security benefits.

 Monitoring Agency is National Institute of Rural Development (NIRD).

 XI Five Year Plan target is training & placement of 5 lakh BPL youths.
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The Sample Survey of SEAM Trainees II and III


As noted, the IL&FS, quietly and unobtrusively, has been doing something good to the society by way of
providing short-term (one-month) training programme for a large number of BPL and unemployed youths
widespread in the rural areas in various parts of the country. With the help of Ministry of Rural Development,
GOI, sponsored SEAM programme, a considerable portion of the unemployed BPL youths , especially the young
women, were getting suitable employment in Apparel Manufacturing industries in the last five years. Till
2012 some 21625 BPL members have enrolled for training in the three States of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka
and Andhra Pradesh (Table 3.3). In order to find out the effectiveness in undertaking the skill development
programme an impact survey of the trained persons who are currently placed in the industries were
planned by the IL&FS and the job was given to the MIDS, the National level Research Institute (see
appendix 4). For this purpose, the three southern states were taken into account.

Table 3.3 State-wise Distributions of Sample Trainees – Seam II and III


Total
Sl Non- % of Samples
State Total Trainees in Sample Surveyed
No Traceable Surveyed
Seam 2 & 3 (7.5%)
1 2 3 4 5 7 8=(5/4*100)
1 Tamil Nadu 10649 799 652 147 81.6
2 Andhra Pradesh 4478 336 256 80 76.2
3 Karnataka 6498 487 364 123 74.7
Total 21625 1622 1272 350 78.4
Note: Survey data covered only for Seam II and III and it also includes dropouts.
Source: Computed from IL&FS Database and Survey data

The training is for one month and the placement is either in the same company, which trained the
employees, or in other companies, which require the trained persons. For proper identification of
respondents keeping the suitable records is the duty and responsibility of either the training company or the
placement industry or by the IL&FS itself. As per records, the total population is 21,625, from which we
have taken 7.5 % of samples (1622) for the survey. After completion of the survey it was verified that 78.4
% of currently working employees were traceable in the survey, which includes the dropouts of 28.5 %. The
trained persons altogether non-traceable were about 21.6 %. This process of sample details was possible
only after completion of the entire survey.

The sample of 7.5% (1622 trained youths) of population (state wise / industry wise entire sample list) is
provided in Appendix 5. The break up of total samples and surveyed samples are respectively: 799 and
652 in Tamil Nadu, 336 and 256 in Andhra Pradesh and 487 and 364 in Karnataka (see Figure 3.1).
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Figure 3.1 Total Samples & Surveyed Samples in Seam II and III Programme

1000
799
800
Number 652
600 487
336 364
400 256
200

0
Tamil Nadu Andhra Pradesh Karnataka

Total Sample (7.5%)


Surveyed

Since the samples covered (surveyed and drop outs) in the study forms a major part of the samples (about
78 % of total samples) the survey results may be treated as effective. The SEAM wise and year wise break
up details of the total samples are given in Table 3.4 (Figure 3.2). Basic data for the study are taken from
the IL & FS database. For selection of samples, simple random sampling procedure was adopted. The
period of study is about three months starting from Mid February 2012.
Table 3.4: Sate-wise and Batch-wise Distribution of Trainees
Seam 2 Seam 3
(June 2009 to (Dec 2009 to Total
State Name
April 2010) Nov 2010)
N (%) N (%) N (%)
Tamil Nadu 5444 49.7 5205 48.8 10649 49.2
Andhra Pradesh 2430 22.2 2048 19.2 4478 20.7
Karnataka 3082 28.1 3416 32.0 6498 30.0
Total 10956 100 10669 100 21625 100
Note : N = Total Registered Trainees. Source: Computed from IL&FS Database.

Figure 3.2 Total Trainees Seam 2 and 3


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The district wise details of samples covered in the three states are presented in Table 3.5.

It may be seen from the table, in Tamil Nadu, the region wise 7.5 % total samples indicate that Chennai
ranks first (290) followed by Coimbatore (184) and Madurai (178). Trichy has the least no. of samples
(147). Across States, Tamil Nadu Ranks first with 49.3 % of total samples followed by Karnataka (30 %).
Andhra Pradesh has the least number of total samples (20.7 %).

Table 3.5 District wise Selection of 7.5 % of Respondents in the Three States
Sl. NO State Region DISTRICT NAME SEAM 2 SEAM 3 TOTAL
Tamil Nadu

1 Chennai 10 2 12
2 Cuddalore 7 13 20
3 Kanchipuram 66 43 109
Chennai

4 Tiruvallur 9 6 15
5 Tiruvannamalai 25 26 51
6 Vellore 26 19 45
7 Villupuram 14 24 38
Total 157 133 290
8 Karur 20 22 42
9 Nagapattinam 10 5 15
10 Namakkal 5 5 10
11 Perambalur 5 3 8
Trichy

12 Salem 2 3 5
13 Thanjavur 7 7 14
14 Tiruchirappalli 20 17 37
15 Tiruvarur 8 8 16
Total 77 70 147
16 Madurai 15 17 32
17 Dindigul 2 5 7
18 Kanyakumari 2 2
19 Pudukkottai 11 6 17
20 Ramanathapuram 9 17 26
Madurai

21 Sivaganga 3 10 13
22 Theni 4 2 6
23 Thoothukudi 21 7 28
24 Tirunelveli 6 13 19
25 Virudhunagar 8 20 28
Total 81 97 178
26 Coimbatore 38 21 59
27 Dharmapuri 1 3 4
Coimbatore

28 Krishnagiri 2 3 5
29 Erode 33 35 68
30 Nilgiris 6 6 12
31 Tirupur 13 23 36
Total 93 91 184
All Regions Total 408 391 799
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Sl. NO DISTRICT NAME SEAM 2 SEAM 3 TOTAL


1 Anantapur 44 18 62
2 Chittoor 16 28 44
3 Nalgonda 8 8

Andhra Pradesh
4 Nellore 10 3 13
5 Rangareddy 32 16 48
6 Srikakulam 2 3 5
7 Vishakhapatnam 58 63 121
8 Vizianagaram 1 1 2
9 West Godavari 11 22 33
Total 182 154 336
Sl. NO DISTRICT NAME SEAM 2 SEAM 3 TOTAL
1 Bagalkot 32 12 44
2 Bangalore 136 86 222
3 Bangalore Rural 36 55 91
4 Bangalore Urban 6 6
5 Belgaum 2 2
Karnataka

6 Bijapur 5 5
7 Chamrajnagar 35 35
8 Devanagree 9 9
9 Gadag 7 7
10 Kolar 21 34 55
11 Mandya 11 11
Total 231 256 487
All Three States 821 801 1622
Note: Blank entries denote nil.
Source: Calculated from IL&FS Data base.

Following the sampling procedure, the next section presents details of methodology adopted for selection
of trainees and collection of data for this project.
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4
Methodology for Selection of Trainees and Collection of Data

Basic Tools in Sampling Procedure

Sampling Theory: As it is known that sampling theory is a study of relationships between a population
and samples drawn from the population.

Statistical Inference: A Study of inferences made concerning a population by using the samples drawn
from it, together with indications of the accuracy of such inferences using probability theory, is called
statistical inference. Keeping in mind the limited time and resources available one should attempt to get a
maximum amount of information with the required reliability.

Census or Sample? How will one proceed to get the information? Either the information is collected
through a complete enumeration, called the Census method or a sample survey. In the former method the
entire population needs to be surveyed, whereas, for the latter, one has to pick up a comparatively small
number of units which would constitute a sample and for which relevant information would be collected.
This information is then suitably inflated to obtain the population total.

In-depth analysis indicates, “A perfect survey is a myth.” This means that both the Census as well as
Sample surveys have their own errors. Hence, what is required in a survey operation is to minimize the
errors in such a way that the results obtained are of reasonable reliability.

Errors occur in the survey operation:

(i) Failure to state the problem carefully;


(ii) Failure of the questionnaire (lack of clarity in definition);
(iii) Failure to recognise differences between various kinds and degrees of canvass

Random Samples: For valid conclusions, based on sampling theory and statistical inference, samples
must be chosen so as to be representative of a population. One way in which a representative sample may
be obtained is by a process called random sampling, according to which each member of a population has
an equal chance of being included in the sample. One technique for obtaining a random sample is to assign
a number to each member of the population. This procedure is more useful for finite population size, i.e.,
21

small size population, where the random numbers are used to select the samples. In statistical terms small
samples mean a sample size of 30 or less, i.e., N < 30. In the case of larger population, which runs with
thousands, a special statistical method has been adopted to select random samples. This procedure is
called “Statistical Package for Social Sciences” (SPSS). By using this procedure even very large population
can also be considered for deriving samples under random sampling method.

An example of how this method works can be useful: As indicated, the SPSS program is a computer run
special package adopted for getting accurate samples out of large population. For instance, in the banks if
one observes, counting of a bundle of 100 currency notes through a ‘counting machine’, which takes only
five seconds and most importantly the process is done with 100 % accuracy . Whereas the same could be
done manually with a longer time say one or two minutes! Exactly the former method is followed under
SPSS method to select the random samples.

In this survey, the trainees’ population runs nearly 22000. Hence this SPSS method was suitably adopted.
For larger population size, on an average 5 % of the samples drawn is enough. However, it was accepted
at the time of undertaking the project a sample of 7.5 % would be taken for the study. Hence we stuck upon
the 7.5 % sample, which as per our survey is, 1622 samples in the three states, i.e., Andhra Pradesh (336)
Karnataka (487) and Tamil Nadu (799). Since the entire process of selecting samples was done through the
computer programming, either no error or no doubt in the selection of samples is possible.

In the present survey, the selected samples represent the population in an exact proportion. This shows
that random selection based on the SPSS procedure was perfect and authentic. To survey the samples, a
three-stage questionnaire was prepared. The first stage was to canvas the selected respondents, which is
1622 in our survey. The second stage was to gather information from the training imparting / placement
industries, which is 54. The third one was to address the discontinued trainees.

Survey Method and Collection of Information


After the samples were drawn from the population, we started investigating each and every samples
selected for the survey. In our survey, to avoid many shortcomings, direct interviews with the respondents
were undertaken. This was done through experienced research investigators appointed for this purpose,
who know the techniques of collecting required data from the respondents. In case, if the selected samples
22

are not traceable in the company, a small percentage (generally 10 to 20 %) could be replaced, again by
using the same random sampling technique, to cope with the number of required persons.

For investigation of respondents, for this survey, a five-page questionnaire was prepared to get as much
details as possible. Apart from the questionnaire for the respondents, it was felt that two more types of
investigations were also required for proper analysis of our survey. Those are, (a) details for the training /
placement industries; and (b) details of the discontinued / dropout employees. In our survey, we need to
contact 54 industries / training centres in the three states. The distribution is: Tamil Nadu 28; Andhra
Pradesh 14 and Karnataka 12. Realising the need for these details, separate questionnaires were prepared
to collect the necessary data for each aspect. Samples of all these schedules are given in the appendix 6.

Procedures Adopted to Survey the Respondents


Since the IL&FS has given the trainees details from their database and from which the samples were also
drawn, it was easy for us to identify the companies / training centres in which the respondents were trained
and working. Before starting the survey to canvass the respondents the first work done was sending the
samples selected to each placement / training industry through e-mail to request them to keep the
respondents ready for the survey by our researchers on specified dates. Information regarding this survey
was shared with all the companies. Also help from the IL&FS regional coordinators was sought for smooth
conduct of the survey.

Since the bigger states are divided into regions, it was easy to approach the training as well as the
placement industries with the help of the regional coordinators. For instance, Tamil Nadu is divided into four
regions, namely, Chennai, Trichy, Coimbatore and Madurai. With the help of the regional coordinators the
sample respondents were traced. Since Tamil Nadu has about 50% of the samples it was decided to
complete the survey first in the State.

Replacement of Samples
It should be noted first, after taking the survey with a few industries in Tamil Nadu, especially in Chennai
region, particularly the Intimate Fashions, it was found that a strict sampling procedure as decided to
survey the respondents could not serve the purpose. Because, almost half to three fourths of the sample
respondents were not at all found in the respective industries and their trace out after their discontinuation
was also very difficult, mostly due to improper address/contact details given by the employees, and in most
cases verification was not at all possible, because some had come from other districts and some others
23

from other states. Apart from that there is no record maintained in the companies, especially for the drop-
outs and non-traceable beneficiaries. Under this situation, after carefully studying a few more industries, it
was decided to replace 50% of the non-traceable samples within industry, instead of going for a fresh
selection of further samples by using the same random sampling principle. This means selection of sample
respondents have been made by using the available trained employees. In this replacement method the
procedure adopted to select the samples was to see the year of appointment and the batch of appointment
both should be the same as that of the discontinued / drop out samples. Since our purpose is to evaluate
the impact of the trained BPL youths by way of getting employment, the above sampling method was useful
to pinpoint the prevailing position of the trained youths.

The comprehensive data relating to the industry wise samples drawn, available respondents and dropouts,
the extent of replacements undertaken and the overall assessment of the survey across the three states
are presented in Table 4.1. A scrutiny of the table indicates that in all the three states many industries were
not visited, in which the respondents could not be surveyed. Out of 1622 samples drawn in the three states,
nearly 22% (350) of the respondents were not surveyed due to their non-traceability.

The following points are noteworthy while examining Table 4.1:

 Across States no. of samples covered (surveyed and dropout) is 81.6 % in Tamil Nadu, followed by
78.7 % in Karnataka and 76.7 % in Karnataka. The overall percentage in all 3 states is 78.4 %.

 Only in a few industries the samples drawn and samples surveyed are matching equally.
 In several industries the dropouts are considered more.
 Percentage of dropout employees is more in Andhra Pradesh (31.3 %) and Karnataka (30.2 %).
 The State wise data show that on the average the availability of surveyed respondents in Tamil
Nadu industries ranks first (49.3 %) followed by Karnataka (30 %) and Andhra Pradesh (20.7 %).

Table 4.1 Industry wise Samples Surveyed and Drop outs


Sl. No Industries/ Training Centers Total Samples Surveyed Dropout Surveyed & Not
Samples Samples Dropouts Traceable
Tamil Nadu
1 Ambattur Clothing Company 37 20 13 33 4
2 Anubhav Fabrics 19 5 11 16 3
3 APR Textiles 5 2 3 5
4 Bannariamman Group 66 31 17 48 18
5 Best and Crompton 9 3 4 7 2
6 Best Corporation 56 48 5 53 3
7 Dev International 6 6 6
24

8 Erostyle 4 4 4
9 FASHION FIELD 9 3 2 5 4
10 First Garment Manufacturing 68 53 8 61 7
11 Hi Tech Fabrica 8 8 8
12 Intimate, Chennai 56 34 12 46 10
13 Jaga Jothi 4 4 4
14 KPR Arasur Unit 81 55 12 67 14
15 KPR Mills Karumathampatti Unit 17 4 7 11 6
16 KPR Mills Limited - Neelampur Unit 13 2 8 10 3
17 KPR Sathyamangalam Unit 9 2 7 9
18 Linea Fashions Pvt Ltd 45 15 16 31 14
19 Loyal Textiles 27 12 6 18 9
20 Pentagon Garments 11 10 1 11
21 PS Apparels 14 9 3 12 2
22 Quantum Knits Private Limited 30 5 14 19 11
23 RRD Tex (Unit of Best Corporation) 24 13 6 19 5
24 SP Apparels Coimbatore 32 11 17 28 4
25 SP Apparels Tirupur 122 66 34 100 22
26 Surya Prabha Hosieries 7 4 2 6 1
27 Swarnam Kalvi Arakkattalai 11 7 2 9 2
28 Vasanth Apparels 9 5 1 6 3
Total 799 441 211 652 147
Andhra Pradesh
1 Avinash Apparel Exports 49 16 19 35 14
2 Best Corporation 35 11 12 23 12
3 Chandu Apparels Private Limited 21 4 8 12 9
4 KPR Mills 34 15 8 23 11
5 Quantum Knits Private Limited 27 10 9 19 8
6 SEED Garments 23 13 6 19 4
7 SHAHI EXPORTES 31 20 8 28 3
8 Shahi Exports Private Limited Unit 07 7 3 3 6 1
9 Shahi Exports Unit 23 11 5 4 9 2
10 Sri Krishna Garments 16 8 5 13 3
11 Subbarao Apparels 17 8 5 13 4
12 Tex-Port Syndicate 22 7 10 17 5
13 Unitex International Private Limited 31 21 7 28 3
14 Victus Dyeing Garment Division 12 10 1 11 1
Total 336 151 105 256 80
Karnataka
1 Arvind Mills 32 21 8 29 3
2 Bombay Rayon Fashions Limited 71 15 24 39 32
3 Dress Master Suits 9 2 5 7 2
4 Scott Garment Unit 5 37 19 12 31 6
5 Scotts Garments Ltd Unit 7 52 21 17 38 14
6 Shahi Exports Private Limited Unit 07 24 5 13 18 6
7 Shahi Exports Private Limited Unit 08 12 2 7 9 3
8 Shahi Exports Unit 3 65 12 29 41 24
9 Shahi Exports. Unit - 12 97 62 16 78 19
10 Shahi Exports. Unit - 14 17 5 6 11 6
11 Texport Garments - Unit 10 65 51 7 58 7
12 Texport Garments Unit - 4 6 2 3 5 1
Total 487 217 147 364 123
All Three States 1622 809 463 1272 350
Note: Blank entries denote nil.
Source: Survey Data, 2012

PHOTO PAGE 3
25
26

Since the respondents were taken from the training / placement industries, it is important to get the basic
details of all these mother units to get an overall view of the method of functioning of these industrial units.
Information collected on these aspects in some industries is presented in Table 4.2. A scrutiny of the table
gives the following information.

 5 out of 54 industrial units are exclusively training providers.


 Most of the industries were established long ago, with an experience of more than 2 decades and
hence the infrastructure facilities are considerably good.
 The strength of employees of these industries runs over a minimum of few hundreds to a maximum
of several thousands.
 In some industries the number of employees working goes up to 6500.
 Most of the industrial units do the garment manufacturing business and limited units also produce
readymade garments.
 Some of the big units have both training centres as well as production units.
 Almost all the training centres developed through IL&FS SEAM program mainly undertake the
basic training of tailoring activity.
 Most industrial units inform that they still require trained employees.
 Initial stipend for the trainees varies from Rs. 2500 pm to a maximum of Rs. 3000.
 After training initial payment for the employees was more or less equal to that of Stipend amount,
this was mainly to attract the trainees.
 Every six months the employees salary increases based on basic + DA + HRA as prescribed by the
company rules. However this amount varies among companies.
 Some employees report that health problems exist due to some specific job related factors such as
the work within air-conditioned units those employees who had not accustomed it.
 Body heat due to continuous sitting (those who had not practised such a job earlier) and hip & neck
problem (mostly relating to physical strain and without following specific given rules such as a gap
in between work for 5 minutes an hour).
 However, in order to prevent these problems the industrial units are giving various remedial
measures such as breaks during working hours – especially 10 to 15 minutes for tea time; 30
minutes lunch time, shifting of work among employees and the like.
27

Table 4.2 Basic Details of the Training / Placement Industries under SEAM Program
Sl. No. Name of Training / Placement Basic Activity No of Workers Inducted Present Level of Stipend per Initial Pay Last Health Specific Details
Industry through SEAM Program Workers Month (Rs) After Joining month Pro- (Additional Facilities
Requirement Industry Pay-ment blem Offered)
2009 2010
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
TAMIL NADU
1 Ambattur Clothing Ltd. Garments 190 343 Still required 3000 4000 2657 Nil All facilities
2 Lineas Fashion Apparels Garments 200 400 Still required 3000 4200 2801 Nil All facilities
3 First Garments Garments 140 250 Still required 3000 3200 4000 Nil All facilities
4 Textiles & Garments Exp Tailor Training 443 223 NA 1000 NA NA NA NA
5 Loyal Textiles Garments 500 800 Still required 3000 3200 4000 Nil All facilities
6 KPR Mills Garments 255 366 Still required 3040 3640 5140 Nil All facilities
7 KPR Mills Spinning 50 290 Still required 3000 3200 5200 Nil All facilities
8 NIFT Tailor Training 371 216 NA 1000 NA NA NA NA
9 PSG College Tailor Training 119 267 NA 1000 NA NA NA NA
10 CASI Training Centre Tailor Training 508 145 Still required 1000 NA NA NA NA
11 SP Apparels, Tirupur Garments 80 585 Still required 3000 3640 5140 Nil All facilities
12 SP Apparels, Nellampur Garments 299 76 Still required 2700 2700 0 Nil All facilities
13 Textile Testing and DC Tailoring, CAD 111 99 Still required 1000 NA NA NA NA
14 Pentagon Spinning 200 80 Still required 3000 3200 4000 Nil All facilities except
child care
15 Sri Venkateswara Spinners Spinning 257 33 Still required 3000 3200 4000 NA All facilities except
child care
16 Best Corporation Garments 0 168 Still required 1000 NA NA NA All facilities
17 RRD (Tex) Garments 140 250 Still Required 2560 2560 2860 Nil All facilities
18 Bannariamman Apparels Garments 1168 312 Still required 3000 3200 5200 Nil All facilities
19 Intimate Fashion Garments 1325 435 Still required 3000 3200 5200 Nil All facilities
20 PS Apparels (India) Pvt Ltd Garments 152 750 Still required 3000 3260 4000 Nil All facilities but no
hostel
21 Quantum Knits Pvt Ltd Garments 480 210 Still required 3000 3200 5200 NA All facilities
ANDHRA PRADESH
1 Sahaswi Apparels Pvt Ltd Garments 0 0 Still required 3000 3000 3800 Nil Transport, Medical.
2 Unitex Intl Garments 726 197 Still required 3000 3200 4000 NA All Facilities
3 Avinash Apparel Garments 123 245 Still required 3000 3200 4000 NA NA
4 Sri Krishna Garments Garments 34 29 Still required 3000 3200 4000 NA All but no hostel
5 Victus Dying Garments Garments 12 5 Still required 3000 3200 4000 NA All Facilities
6 Texport Syndicate Garments 45 27 Still required 3000 3200 4000 NA All Facilities
KARNATAKA
1 Akshaya Institute of Apparel Tailor Training 0 0 NA 3000 NA NA NA NA
Training
2 Scott Garments Manufacturing 148 183 Still required 3200 3316 4500 Nil All Facilities
3 Bombay Rayon Fashion Garments 336 588 Still required 3100 3100 4500 NA All Facilities
4 Shahi Exports Pvt Ltd Garments 1101 1283 Still required 3200 3450 5000 Nil All Facilities
5 Arvind Mills Garments 446 305 Still required 2800 3120 4500 Nil All Facilities
6 Texport Garments 531 447 Still required 3000 3210 4219 Nil All Facilities
7 The Mandavya Tailor Training 500 950 NA 3500 NA NA NA NA
8 Apparel Export park Tailor Training 267 152 NA 1750 NA NA NA NA
Note: NA=Not Applicable. All facilities=Canteen, Transportation, Medical, Creche, Counseling and Accommodation ** Creech and Hostel.
Source: Survey, April 2012.

 Further benefits offered to the employees are: all Sunday holidays (52 days in a year), National &
festival holidays (around 10 days); Casual leave 15 days and Earn leave 3 days). All these holidays
28

come together more than 80 days a year with salary. But these benefits are not generally available
to agricultural / other wage labourers.
 Some companies are providing hostel facilities, transport arrangements, Creche for children,
subsidised canteen facility, medical facilities for their employees. This encourages the employees
to stay as long as possible in an industry.

Based on this macro picture, let us have some details on the method adopted for processing the data and
analysis of the same.

Data Processing and Analysis

An important component in a primary survey based project is proper documentation of data and
information, for processing and analysis of the same. After completion of stipulated number of samples
canvassed, this information-based data was tabulated, especially to generate tables for analysis. Before
entering the data, a recheck of information gathered was done. This was important because, the collected
information through the survey questionnaire should be perfect. For this purpose, all the schedules were
carefully verified and where any data / information was missing that could be filled from either the notes
taken from the sample respondents or the same was indicated as data/information not available. In some
aspects, when the collected data were inadequate to make proper inference, a revisit to the nearby sample
industries was undertaken to clarify the required points suitably. This adopted procedure in our survey
strengthens the probability of authentic results generated from the schedules.

With this information, let us examine the main aspects of survey results in Section 5.
29

SURVEY BASED SEAM RESULTS

Characteristics of Respondents and their Basic Endowments

This section attempts to examine the characteristics of respondents who hailed from the major chunk of
BPL families in rural areas in the selected states. Since agriculture is the predominant activity in rural areas
and majority of rural population depend on agricultural operations for their livelihood, one could expect that
their major source of income is from agriculture. However, our survey results indicate that around half of
their income was derived from non-agriculture activities. This point, in some sense proves that rural BPL
families are gradually shifting their tradition based agricultural operations to other income generating
activities. Further, not merely the respondents alone, but most of the other family members are engaged in
non-agricultural activities to earn their livelihood. This gradual shift in their employment induced the rural
BPL families to earn more from non-agriculture sources. Let us examine these aspects along with the
socio-economic and demographic characteristics of the respondents.

Socio-Economic and Demographic Characteristics

Here we have dealt with different aspects of respondents’ lifestyle in terms of sex, caste, education,
household composition and so on in a systematic way on the basis of the classified and tabulated data.

Sex Distribution: Out of 809 samples surveyed, only 15 % are male respondents. Andhra Pradesh has
the least male members of only 0.9 % (Table 5.1). This shows that the SEAM programme mainly
concentrates to employ young women. It may also be observed from annexure 1, of the 54 companies
included for analysis, nearly 60 % of companies hadn’t employed male members. The distribution is 14
companies in Tamil Nadu and 11 in Andhra Pradesh and 7 in Karnataka. It is suggested that male members
may also be considered favourably in this program.
Table 5.1 Sex-wise Distribution of Sample Respondents
Surveyed Sex Distribution
Sl No State
Samples Male % to Total Female % to Total
1 Tamil Nadu 441 47 10.7 394 89.3
2 Andhra Pradesh 151 4 0.9 147 97.4
3 Karnataka 217 15 3.4 202 93.1
Total 809 66 15.0 743 91.8
Source: Survey 2012. Derived from Annexure 1.
30

Age and Community:


Age: Nearly three-fourths of the respondents are below the age of 25. Across states only a slight difference
in this age structure among the respondent groups is noticed. Older age group that is above 30 years is
only less than 15 % of the total. Overall, Tamil Nadu respondents are relatively young, followed by Andhra
and Karnataka. The age group tells us that more respondents in the lower age structure help the
companies to achieve more production through their energetic work effort compared to aged workers
(Table 5.2).

Community: The respondents were divided into different castes they belong. Although caste may not
influence the production level in a company , its distribution help to understand which category of people mostly
participate in the production process. There are 7 categories of castes identified. Among those, more than half the
respondents in each state (TN 67 %; AP 52 % and Karnataka 39%) report that they belong to Backward Castes
and Most backward Castes. This is followed by Scheduled Castes. In this Caste, there has been found wide variation
in percentage across states. Tamil Nadu has less number of SC respondents (30 %). Karnataka (42 %) ranks first. All
the remaining castes (viz. FC, BCM and ST) constitute only less than 10 %. It is important to note that although the
respondents of all these castes come under BPL category only around 5 % of them were earlier engaged in National
Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA). This is because the employees those who engaged in NREGA are
mostly in the middle aged BPL members rather than the young / teenaged people.

Table 5.2 Age Structure and Caste


Sl Name of the Surveye Age Caste
No Company / d
Training Sample
Centre s Up to 21- 26- Abov FC BC BC MB SC SC ST
20 25 30 e 30 M C A

Tamil Nadu 441 168 170 57 46 2 7 169 125 1 131 6


1
% to Total 38.1 38.5 12.9 10.4 0.5 1.6 38.3 28.3 0.2 29.7 1.4
Andhra
151 74 47 12 18 10 6 64 15 0 53 3
2 Pradesh
% to Total 49.0 31.1 7.9 11.9 6.6 4.0 42.4 9.9 0.0 35.1 2.0
Karnataka 217 106 55 23 33 26 3 84 1 0 91 12
3
% to Total 48.8 25.3 10.6 15.2 12.0 38.7 0.5 0.0 41.9 5.5
All Three
809 348 272 92 97 38 16 317 141 1 275 21
States
% to Total 43.0 33.6 11.4 12.0 4.7 2.0 39.2 17.4 0.1 34.0 2.6

Note: FC = Forward Castes. BCM = Backward Caste Muslim. BC = Backward Castes. MBC = Most
Backward Castes. SCA = Scheduled Caste Arunthathiyar. SC = Scheduled Castes. ST = Scheduled Tribe
Source: Survey 2012. Derived from Annexure 2.
31

Age Structure Among the Respondents Across States

Educational Status
Education is the reflection of social and economic status of household. The respondents are classified
under six categories of educational level. Since the SEAM program has already fixed a minimum education
of 5th standard to enter into the program, there has been no respondent reported having education below
the primary level. It may be observed that more than half the respondents in each state (except Tamil
Nadu) have qualified high school education. The middle school respondents constitute roughly a fourth and
the Hr. Secondary level is around a fifth of the total with little variations. The respondents’ education with
degree and above is roughly less than 5 % in each State (Table 5.3). The general tendency observed is
that the share of respondents decreases when the level of educational increases after high schooling.
Table 5.3 Educational Status
Name of the Literacy
Surveyed
Sl No Company /
Samples
Training Centre Primary Middle HS Hr Sec UG PG Dip Others
Tamil Nadu 27 94 175 126 12 3 2 2
1 441
% to Total 6.1 21.3 39.7 28.6 2.7 0.7 0.5 0.5
Andhra Pradesh 16 37 87 10 1 0 0 0
2 151
% to Total 10.6 24.5 57.6 6.6 0.7 0 0 0
Karnataka 21 33 125 35 0 0 0 3
3 217
% to Total 9.7 15.2 57.6 16.1 0 0 0 1.4
All Three States 64 164 387 171 13 3 2 5
809
% to Total 7.9 20.3 47.8 21.1 1.6 0.4 0.2 0.6
Source: Survey 2012. Derived from Annexure 3.
32

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33

Educational Status

Deg & Above


3% Primary
8%
HSC
21%
Middle
20%

Secondary
48%

Household Composition: The prosperity of family to some extent depends on the composition of its
members. For instance, if all of them are earning members then their income level will be more, which
helps to satisfy their needs. This leads to high standard of living. Likewise, if the family has more of children
and/or unemployed aged persons with one or two earning members then automatically their living standard
reach its low level, due to poor income earning capacity. Generally, the latter is the situation in the rural
areas and most importantly in the BPL families.

In our survey, as may be seen from Table 5.4, the average family size was 4.8 with little variation across
states. The data indicate that females outnumbered males in all the states. Consequently, the average size
of female working members in a family is relatively more (1.40) compared to males (1.14). Across states,
male workers dominate in Tamil Nadu (1.17) followed by Karnataka (1.12), whereas female workers
dominate in Andhra Pradesh.

Table 5.4 Respondents Household Composition


Avg. No of
Sl Surveyed Average Number of Avg. No of Working
State Unemployed
No Samples
Male Female < 15 Total Male Female Total 21-60 > 60
1 Tamil Nadu 441 1.63 2.44 0.68 4.74 1.17 1.37 2.54 0.59 0.02
2 Andhra Pradesh 151 1.62 2.32 0.74 4.69 1.11 1.21 2.32 0.72 0.03
3 Karnataka 217 1.68 2.41 0.86 4.95 1.12 1.57 2.69 0.45 0.08
Total 809 1.64 2.41 0.74 4.79 1.14 1.40 2.54 0.58 0.04
Source: Survey 2012. Derived from Annexure 4.
34

The unemployed members, viz. children and aged, constitute nearly a fourth of total members. Actually,
these categories are driving the income level in a family to the lower status. Here, there is an inverse
relationship exists between the extent of unemployed members and the income level. Since our survey
mainly concentrated with the BPL family members alone, these points are aptly valid.

Occupation:
The study has chosen the respondents who practice apparel manufacturing through skill development
program. However, the study also covers the respondents’ family members, who were engaged in different
occupation. To understand the occupational structure, the following information was gathered (Table 5.5).

Table 5.5 Types of Occupation


Type of Employment
Name of the
Sl Surveyed
Company / Training
No Samples Agri Total Agri- Other Private Gar- Cons- Total Non-
Centre Agriculture Business Driver Others
Labour culture Labour Job ments truction Agri

Tamil Nadu 100 77 177 115 33 19 63 11 15 8 264


1 441
% 22.7 17.5 40.2 26.1 7.5 4.3 14.3 2.5 3.4 1.8 59.9
Andhra Pradesh 42 15 57 46 11 4 16 9 6 2 94
2 151
% 27.8 9.9 37.7 30.5 7.3 2.6 10.6 6 4 1.3 62.3
Karnataka 58 30 88 52 13 7 38 3 12 4 129
3 217
% 26.7 13.8 40.5 24 6 3.2 17.5 1.4 5.5 1.8 59.4
All Three States 200 122 322 213 57 30 117 23 33 14 487
809
% 24.7 15.1 39.8 26.3 7 3.7 14.5 2.8 4.1 1.7 60.1

Note: Others include: Fishing, Govt. Job, Tailoring, Weaving, and no job (unemployed).

Source: Survey 2012. Derived from Annexure 5.

Based on the table, following points are noteworthy:


 Families engaged in agricultural operations are roughly two fifths of the total.
 Three-fifths of respondents’ family members engaged in non-agriculture activities.
 Apparently, BPL people engaged in agriculture activities have come down steeply. But their
involvement in other occupation has increased considerably. This indicates that government’s
initiative in this regard is also appreciable. Many types of rural employment opportunities initiated in
recent decades and even this SEAM program are testimony for this aspect.
 Percentage of respondents families engaged in agriculture varies across states: the lowest
percentage was in Andhra (38%). In the remaining two states it was more than a third. This
35

Types of Occupation

indicates that agriculture activities, which depend on human labour, have been declining in different
levels among the states.

Among the non-agricultural activities, labourer’s work comprises a major share (26%) followed by Garment
job (14.5%). The remaining activities contribute less than 10% each to the total.

One aspect is clear from this table, that when the labour population who depend on agriculture has been
declining but their involvement in non-agriculture is increasing, which is an indication of increase of their
income level and status go up gradually. This will lead to bring up their position from Below Poverty Level.
Let us examine this aspect below.

Economic Conditions of Sample Respondents


The tables and interpretations based on respondents’ views have been arranged with a view to facilitate the
comparison among various aspects of their economic status.
36

Household Income:
Household income is taken to be the total of all types of earnings received by all members of the
household, irrespective of whether they have been earned through agricultural activities or by other means.
In our analysis, we have taken the amount of income received per month by each member of the
household. Average monthly income and its categories by the respondents’ and their family members are
given in Table 5.6.

In all states average monthly income earned by respondents is lower than the other members of the family.
That is, the respondents’ income is a portion of the total income derived by all members in a family. Across
states Tamil Nadu ranks first for earning more of other members income followed by Karnataka. The
respondents’ income level in Andhra Pradesh (Rs. 4526) is the highest, followed by Karnataka. Further a
majority of respondents in all the three states earned an average income between 3001-5000 per month
(which is 77 % in all three states) and only 12% received an amount Rs. < 3000; whereas, in the case
of other members, the number of earners increases gradually when the income level increases. Actually,
more than a third of the total respondents in all three states in this category earned an income of Rs >
5000.

Table 5.6 Distribution of Income Earned by Respondents and their Family Members
Sl Name of the Surveyed Average Respondents Average Other Members
No Company / Samples Monthly Income Monthly Income
Training Income Income
Centre
Mean < 3001 > Mean < 3001 >
300 - 500 300 - 500
0 5000 0 0 5000 0
1 Tam il Nadu 441 4144 70 308 63 5796 75 105 150
% to Sample 15.9 69.8 14.3 17 23.8 34
2 Andhra 151 4526 23 115 13 5033 21 45 42
Pradesh
% to Sample 15.2 76.2 8.6 13.9 29.8 27.8
3 Karnataka 217 4478 4 197 16 5640 36 72 81
% to Sample 1.8 90.8 7.4 16.6 33.2 37.3
All Three 809 4305 97 620 92 5618 132 222 273
States
% to Sample 12 76.6 11.4 16.3 27.4 33.7
Note: Other members’ income of some respondents’ families was nil. Hence it does not add up to 100.
Source: Survey 2012. Derived from Annexure 6.
37

An important finding is that the respondents’ contribution to the family income is nearly three-fourths of the
total income earned by all members of the family.
Although the above table gives an idea of income earned by the respondents and their family members, it
does not provide the sources of income. We know that the rural population, especially the BPL families,
mostly depend their income from agricultural operations. Hence we would find out the respondents sources
of income to understand their diversified income generating activities.

The sources of income of respondents’ family members are given in Table 5.7. It is to be noted that
contribution of income through agriculture is less. Most of the families earn less income through agricultural
operations. Across states this income level also varies widely. Whereas income from other sources, as
indicated in Table 5.7, is relatively more, than that of agricultural sources in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil
Nadu. In Karnataka the difference is nearly twice that of agriculture income. This is a welcome aspect; in
the sense that the rural BPL people are able to move other sectors of the economy to earn more. Since
agriculture does not provide either adequate employment to all BPL families or yearlong employment, it is
all the more likely to shift the BPL families to other sectors of the economy to earn adequately. Moreover,
one can also observe from the table, between agriculture and other sources of income, variations in
average income level across states are more in agriculture compared to other sources.

Table 5.7 Distribution of HH Income from Agriculture and Other Sources

Sl Name of the Surveyed Average Agricultural Income Average Other Sources Income
No Company / Samples Monthly Monthly
Training Income Income
Centre < 3001- > < 3000 3001- > 5000
3000 5000 5000 5000
1 Tamil Nadu 441 4020 65 44 28 4481 29 20 23
% to Sample 14.7 10 6.3 6.6 4.5 5.2
2 Andhra 151 4427 14 12 15 5286 17 7 11
Pradesh
% to Sample 9.3 7.9 9.9 11.3 4.6 7.3
3 Karnataka 217 2985 24 9 1 4495 31 23 25
% to Sample 11.1 4.1 0.5 14.3 10.6 11.5
All Three 809 3933 103 65 44 4638 77 50 59
States
% to Sample 12.7 8 5.4 9.5 6.2 7.3

Source: Survey 2012. Derived from Annexure 7.


38

It is important to note that agriculture has a lot of disguised unemployed labourers. Hence even a large
portion of the rural population, who depends on agriculture, is diverted to other sectors of the economy for
employment that won’t affect much of agricultural activities. Contrary to that, the displaced population can
manage to get good employment in other sectors of the economy such as industrial and service sectors.
Apparently the SEAM program is one such that, which helps the rural BPL families to earn more by way of
getting employment throughout the year.

Household Expenditure:
It is evident from Table 5.8 that nearly three-fifths of the expenditure was incurred on food followed by
education, medical and transport purposes. Interest on loans borrowed takes around 1 % of total
expenditure. Across states, more amounts for food was spent in Karnataka and in the remaining two states
there has not been much variation. It may be known that unless the poor people’s income has reached up
to a satisfactory level, their major income spent was mainly for food purpose. This is clear from our survey.
A good standard of life indicates that an average amount spend for food purpose alone is between 15%
and 30% of the income earned.

One point is clear that below poverty line people could spend almost three-fourths of their total income on
food items alone. However, the study indicates that most of the respondents’ families spend only three-fifths
of their total income on food purpose. Hence, it shows that respondent families poverty level has been
declining considerably in all the three states. And if the SEAM programme continues, one hopes that it may
be possible to uplift a considerable number of families that could reach above poverty level in the near
future.

Table 5.8 Percentage Distribution of Monthly Household Expenditure


Sl NoName of the Surveyed Avg % of Monthly Expenditure on
Company / Training Samples Monthly
Centre Exp Food Fuel Electri- Education Medical Trans- Festival Interest Enter- Habits
city port Payment tainment

1 Tamil Nadu 441 4096 57.0 6.8 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.2 7.9 1.8 3.0 1.9
2 Andhra Pradesh 151 3678 59.5 6.6 6.4 5.2 5.9 5.1 6.9 1.0 2.4 1.1
3 Karnataka 217 3336 64.9 6.8 6.6 4.2 6.2 4.6 3.9 0.0 1.8 1.1
All Three States 809 3814 59.3 6.8 6.0 5.1 5.7 5.0 6.8 1.2 2.6 1.5

Source: Survey 2012. Derived from Annexure 8.


39

Work Experience and Wage Increment:


One of the important aspects captured from the survey is work experience by the respondents and their
incremental wage according to their experience. Actually, this is the crux of the success of this SEAM
program. In the case of agricultural operations, where a majority of BPL families engaged, one cannot
expect any special increase of wage for a member if he is more experienced. Whether a person has one-
year experience or 10 year experience the same wage (as commonly fixed for all) only be given. Whereas
in the case of SEAM projects, the employees after getting due experience, once they joined the apparel
manufacturing companies, the years of experience automatically linked to the increase in wage structure.
As a result, when a person with considerable years of experience gets increased wage compared to the
one joined the same work recently. This aspect was clearly captured from the survey in all the three states.

It is observed from Table 5.9 that the respondents work experience, based on the SEAM project varies
from less than 6 months to a maximum of two years. That is 86 percent of total respondents joined the
apparel industries initially when the program was started. Actually Tamil Nadu has completed two years
since its start of the project and the remaining two States completed a period of one and a half years. Since
the work duration varies among the respondents, its direct effect can be seen through the amount of wages
received by them.

In all the three states about 12 % of the respondents informed that their wages have gone more than Rs.
2000 over this two-year period. It may be observed that the incremental wages decrease when the number
of months of service decreases. Hence one can say that there is a positive relationship between years of
experience and incremental wage to the employees under the SEAM project. Moreover, the number of
respondents with more experience seems to be more in all the states. This is primarily due to monthly
additions of new members in this industry and more likely after training once the employment is assured the
drop out in the initial months seems to be low.

Once the job is assured it is interesting to note that the employees are not willing to move from the industry
unless special circumstances warranted. That is, if an employee gets married after getting the job, and the
husband is working in a far away place it is all the more likely that the woman could either leave the job or
to seek job in another industry, if luckily, the latter is located close the new settlement area.
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Table 5.9 Duration of Work and Increase of Wage by Respondents


No of Months Avera
Name of the Survey Increase in Wage
Working ge
Sl Company / ed
501- 1001 2001 Increa
No Training Sampl 12- 24- < >
<6 100 - - se in
Centre es Jun Dec 500 3000
0 2000 3000 Wage
Tamil Nadu 6 52 383 84 153 141 46 17
1 441 1392
% to Sample 1.4 11.8 86.8 19 34.7 32 10.4 3.9
Andhra
1 20 130 38 51 43 14 5
2 Pradesh 151 1217
% to Sample 0.7 13.2 86.1 25.2 33.8 28.5 9.3 3.3
Karnataka 10 25 182 58 71 62 19 7
3 217 1123
% to Sample 4.6 11.5 83.9 26.7 32.7 28.6 8.8 3.2
All Three
17 97 695 180 275 246 79 29
States 809 1287
% to Sample 2.1 12 85.9 22.2 34 30.4 9.8 3.6

Source: Survey 2012. Derived from Annexure 9.

Work Satisfaction:
Compared to agricultural labour work, the industrial work is superior in several counts. The former involves
purely the physical work with very less requirement of skill use and the work mostly involves with exposure
to the Sun. Whereas in industrial work, job assurance, regular monthly wages, many benefits offered to the
employees, different forms of leave wages and the most important, experience linked wages are available
to each and every employee working in the firm. Moreover, if a person is working in industry he may be
treated better than one who works in agriculture. This was basically due to the nature of job between the
industries. With this general inference one can analyse the situation that exists in the industries where the
respondents are working.

To understand the prevailing situation of job satisfaction among the respondents information was gathered
in four aspects, viz., good, modest, happy and no difference (Table 5.10). It is found that nearly Two-thirds
of the respondents are happy and feel good after getting this job compared to their previous position.
However, across states variations in satisfaction was also noticed. One half of the respondents reported
that the present job was useful according to their work effort given in the job. A very small proportion (11 %)
of respondents felt that there was no difference between their previous job and their present one. This
could be mainly due to low income derived from their present job compared to the long experience that they
had in other jobs. If the respondents’ experience in the present job increases then automatically they will
also get satisfied from this position.
42

Table 5.10 Work Satisfaction of Respondents After Getting This Job


Sl No States Surveyed How do you feel after getting this job compared to the past
Samples Good Modest Happy No difference
1 Tamil Nadu 441 87 58 247 49
% to total 20 13 56 11
2 Andhra Pradesh 151 11 43 65 32
% to total 7 28 43 21
3 Karnataka 217 72 65 73 7
% to total 33 30 34 3
3 States Total 809 170 166 385 88
% to total 21 21 48 11
Source: Survey 2012.

Benefits from the Job:


The external and internal benefits derived from the SEAM program have helped the respondents to lead their life
more peacefully than before. For instance, most of the employees working in the SEAM program are the young
people who aspire to come up in their life by putting some more effort. For this purpose, the career development
opportunities as initiated by several big industrial units are really beneficial. Also many of the employees frankly
accept that they were unaware of using even minimal level of banking operations since their income was barely
adequate to meet their both ends. However, after getting employed through the SEAM program and learning the
basics of savings, some of the respondents voluntarily approached the organizers to help them to open bank
accounts to save some money. Apart from that the basic facilities offered by the industries such as the following help
them to work in the same industry for a longer period.

Benefits accrued from the Industries:


 Comfortable stay for the hostellers;
 Qualitative and nutritive food with subsidised prize;
 Free transportation / Medical facilities for the day-employees;
 Creche for infants and ESI and PF benefits;
 Educational / Festival Bonus and Loans with low interest;
 Different types of incentives such as individual, Team and Group;
 Library and recreational facilities, and,
 Technology upgradation to help the employees to put less efforts to produce more.

As one can observe from Table 5.11 SEAM respondents get internal help like provident fund
possibility; medical, transport facilities; good accommodation and quality food apart from the
43

external benefits such as opening the bank accounts, getting adequate direction for their career
development and so on. Since most respondents were
Table 5.11 Benefits Enjoyed Through Various Facilities Offered by the Industries
Sl NoName of the Company / Surveyed Food Accommodation Transport Medical Provident Fund
Training Centre Samples Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No
Tamil Nadu 441 174 267 150 291 212 229 303 138 301 140
% to total 39 61 34 66 48 52 69 31 68 32
Andhra Pradesh 151 31 120 32 119 53 98 81 70 74 77
% to total 21 79 21 79 35 65 54 46 49 51
Karnataka 217 1 216 9 208 34 183 92 125 89 128
% to total 0.5 99.5 4 96 16 84 42 58 41 59
All Three States 809 206 603 191 618 299 510 476 333 464 345
% to total 25 75 24 76 37 63 59 41 57 43
Source: Annexure 10.

newcomers from poor families, many of them were unaware of using banking facilities, especially opening a bank
account. It may be seen from the table, the day-employees are not taking regular food and hence the data indicate
‘no’ for food. Regarding provident fund and medical facilities almost all the respondents availed these facilities since
these are inbuilt with the industrial framework, especially in major companies.

Likewise, career development opportunities were also effectively utilized by majority of the respondents in Tamil Nadu
and Andhra Pradesh. Since majority of the employees are youngsters and recently came out from the schools they
are keen to pursue their education. This aspect is clearly noticed in many of the prosperous industrial centres.

On the whole, it may be clear from the survey that the SEAM respondents are doing appreciably well as far as the
apparel manufacturing is concerned. Yet, we have come across some shortcoming within the industrial units, which
led to dropouts in many companies within a short period of time. Finding the reasons and rectifying the defects will
serve to reduce the dropouts considerably. Let us discuss this aspect in detail below.

Details of Discontinued or Dropout Employees:


After conducting the preliminary survey to finalise the survey samples and the questionnaire it was found that in one
of the leading industries a large number of employees, discontinued work after undergoing training and working for a
few months. These workers were termed as dropouts. Since this was clearly found out initially we have adopted a
strategy to survey the required samples by way of ‘replacement’ procedure. Since replacement has also some
limitations (even that replaced members were also discontinued) we adopted an easy strategy again to complete the
survey as far as the required samples are concerned. This aspect was discussed already.
44

Hence let us discuss the problems faced by the industries / training centres as well as the trainees and employees to
weed out the major problem of dropouts in future. Based on interactions held with industrial / training centre
executives the following inferences are made.
The industries / training centres main concern is their output enhancement or target achievement in the case of
former and the number of trainees trained by the centre as per stipulated rule in a stipulated period for the latter.
Hence none has the involvement to keep proper records of the employees for a longer period. As a result, whenever,
minor problems arise the employees automatically discontinued the work. The most crucial aspect was, that after
discontinuing the programme the dropout was not tracked. Hence tracing the person was very difficult. This is the
major reason for not getting adequate discontinued samples in our survey. Moreover, most of the given addresses
were wrong and employees once discontinued they left the place altogether. Also, no updating of the dropouts has
been done in most of the industries.

To avoid such a problem it is suggested, once the trainees are inducted in an industry, proper record should be
created for all employees of that industry / training centre and should be updated once in six months. The record
should contain among other details the address of the employee and his immediate contact number. That is, in any
one of the leading persons or places (Village Administrative Officer, Post Office, big / leading landlord or industrialist,
Police Station, Courier Office etc.) available in the employee’s locality in case the employee does not have contact
number. Unless this possibility is arranged it would be difficult to trace the dropouts in the present circumstances.

Moreover, the IL&FS coordinators should also verify the records available with the industries and make signatures
after checking the documents with the available employees once in three months. This process will strengthen the
documentation relationships between the industrial partners and the IL&FS coordination. Based on our enquiry, we
have come across several reasons for the employees’ dropout, and also non-traceable members and their present
position and the effectiveness of training offered by IL&FS training centres, which are listed below:

Reasons for leaving the Company:


1 Industry is far away from the house, which requires heavy transport cost daily.
2 No bus facility from home to the Industry site and to take care of children.
3 Take care of aged people, and household work, which forced the employees to leave the company.

4 Health problems such as unsuitability of air-conditioned atmosphere, long hours of sitting, generation of
heat and also childbirth process for some employees.

5 After the training, independent setting of machines forced some employees to leave the Industry.

6 New house construction forced to leave the job.


7 Social obligation of Marriage at the age between 18 and 25 and migration for settlement.
8 After marriage life starts in a different place, hence it was not possible to continue the work.
9 Very low wages for employees who got training from the training centers which are not attached to the
garment companies.
45

10 After the basic training, the training center offers placement in different locations. Due to the long
distance some of the trainees could not able to join the industry.

11 In some industrial areas like Tirupur, Coimbatore, and Chennai there has been a lot of other job
opportunities prevail, which make the trained employees move quickly.

12 After the basic training (in Chittoor), some trainees were placed in another state garment industry
(Intimate Fashion in Tamil Nadu). As a result, due to young age, unfamiliarity in the new area, language
problem, etc., those employees after having worked for a few months left for home altogether without
returning again.

13 Even though some trainees are poor in economic status, after completion of training and joining the
industry worked for just a month then left the company altogether, due to no interest in that job.

It is important to note that although a large number of dropouts were informed in each industry only a limited number
of cases were interviewed to satisfy the sample framework. Moreover, non-traceability of the dropouts makes an
added problem. Enquiries were made to these dropouts to find out their present situation after leaving the company.
The dropout employees provided the following information.
After leaving the company, their present position:

1 Not working. Unemployed but only doing household works.


2 Take care of the family.
3 Independent machines were set up to do the work on their own at home.
4 Engaged in the new house construction work, which was going on.

Reasons for Non-Availability of Respondents:


 Shift from the locality.
 Long absenteeism.
 Production Managers are not allowing the candidates to attend interviews as they are undertaking critical
operations, which lead to stoppage of work of 5 to 7 other employees.
 Huge consignment to ship.
 Candidates are not willing to come out as they loose their production-based incentives.
 Too much internal audit from the IL&FS Organisation.

Effectiveness of the present independent job:


 Full freedom. Hence they expect to work more in the industries.
 Incentives schemes – individual, group and team.
 Attendance bonus and festival bonus
 Educational fees and loans arranged by the industries

IL&FS training program and enhancement of income level:


 Most respondents informed that the training was more useful. If there is any apparel industry nearby home it
is okay to continue with, provided enough salary is given.
46

 Although the training was very useful, it could not be utilised by the rural BPL community properly due to
many individual/personal and local problems.

Based on the discussions with the company executives following inferences are made :
 Dropout and intake of employees are regular phenomena. No control is possible to hold on the employees
permanently, even if their appointment seems permanent. In other words, employees may freely get the job
and also freely can move from their job.

 In some industries, market is not enough and hence orders are little, but growing slowly. Immediate positive
impact in production through the IL&FS trainees’ induction may not be possible, especially in the short-run.

 Industries also require other trained employees such as checkers, supervisors, Pattern making, and helpers
for ironing and packing. Besides, SMO, if all the said trainings are given, it will be good to both the
employees as well as employers.

 Since raw material and marketing problems are not there, the industrial activities are moving well. Further,
no other prosperous opportunity like this one exists elsewhere; so, workers are not generally moving out,
except for some social and personal problems.

 For running the industry getting reliable trained workers are always a challenging task. Hence this IL&FS
SEAM program is a boon to industrialists. To achieve this task, young BPL people have to be canvassed
from about 60 km radius and in some cases transport facility could also be provided.

 In order to attract the rural / unemployed youths various advertisement / information dissemination
mechanisms were adopted by most of the industries. This needs to be continued.

 In some industries that produced garments are sold in open markets, especially those industries that are
new and starting production on a trial basis.

 Once the production process is moving in a positive direction, expanding the activity is easy through liberal
financial aid given by the banking institutions and also the government’s indirect support through
infrastructure development such as roads and transport facilities.

Some companies also provide additional employment to the people through following activities:
Training based Activities – Duration – Educational Qualification
Sewing machine operation – 1 month – 5th std.
Pattern making – 4 months – Plus Two.
Advanced sewing machine – 2 months - Plus Two
Garment manufacturing – 6 months – Degree, Diploma.
Product development – 6 months. - Degree
Computer aided Pattern making & designing – 6 months – Degree.

Since the SEAM program was started in different periods in different States, its performance also varies accordingly.
The rating prevailing in the three southern states are given below. Further, the SEAM has now completed its five-year
period, it is interesting to note that this program has achieved well in many spheres. This could also be seen below.

The Rating of Industries Across States


47

The overall effective functioning of the ILFS – SEAM program in the Southern States such as Tamil Nadu,
Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh is well established through our survey. Out of three states, Tamil Nadu ranks first
followed by Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh in the performance of tailoring program and placement of trainees.
Tamil Nadu is divided into four regions such as Chennai, Trichy, Coimbatore and Madurai as far as the SEAM
program is concerned. Here, Coimbatore ranks first, because of high industrialization particularly garments.
Coimbatore region consists of Tirupur and Erode, which have specialised in textiles industry even long ago. Chennai
has a few garment units, but due to urbanization and easy employment opportunities the trained candidates who are
working in Chennai are easily moving to other remunerative jobs. For this impact study, we had taken 3 partners in
which TTDC is the only institution partner which is closely working with many industries and in trichy also the system
is integrated closely with industries Hence they would be able to achieve more.

In Karnataka, the industries are closely located, so the trained candidates are quickly moving to other companies
based on remuneration. If they get high salary in any other place, they move to other industry.

Impact of the SEAM Programme

Family Status: Most of the respondents’ families were working in agriculture as labourers. However, the number of
working days depends upon the availability of agricultural work, which is seasonal in nature. After joining this ILFS-
SEAM training program, most of the young women are getting employment in the apparel companies due to their
qualified training, which helps not only to improve the individuals economic position but also the whole family. Further,
the SEAM based employment creates an opportunity to get more funds in case of needs from others like friends,
private finance and relatives without any hesitation. That is the SEAM job has been treated as a collateral security to
get loans, which were not possible earlier, without having the job. Hence, the family status of employees is improved
financially and socially.

Individual Status: Since majority of the employees came from the rural areas, this training program helped them to
learn more on health, hygiene, behavioral pattern and food habits. Also this training has created self-confidence
among the employees.

Overall Community
The employees have come from different communities such as FC, BC, MBC, SC, ST, BCM, etc. However, majority
of the employees had come from the Scheduled Castes and Backward Communities, who generally engaged in
seasonal agricultural employment. Once, a member or two from these families get a job through SEAM program,
their family status gradually improved much compared to their previous level. This is possible due to getting
permanent job, which provides standard income. Once many families, especially in the SCs achieve this, their overall
Community status –in terms of economic position- improves considerably. This was evident from the survey.
48

Based on the above information, it is necessary to provide main findings and observations made from the survey and
suggestions to improve the performance of the workers as well as the companies that would be helpful to increase
the production process and also to generate more employment opportunities if the companies expand in future.
49

Findings and Suggestions

Findings of the Survey:


The program of Skills for Employment in Apparel Manufacturing has completed five-years since its launch
in 2007, where the concept of SEAM is now gauged in policy circles to expand this in a wider scale.
However, before this aspect of succession occurs, greater clarity in its implementation is required to
strengthen this program for the BPL families.

As indicated earlier, the aim of the SEAM program is twin-fold: a) poverty alleviation in rural areas; and b)
meeting skilled labour requirements of various industries. After the initial start in the mid-2007, the SEAM
training / placement program has attained more importance, gradually and steadily, as a source of non-
agriculture employment, especially for the teenaged girls and young women, otherwise most of their family
members, i.e., the parents of the SEAM labourers and elder members of the family seek employment in
agriculture for their livelihood. Our study has confirmed the contribution to employment security the
program makes in most BPL families.

 Greater clarity in the project represents that mere training of BPL members and their placement
alone is not enough, but their continuance in the job at least for 5 years in a firm is desirable.
 However, removing the initial hurdle -by the start of the program- will help to achieve a lot. Even
then, compared to the government oriented MGNREGA program this IL&FS sponsored SEAM
program seems to be more successful, because it provides employment to the trained BPL
persons throughout the year and as long as possible.
 More importantly the SEAM program gives non-agriculture employment, which is more suitable to
the young women and most of them like it, since they hail from villages. Really, this is one of the
successes of this program.
50

Effective Employment for Skilled Labourers Anywhere in India!


One of the important aspects of the IL&FS apparel manufacturing training program is that the trainees who
had come from several parts of the country to take part in the training were selected from diverse areas.
For instance, trainees of Andhra Pradesh have hailed from Karnataka and working in both the States. Also
the Andhra Pradesh trainees are working in Chennai industries. Also, within the State of Tamil Nadu, one of
the industries had trained the employees who came from more than a dozen districts. This is one of the
important positive trends, which shows that the poor people are ready to relocate by themselves based on
the quality of job available for them. The purpose of this project was to assess how the programme has
been working and to scale up the activity as effective as possible.

 BPL People’s mobility to access training as well as placement through SEAM program is
appreciable. This is not so easy in any other government-implemented programmes.
 Considering this aspect, and also the SEAM trained employees’ perspective, the program has been
moving in the right track and it requires further impetus to hold all its trainees in the given
employment. Through our study we confirm that it seems possible in the near future.

A Comparative Assessment:
Considering the Central Government’s Initiative of National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA),
renamed since October 2, 2009 as Mahatma Gandhi. National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme, the
IL&FS sponsored SEAM program is superior in three counts. One, after the initial one-month training
programme, the trainees immediately get continuous employment, i.e., they can continue as long as they
desire to work; two, the monthly wages given to the employees are certainly more than the one possibly
given through the NREGA’s 100-days work; and three, the NREGA is rural based employment activity,
whereas the SEAM program helps the BPL families located all over India, without having the rural-urban
divide. Since the Government’s motto in all types of programmes is to alleviate poverty and bringing the
BPL families above their poverty level, all the programmes are considered important. However, if one wants
to assess the superiority of the programme, then it comes clearly the SEAM program due to its several
positive impact.

The initial implementation of any type of programme might face some shortcomings. The good example is
the NREGA programme. For this many reports are published in the leading national dailies. Although the
SEAM program does not have that much popularity now in the media circle, even though it was started two
51

years ago, one can expect affirmative stories of SEAM program soon. However, to achieve this, every effort
should be made to remove the shortcomings and ensure better implementation.

 Our survey results indicate that the SEAM Program has proved to be a boon to the BPL families
located anywhere in the country. Hence, it is now necessary to expand and popularize the scheme
widely in all the States.
 Due to SEAM employment opportunity to the young women, the parents of their families are
happier in two ways: (1) they earn good amount of money to stabilize their families income level;
and (2) by way of their employment, most girls have settled their life without giving any difficulty to
the families.

Labour Market Impact:


Wider economic effects – including a labour market impact - are being observed in this study. On the one
hand, the supply of farm labour has been dwindling due to governments’ many rural development
programmes and on the other hand, labour supply in many districts is falling due to rural urban migration,
especially of younger members of the workforce seeking for better-paid and physically less strenuous
opportunities. The latter cause was mainly attributable to the expansion and newly introducing job
opportunities like the SEAM program. Since the governments’ prime motto is to improve the standards of
the BPL families, whatever the ways and forms of employment opportunities are generated either by
government or by private industries that should be viewed affirmatively to achieve the goal laid. Further, the
SEAM program mostly absorbs women labourers, especially at the young age, to work on a continuous
(permanent) basis, which helps to raise the standard of living of the families in an appreciable manner. This
is possible because of uninterrupted income generated by the younger women in the BPL families. And this
has also helped to increase the overall income earned by all the members of the BPL family. In this context,
one can definitely say that the SEAM program has been moving forward in the set direction.

Thus our survey results clearly confirm the following impact among BPL families:
 The SEAM training / employment program enhanced the family status by way of increased income
earning, which in turn brought BPL families to move above that level.
 More importantly, a few BPL families improvement through this program in their economic status in
a locality can make a demonstration effect among the other BPL families also. This tendency was
52

observed in a few regions, especially Madurai, Coimbatore in Tamil Nadu, where most employees
are working in the industrial units.

Suggestions:

Feedback Improvements

The employees are anticipating the increase of the training period usually given from one month to two
months. This is because; one month training was not enough to learn most of the tailoring methods.

Tracking Methodology

The training centres should keep all the candidates addresses - both permanent and communication - for at
least five years, along with their phone numbers. In case, if their personal / family phone numbers are not
readily available, those employees should be asked to provide their nearest Post Office telephone number
to track them when necessity arises. Further, each candidate should submit a copy of their ration card or
any other government denoted identities to the training-center when they enrolled initially in the training
program. These copies of documents should be maintained at the training center properly and general
verification of each one of the address should be done once in six-months. If found any one left or changes
occurred that should be recorded and the employees latest traceable position should be up-dated. If it is
done, which is more helpful to find out any one immediately who is working in the company.

IL&FS and Role of the Industrial Units


Since the IL&FS Clusters Initiative and the training partners as well as placement industries consider
implementation of the SEAM program as a joint venture, it is all the more necessary to make a close link
between the two sets of firms. In a few industrial units, this binding aspect seems lacking. For instance,
interviewing the respondents with 15 to 20 minutes in many industries is not possible. This shows that not
much coordination between the two partners exists. As a result, it was difficult to achieve the required result
in a stipulated period. Further, tracing the sample employees in some industries was really difficult due to
less coordination between the two firms. The same is also one of the reasons for untraceable nature of
dropout employees in many industries. This problem could be avoided by making effective communication
networks among all, such as the IL&FS, training centres, placement industries and even with the
employees. It is strongly suggested, to know the details of dropout employees and reasons behind it, a
53

constant joint monitoring for the trained employees in each industry through the IL&FS coordinators is
important for at least five years.

Training Centers, which are attached to specific industries function well compared to the one that works
independently. So in future, the IL&FS should try to create new training centers, which are linked to the
industries. In case creation of separate training centers are necessary that should be done where the
placement industries are located nearby the training centres.

Stakeholders Program:
In this program the ILFS, placement Industries and training partners are the main stakeholders and the
employees are the beneficiaries. Hence proper coordination among all is very important for the overall
successful functioning.

Social Responsibility:
The medium and large industries (such as Bannariamman, intimate Fashion and Ambattur Clothing Ltd),
often located outside the main city or town, take on more responsibilities. In those types of industries their
executives explain that they have gone in for colonies with schools and health care facilities to house
employees and their families; providing free or subsidised transport services; improving the environment
and encouraging sports, recreational, and entertainment facilities. Actually these are the attractive perks to
the employees, which deemed necessary to lead their life less problematic, which in turn induces more
effort from the employees to produce more.

The SEAM II and III performance evaluation project was started at the end of February 2012; the report
was prepared in May 2012. Based on the comments received from the IL&FS functionaries / Executives it
was revised and submitted as a final report in June 2012.
54

CASE STUDIES

WOMEN EMPOWERMENT AND PROSPECTS FOR BETTER FUTURE

-1-

P. Muthulakshmi 21 years D/O. Panchatcharam, Vadapattinam, Pillaiyar Koil street, Cheyyur,


Kanchipuram District, studied up to +2 from a poor agriculture – coolie family joined the ILFS training during
June 2010 and got placement in PS Apparels – Pudupakkam near Kelambakkam of Kanchipuram District
and working in the company for the last 2 years.
As she is shorter than normal height (144 cm), other taller colleagues working in the industry have envy on
her working speed, which is unable to do by them. At the starting month she got Rs.3100/-, now she is
getting Rs. 4200/-. She is saving the entire amount for her future after paying the Hostel fees. She has
been a Hosteller in the company.

-2-
C.K. Sangeetha 21 years D/O. Kannan, Pillaiyar Koil Street, Naraiyur P.O, Thiruvannamalai District have
completed +2, joined the ILFS Training during May 2010 and got placement at Linea Fashions , MEPZ
Tambaram in Kanchipuram District. Her father is working in Kerala and lost her mother. She is working
along with her sister in the same company and staying in the company Hostel leading a normal happy
environment. She earns Rs.4000/- and saves the amount for her future life.

-3-
G. Vanmathi, SC, 20 years D/O. Vengalraj NO.3/6, Ambakkam, Sathyavedu in Chitoor District of Andhra
Pradesh hailed from a very poor coolie family has completed +2 and joined in the ILFS Training January
2010. She got placement in Ambattur clothing Ltd., in Ambattur Industrial Estate. She is coming daily to the
company by the company Bus from a long distance of 136 kms. She is earning Rs. 4000/-.
55

-4-

R.K. Dheevana 20 years , SC D/O. Rajendran, No.24, Sathanur Puducolony, Tindivanam, Villupuram
District got ILFS Training during March 2010 and was placed in Bannari Amman Apparels , Ozhiyur near
Uthiramerur, Kanchipuram District is earning Rs. 3600. She is living with her Grandmother as her father
deserted her family and married another woman. Her earnings supports her mother who has been a
physically weak woman unable to go for work.

-5-
R.Vadivukarasi, 19 years, D/O. Rajan residing at 3A, Mariamman, Koil Street, Tindivanam, Villupuram
District joined the ILFS Training during Aug 2010 in the placement of Bannariamman Apparels,
Kanchipuram District is a deaf and dumb girl completed up to 9 th std, working well in the company and
earning Rs.4245/- currently she supports her family. Her seniors and colleagues appreciate her efforts and
courage. Just a gesture movement is enough for her to understand and complete the assigned work by the
supervisors of the company.

-6-
Nagajothi, 23 years, SC, D/O. Sevagan Nadukudi Arakotai village, Erode District joined in the ILFS
Training during Nov 2009 and got placed in Best Corporation in Thiruppur District. She is staying in the
Hostel of the industry after completing her UG degree. She was motivated by the company to do M.Sc
through Distance Education of Annamalai University. Currently she is earning Rs. 5200/- with a good hope
of elevation to the rank of Training Officer in the company. Company HR manager and other seniors
appreciating her tireless effort to step up in the Educational rungs, which may lift her to a turning point in
her present and future life.

-7-
Hemalatha w/o of Senthilkumar, aged 28, obtained one month tailoring training with the guidance of IL&
FS from Linea fashion India private Ltd in March 2010. She got the job immediately in the same Company
as a tailor. In fact, one of her friends who got trained earlier/ employed in the same company helped her to
56

receive the training. Besides salary of Rs 4500 / month, she also gets other benefits like provident fund (Rs.
375) and medical assistance of Rs 75 per month. In fact, before the training /employment she was
struggling a lot caused by low economic status followed by indebtedness. Since her father is a heart patient
he is depending more on her income for survival. It is important to note that to meet out the medical
expenses of her father, she borrowed money (Rs 80,000) from her relatives without any interest and repaid
(Rs 30000). Since the money borrowed from her relatives is inadequate to meet out her father’s medical
expenses, she also mortgaged her jewels (16 grams) for Rs.25000 at 36% interest. It is pity to note that
she lost her husband 5 years back, which led to unhappiness and frustration. Indeed, she wanted to save
some money for her future but futile due to her father is a heart patient. The entire family responsibility is
taken care of by her and her sister is also working in the same company. Hence both have got benefited
through IL& FS training programme.

-8-

Ms. K. Ambika, aged 25, belongs to Scheduled Caste, living in Vanapuram village in Ariyalur district. There
are four members in her family with a poor background. Her parents are agricultural labourers; brother is
working as a construction labour. She had completed her middle schooling. After that, she could not
continue her studies due to her sister’s marriage.

During the year 2009, the IL&FS officials motivated her to join the IL&FS cluster skill initiative training
programme. To meet out her family expenditure and to develop her skills, she joined the one month
Sewing Machine Operation training during December 2009 at IL&FS Training centre located in M/s. MAS
Linea Fashions India (Private) Ltd, Chennai. The training has motivated to develop her employment and
personal skills. Three types of soft skill training were provided during the one-month training. She has
motivated five trainees in her village to join this IL&FS training.

After successful completion of this training the above said company offered her a job. She joined in this
company and received the initial salary of Rs. 2,800/- per month. She has been working in this company in
the past 2¼ years. After completion of her one year service the company promoted her as a “Trainer of
the Trainees” based on her learned training skills and working knowledge. Now she is getting Rs 4000/-
per month as salary and other benefits provided by the company. Her monthly savings is Rs 3000/- from
57

her salary. From the savings she has purchased Gold Jewels worth Rs 20000/-. Now she has confidant to
meet up all economic problems in her life. All these good things happened based on the IL&FS Training. In
future, more numbers of soft skill trainings to be provided to the trainees by the IL&FS.

-9-

Case Study of drop-out due to illness


Ms. Sagunthala D/o Balakrishnan, age 20, studied +2, is living in Irunthurapatti village in Pudukottai district
has been working in S.P Apparels Company as a Checker since April 2011. One of her sisters, Ms. Deepa
who worked in the company two years ago helped her to get the job. After her marriage, Ms. Deepa
resigned her job and find job for her sister in the same company. After the one month training she got her
placement in the same company. She is earning Rs.3000 p/m. It is important to note that besides the
Salary she got all other benefits including medical, provident fund and free transport facilities in the
company. Unfortunately, due to chicken box she was unable to continue the work and stopped from
working from July 2011. In the meantime financial constraints followed by indebtedness caused by
marriage of her sister forced her to go for work again in the same company. To meet out the marriage
expenses of her sister, her father borrowed money (Rs 3 lakhs) by mortgaging his 7 acres lands at an
exorbitant rate of interest from the money lenders and suffered a lot both by indebtedness and heart
problem etc.

After realizing the financial constraints followed by poor health condition of her father, she was forced to
rejoin the same company. She met the Managing director of the S.P Apparels directly with the help of IL&
FS Master Trainer and got the same job with all other benefits.

- 10 -
Case Study on Free Higher Education Encouraged (KPR Mills – Karumathampatty)

Sumathi D/o Rajendran, Age: - 21


Native of Ooty (Coonur) belongs to Scheduled Caste. Her family is of low economic group. One of her
friends Jothi D/O Dayanidhi who is working in the same company (KPR Mills) informed her about the
training / job opportunities in the KPR Mills. Based on that guidance and advice, she met the IL & FS
training manager and received the SMO training for One Month in the KPR mills. After successful
58

completion of training she got the job immediately. Based on her talent / keen interest and good
performance, one of the training officers in the Company encouraged her to go for higher education by
using the free education faculties offered by the Company in an effective manner. Based on the training
officer’s advice and encouragement she wish to study nursing course with the aim to do free medical
service for the resource poor people and completed the course successfully. Whenever any medical
service is required for the workers both in the hostel and company she used to render her free service
voluntarily at any time during working and non – working hours in a dedicated manner. It is worthwhile to
mention that she likes to enrich her education further by doing B.A Social work in future by utilizing the free
higher education facilities offered by the Company effectively.

1. Interview with Training Manager- S. P Apparels - Avinashi

Total workers :- 2500


Total Units :- 15
IL&Fs Trained Candidates :- 2500

Drop- out :- 10 - 15 %
Reasons :- Marriage/ Sick/ Self Employment and other personal Reasons
Qualification & Age :- V th Std ; 18

Campaigns :- Notices / Pamphlets issued to the local persons / villages


Mobilization :- Company takes effort / initiatives by direct contact with the
Village leaders.

Placement :- 100 % Assured after the training


Food : Subsidised Rate with quality food provided
Other Facilities Offered :- Provision store Facilities offered
PF / ESI / Bonus Facilities offered (ESI: - 6.5 % (4.75-
Company 1.75 % employees)

 Crèches / ATM / facilities inside the hostel


 Free higher education encouraged (Total number of employees benefited
from the Company so far is 34
59

 Government Welfare Schemes have also been utilized


 Prospects for earning overtime wages depending on the workman’s
capacity to acquire Skills
 During the training period motivation / followed by practical classes
conducted

2. Interview with Training Manager- First Garments Pvt- Ltd- Madurai

 Total no. of garments exported:- 5000- 8000 pieces to France and USA
 Materials Exported: - Gents Pants, Shirts and Ladies Nighties
 No hostel Facilities
 Bus facilities provided at free of cost (40 km distance covered
 Canteens: - Cheap and Nutritive food provided in the centre for Rs 2 per day
 Drop out: - Drop out is Common among girls due to marriage / sick and family problem
 Need of Skilled Workers in future:- Candidates with keen on learning interest and below poverty
line will be required.
 Not mentioned about ESI, PF, Attendance bonus, Incentives etc. (This belongs to Ammayappar
group)
60

COMPANIES ACTIVITES TOWARDS ITS EMPLOYEES

1. 26 days work & one day monthly leave and 10 days annual leave are given.

2. Tea break – 15 minutes. Lunch Break – 30 minutes.

3. Yearly once increment. Medical & Nursing facilities are available.

4. Big industries have Ambulance, Medical facilities, and crèches for working mother’s children.

5. Competitions were conducted among employees. Women’s day, May Day and other festivals are
being held and celebrated.
6. The employers and seniors are giving respects to their employees & juniors.

7. Proper in-house training and on the job training are given.

8. IL&FS conducts campaigns at villages when the company wants the vacancy to be filled up.

9. Education and family status are being considered for selecting the trainees and its related
recruitment.
10. Industry – Institution partnership tie up and placement in every industry under IL&FS clusters is
very strong and unshakeable.

11. Company activities related to women employees are video graphed and shown to visitors.

12. Big companies give HR training to its new entrants and Hostel facilities with safe lockers are given.

13. In the Hostel compound itself the companies are keeping shops for daily use items.

14. Play-ground for relaxation, for hobby making TV room and Health centres with clinic, full time nurse
and visiting doctors facilities are available. Immediate treatment is being given to patient –
employees and bed – facilities exist there.
15. In all the companies purified water is being given to labourers.

16. In one of the visited companies such as Unitex International Ltd, Sevvapet. Thiruvallur district the
following incentives are given.
Grade – wise ranking is given to employees. A to D grade skill – level segregation of trainees is
done. D - grade employees receive no bonus on attendance. D to C grade receives Rs.500
61

increment on salary and C to A increment varies once in two weeks, they took the employees for
an outing /mini excursion. They are using separate cards for assessing the production
development of employees. The company does not show any partiality. Day scholars (employees)
have such special care and benefits and they are specially motivated.

17. “ Work at Working Together” motto is seen in the industries.

18. Industrial policies, safety precautions and procedures enacted by the governments and labour
departments are being implemented.

19. In most of the companies, employee – counseling is arranged when employees are in stress.
Counselors of Maraimalai, Mannadi, and Chennai do their necessary counseling. SP Apparels in
Thiruppur has such facilities for various psychophysical reasons of employees.
20. All the companies pass messages to the public through pamphlets issuing, news media publicity
and NGO sponsoring for its recruitment of employees.

21. All the companies have multi- skill training facilities and give promotion to its employees.

22. Almost all companies have gents and ladies security staff to check the outgoing day scholars after
work.

23. Among the entire IL&FS trainee – employees, work etiquette, self- discipline, commitment to work,
striving to excel, positive attitude and Team spirit appear.

24. All the HR managers and seniors are guiding the employees to improve in their work.

25. All the companies are adopting separate methods for assessment of skills in training for
employability of Rural Youths - especially for women.

26. All the industries have canteen facilities and are serving employee desired menu items at
subsidized rates.

27. Happy, working and staying environments, with required facilities are available in the Garment
Manufacturing Sector. Generally, the companies’ environment appears to be a NEW WORLD to all
the EMPLOYEES.
62

Appendix 1 State Wise SEAM Project Based Training Centres in INDIA


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sl no State Districts and Number of Training Centres
------- ------- ------------------------------------------------------
1 Andhra Pradesh (28) Vishakhapatnam (5); Rangareddy (2); Nellore (4); Gundur (6); Krishna (1);
Nalgonda (1); Anantapur (1); W.Godavari (3); Tirupathi (1); Cjittoor (1); Anakapalli (1);
Prakasam (1); Hyderabad (1).

2 Tamil Nadu (55) Chennai (2); Coimbatore (8); Kancheepuram (5); Karur (1);
Tiruvallur (1); Virudhunagar (11); Namakkal (3); Tirupur (11);
Sivaganga (1); Madurai (2); Erode (2); Tiruchi (2); Hosur (1); Salem (1); Theni (2);
Perambalur (1); and Tirunelveli (1).

3 Karnataka (51) Bangaluru (6): Rural (2); North (3); South (3); Central (8); East (5); West
(3); Mysore: East (2); West (3); Bagalkot (1); & Kolar (1); Shimoga (3);
Tumkur (2); Chamrajnagar (2); Devanagree (1); Mandya (2); Bijapur (1);
Haveri (1); Ramnagar (1) and Yelaka (1).

4 Bihar (10) Nawada (1); Madhubani (1); Samastipur (1);Bhagalpur (3); Gaya (1);
Buxar (1); Nalanda (1); and Dehri (1)

5 Gujarat (3) Surat (1); and Gandhi Nagar (1). Ahmedabad (1).

6 Madhya Pradesh (8) Dhar (2); Indore (1); Khargone (1); Burhanpur (1)Chhatarpur (1); Seoni (1); & Sagar (1).

7 Maharashtra (8) Sangli (5); Parbani (1); Kolhapur (1); and Solapur (1).

8 Manipur(1) Imphal East (1).

9 Orissa (9) Ganjam (2); Kandamal (1); Sundargarh (1); Sonepur (1); and Other Districts
(4).

10 Rajasthan (7) Alwar (3); Jaipur (3); and Bharatpur (1).

11 Uttar Pradesh (3) Unnao (1); Fatehpur (1) and Farukhabad (1).

12 West Bengal (8) Kolkata (1); Midnapur (2); 24 Pargana (4); and Purulia (1).

13 Chhattisgarh (2) Korba (1) and Dantewada (1).

14 Haryana (8) (Faridabad (3); Ballabgarh (1) and Gurgaon (4).

15 Jharkhand (2) Ranchi (2)

16 Kerala (2) Wayanad (1) and Trissur (1).

17 Punjab (1) Ludiana (1)

18 Tripura (4) Agartala (4)

19 Uttarakhand (2) Haridwar (1); and Dehradun (1).

Total (212) excluding closed training centres.


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
63

Source: IL&FS Clusters Website (ilfs-spring.com). SEAM (Batch 2 & 3) Project 2012.
Note: Figures in brackets indicate number of training centres available in each district.
64

Appendix 2 Machinery Details of IL & FS Managed SEAM Programme


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Machinery, Equipments & Support Infrastructure Used in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sl no. Machine Equipment Used in Andhra Pradesh
1 Boiler
2 Bus-bar Equipment (Mts)
3 Cutting Table
4 Diesel Generator
5 Faculty Chair
6 Faculty Table
7 Fans
8 Folders
9 K-YAN
10 Operator Chairs
11 Pattern Making Table
12 Side Tables for Sewing Machines
13 Single Needle Lockstitch Machine
14 Specialized Machine as per Industry Requirement
15 Tube Lights
16 Vacuum Tables
17 White Marker Board
18 Flat-Lock Cylinder Bed Machine
19 Ironing Machine
20 Safety Stitch Over lock Machine
21 100” Frame Looms
22 120” Frame Looms
23 4 Thread Over Lock Machine
24 66” Frame Looms
25 Double Needle Lock stick
26 Filing Racks
27 Straight Knife Cutting Machine
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Machine Equipment Used in Tamil Nadu
Sl. nos 1 to 11, 13 to 20 Plus the following additional items:
28 Centre Table for Labs
29 Flat-Lock Bed Machine
30 Projectile Loom
31 Reaper
32 Single Needle Lockstitch Machine with Automatic Thread Trimmer
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Machine Equipment Used in Karnataka
Sl. nos 1 to 17 only
---------------------------
Source: IL&FS Clusters Website (ilfs-spring.com). SEAM Project, May 2012.

Note: The amount for purchase came from three sources, viz. Ministry of Rural Development Grant, Industry
Partners and the Training Partners.