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ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY ELEC 1033

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AIM
The objective of the experiment was to learn and apply the basic theory of the dc
resistances bridge and also to assess the advantages and disadvantages of this method of
measuring resistance.

EXPERIMENT
The terminals on the module were connected as shown below:

Figure 1

The value of RS was measured for different values of ratios R1 : R2 when there is null
deflection on the galvanometer.

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GROUPE B2
ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY ELEC 1033
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TABLE OF RESULTS

R1 : R2 RS / Ω
1:1 102

1:10 10

1:100 1

100:1 10092

10:1 1011

The value of RX1 can be calculated by using the formulae: R1RX1 = RSR2

R1 : R2 RS / Ω RX1 / Ω
1:1 102 102.00

1:10 10 100.00

1:100 1 100.00

100:1 10092 100.92

10:1 1011 100.10

The exact value of RX1 was measured using an ohm meter. Its value was 101.3 Ω.

INTERCHANGING THE CIRCUIT


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GROUPE B2
ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY ELEC 1033
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The circuit was re-arranged in such a way that the galvanometer is connected across A
and B and the power supply across C and D. This is shown by the circuit below:

Figure 2

The experiment was repeated to measure the value of RS. The same values as the first
experiment were obtained. Thus, even the circuit is interchanged the same results are
obtained.

BRIDGE EQUATION
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GROUPE B2
ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY ELEC 1033
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Considering Figure 1.
Suppose the current entering the network at A divides up into I1 through R1 and I2 through
R2. If no current flows through the galvanometer, then the current through R S and RX1
must be I1 and I2 respectively. Also, since no current flows through the galvanometer, the
potential of C and D must be equal. Hence, for a balance, or null deflection of the
galvanometer:
Potential difference across R1 = Potential difference across R2
Potential difference across RS = Potential difference across RX1

Therefore, I1R1 = I2R2

I1RS = I2RX1

Dividing, I1R1 / I1RS = I2R2 / I2RX1


RESULT: R1 / RS= R2 / RX1
The bridge equation for figure 1 is given by:

R1 / R2 = RS / RX1

Deriving the bridge equation when the circuit is interchanged.

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GROUPE B2
ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY ELEC 1033
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Considering figure 2.
When the circuit is interchanged current enters at C. Let the current through R 1 be I1 and
the current through RS be I2. Therefore, the current through R2 and RX1 are I1 and I2
respectively.
For null deflection of the galvanometer:
Potential difference across R1 = Potential difference across RS
Potential difference across R2 = Potential difference across RX1

R1I1 = RSI2
R2I1 = RX1I2

Dividing, R1I1 / R2I1 = RSI2 / RX1I2


Therefore, the bridge equation for figure 2 is given by:

R1 / R2 = RS / RX1

Thus, it can be seen that the same equation is obtained when the position of the supply
(E) and the balance indicator (G) are interchanged.
This is why the same value of RS was measured in both experiments.

ADVANTAGES OF USING BRIDGE METHOD


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GROUPE B2
ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY ELEC 1033
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Due to their outstanding sensitivity, Wheatstone bridge circuits are very advantageous for
the measurement of resistance. The Wheatstone bridge is well suited also for the
measurement of small changes of a resistance and, therefore, is also suitable to measure
the resistance change in a strain gauge. It is commonly known that the strain gauge
transforms strain applied to it into a proportional change of resistance. It is widely used
across industry even today.

The Wheatstone bridge is used to measure electrical resistance with a very high
precision- precision is much higher than attainable with voltmeters, ammeters and
ohmmeters. One application of the precision resistance measurement is an electronic
thermometer which makes use of resistance variation with temperature.

In what way does the variable ratio-arm improve the usefulness of the bridge?

The experiment can be repeated for different values of R1 and R2 without disconnecting
the circuit. Thus, different values of RS will be obtained and the values of RX1 can be
calculated. A more accurate value of RX1 will be obtained by calculating and an average
of all the values.

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GROUPE B2