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An Introduction to Drilling Fluid-

And Making Deep Holes


Michael A. Freeman, PhD
Scientific Advisor/R&E Fellow

1 9/6/2010
What Drilling Fluid (Mud) Does

Seal rocks to
prevent loss Prevent
of fluid hole collapse

Prevent rock
dispersion

Prevent
Prevent thethe
flow
flow ilofand
off oil oil and
d gas
gas drilling
while while
drilling

Remove
Lubricate drill cuttings
the drill string

GQS37586_11

2 9/6/2010
To Get To The MoHo, You Must Make a Hole.

Drill with a pipe, and


pump fluid down the
center

Rock is broken by the


bit and lifted to the
surface

3 9/6/2010
Water Can Not Lift Cuttings as Holes Go Deeper

Mud (clay suspension) cleans the hole!


4 9/6/2010
Lifting Rock Up the Hole Requires Overcoming Gravity

Stokes Law

dc² ((ρ
ρs - ρm )
Vs = kG
µ
Vs = Settling velocity
G = Gravitational Constant
k = Parametric Constant
dc = Particle diameter
ρs = Density of Rock
ρm = Density of Fluid
µ = Viscosity of Fluid

Mud provides viscosity and density

5 9/6/2010
Drilling Fluid Viscosity Decreases with Velocity

Fluid thickens as motion slows down, so settling is slowed

6 9/6/2010
KTB SuperDeep Well Drilled with Mud

7 9/6/2010
KTB Had Problems

Six Casing Strings Run- Smallest 5 ½”


8 9/6/2010
Boreholes Fail Because of Stresses
3

1
r/R

-1

-2

-3
3
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
r/R

Weight
g of overburden and shiftingg of formations pput stresses on rocks and fluids in them

9 9/6/2010
Hydraulic Pressure Counters Stresses

Pore Pressure Pushes


Fluid and Rock Into the
Hole, Balanced by the
Pressure Exerted by Mud
Density

Fracture Gradients Limit


Mud Density

Limits of FG and PP Set


Casing Points

10 9/6/2010
4.2 sg Barite Provides Density

Barite
Also
Settles

11 9/6/2010
The ‘Window’ Is Narrower In Deeper Water

12 9/6/2010
Viscosity + Density Create ‘ECD’- Pressure While Drilling

Pressure and
Temperature Change
Static Density,
Density “ESD”
ESD

Resistance to Flow
Adds On to Make ECD
When Pumping.

14 9/6/2010
Circulating Temperature with a Riser- 40 °F Offset at Bit

15 9/6/2010
Riserless Drilling Reduces Pressure

16 9/6/2010
Without Further Cooling Formation -

B t will
But ill you th
thermally
ll ffracture
t th the rockk ?
17 9/6/2010
Stress Cage Treatment of Fractures

 Estimate fracture width


using Rock Mechanics
 Picks WSM blend with
particle size distribution
required
q to bridge,
g ppropp
and seal the fracture

19 9/6/2010
20

DESIGN OF WSM

ON-SITE PARTICLE SIZE WSM RECOVERY


DISTRIBUTION

PARTICULATE WSM CHEMICAL WSM

RIGSITE
WELLBORE
STABILITY
MODEL

20 9/6/2010
FRACTURE FILLING, BRIDGING & PLUGGING TESTS
Questions?

21 9/6/2010