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Effective Lengths for Laterally Unbraced Compression Flanges of C.pdf

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Scholars' Mine

International Specialty Conference on Cold- (1982) - 6th International Specialty Conference on

Formed Steel Structures Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Nov 16th

Compression Flanges of Continuous Beams Near

Intermediate Supports

G. Haaijer

J. H. Garrett Jr.

K. H. Klippstein

Part of the Structural Engineering Commons

Recommended Citation

Haaijer, G.; Garrett, J. H. Jr.; and Klippstein, K. H., "Effective Lengths for Laterally Unbraced Compression Flanges of Continuous

Beams Near Intermediate Supports" (1982). International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures. 1.

http://scholarsmine.mst.edu/isccss/6iccfss/6iccfss-session4/1

This Article - Conference proceedings is brought to you for free and open access by Scholars' Mine. It has been accepted for inclusion in International

Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures by an authorized administrator of Scholars' Mine. This work is protected by U. S. Copyright

Law. Unauthorized use including reproduction for redistribution requires the permission of the copyright holder. For more information, please contact

scholarsmine@mst.edu.

Effective Lengths for Laterally Unbraced

Compression Flanges of Continuous

Beams Near Intermediate Supports

by

Abstract

laterally unbraced bottom flange is subjected to compressive

stresses near the interior support(s). To prevent lateral

buckling of the flange, this region must be adequately designed.

When the design specifications of the American Institute of Steel

Construction (AISC) or the American Iron and Steel Institute

(AISI) are used to design a hot-rolled or cold-formed beam,

respectively, questions arise as to whether the inflection point,

where the stress in the bot tom flange changes from tens ion to

compression, can be considered as a laterally braced point and

what the effective length should be to prevent lateral buckling

near the interior support.

models of an I-shaped hot-rolled beam and a C-shaped cold-formed

beam. The models were analyzed by using the MSC/NASTRAN finite-

element program. For the I beam, nine load-support-restraint

conditions were analyzed, and the results were compared with

solutions available in the literature to check the modeling

techniques used. Seven of these conditions were for simple-span

beams without lateral or torsional restraint, and two load condi-

tions were for double-span, continuous beams with full lateral

support of the top flange and with or without torsional restraint.

For the C-shaped beam, four load conditions were analyzed. The

first two of these were the same as the continuous span conditions

used for the I beams; the other two conditions utilized 3/4- and

l-inch-thick (19.4 and 25.4 mm) plywood, respectively, to provide

elastic lateral and torsional restraint to the top flange. These

conditions were used to simulate C-shaped steel joists covered by

plywood flooring without utilizing composite action.

Steel Corporation, Research Laboratory, Monroeville,

Pennsylvania 15146.

2) Senior Research Consultant, U. S. Steel Corporation, Research

Laboratory, Monroeville, Pennsylvania, 15146.

3) Associate Research Consultant, U. S. Steel Corporation,

Research Laboratory, Monroeville, Pennsylvania 15146.

179

180 SIXTH SPECIALTY CONFERENCE

technique used adequately represents the behavior of an 1- or

C-shaped beam, and that it is conservative to assume that the

inflection point of a C-shaped beam with its top flange attached

to 3/4- or l-inch-thick plywood flooring acts like a laterally

braced point. To determine the allowable stress for the laterally

unbraced bottom flange in the negative bending region of a contin-

uous beam in accordance with the 1968 edition of the AISI Cold-

Formed Steel Design Manual--Part III, it appears reasonable to use

an unbraced length of half the distance between the interior

support and the inflection point. However, stiffer beams attached

to typical plywood floor thicknesses should be investigated, and

confirmatory tests should be conducted to assure that such a

design approach and the calculated rotational restraint are

conservative.

DESIGN OF CONTINUOUS BEAMS 181

Introduction

*See References.

182 SIXTH SPECIALTY CONFERENCE

Research Objectives

point for the bottom flange and (2) to determine the effective

length of the bottom flange between the interior support and the

Analysis Program

Geometry Considered

formed C-shaped section with a span of 240 inches (610 cm) were

DESIGN OF CONTINUOUS BEAMS 183

Load-Support-Restraint Conditions

The cases considered for the two types of beams and the

and II. Included are nine cases for the I-shaped beam and four

loads, and uniform loads. The concentrated loads and the uniform

loads were applied to the top, the centroid, and the bottom of the

right end was chosen to simulate a continuous beam over two spans

zero or infinite, as indicated. For Cases C-3 and C-4, 3/4- and

184 SIXTH SPECIALTY CONFERENCE

Modeling Techniques

respectively.

isoparametric plate and shell elements). The depth of the web had

four QUAD4 elements, and the length had 48 elements. Each flange

elevation because they were located along both edges of the web,

as typified in the end view. The BEAM line element had torsional

For Cases I-I through 1-7 the beam model was simply

supported at each end. For Cases 1-8 and 1-9 the boundary condi-

two-span beam. Each node at the right support was fixed against

rotation in the plane of the web but was allowed to rotate about

DESIGN OF CONTINUOUS BEAMS 185

by the floor deck. However, for Case 1-8, the top flange was free

Case 1-9, the top flange was also restricted from any axial

element model for the C-shaped beam. Again, the web was modeled

with QUAD4 elements and the flanges with BEAM line elements.

However, the BEAM line elements were much more complicated for the

the flange with respect to the web. The BEAM line element in the

MSC/NASTRAN program allowed for the shear center and the neutral

axis to be offset from each other and from other elements, such as

the moment gradient, the smaller the element length, and vice

as for Cases 1-8 and 1-9. The top flange was fixed in the lateral

direction for all cases. In addition, the top flange was given

186 SIXTH SPECIALTY CONFERENCE

seen from Figure 4, the top flange of the beam model was

For all seven cases, the compressive stresses were in the laterally

(1 )

(200,000 MPa)

DESIGN OF CONTINUOUS BEAMS 187

cases a concentrated load was placed on the top flange, the web

according to F. Bleich,6) is

(2)

placed on the top flange, the web centroid, and the bottom

F. Bleich,6) is

(3 )

188 SIXTH SPECIALTY CONFERENCE

problems.

applied to the top flange in the plane of the web. All top

provided by a deck.

sions for Cases 1-8 and 1-9 or for the multitude of cases with

DESIGN OF CONTINUOUS BEAMS 189

rotate about its longitudinal axis. Thus, the use of these AISC

and for those used for future studies, which could lead towards

(4a)

FS factor of safety 1. 67

be braced

~o SIXTH SPECIALTY CONFERENCE

(4b)

as being braced.

ical buckling stress of 78.3 ksi (540 MPa). The critical buckling

the MSC/NASTRAN program are 44.6 and 170.1 ksi (308 and 1172 MPa),

(1350 mm). This length was greater than the distance between the

DESIGN OF CONTINUOUS BEAMS 191

23 inches (580 mm). This length was less than the 36-inch

distance between the inflection point and the fixed end. Therefore,

if the inflection point was used as a braced point for this case,

C-4 in Table II. Load Cases C-I and C-2 showed the same extreme

restraint. For Cases C-3 and C-4, the lateral and torsional

192 SIXTH SPECIALTY CONFERENCE

P T 14flEI (Sa)

cr o

P (Sb)

cr

or

(Sc)

where C = flR,2/ p e

290,000I/R,2 ( 6)

DESIGN OF CONTINUOUS BEAMS 193

L (9 )

t material thickness

equivalent column

(K~/r)

eq

490/lp

cr

!Ac (10 )

where

12 (11 )

23 (KR./r) eq 2

194 SIXTH SPECIALTY CONFERENCE

equivalent column is

F (12)

cr

leads to

1I2E/(KR./r) 2 (13 )

eq

values vary from 0.003793 for Case C-3 (floor with 3/4-inch-thick

because, for the cases investigated, C was always less than 30.

DESIGN OF CONTINUOUS BEAMS 195

one curve (B = 0.0038) was used to represent Cases C-2, C-3, C-4

lengths for Cases C-2, C-3, and C-4 are less than one fourth of

196 SIXTH SPECIALTY CONFERENCE

only half of the distance between the inflection point and the

Conclusions

An investigation was performed by using finite-element

models of an I-shaped hot-rolled beam and a C-shaped cold-formed

For the C-shaped beam, four load conditions were analyzed. The

first two of these were the same as the continuous span conditions

used for the I beams; the other two conditions utilized 3/4- and

DESIGN OF CONTINUOUS BEAMS 197

are conservative.

198 SIXTH SPECIALTY CONFERENCE

References

Structural Steel for Buildings," American Institute of Steel

Construction, November, 1978.

Members," American Iron and Steel Institute, November 1980.

Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural

Members," Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual-Part III, American

Iron and Steel Institute, 1968.

Schwendler Corp., Los Angeles, CA, May 1980.

Behavior, Harper and Row, New York, 1980.

New York, N.Y., 1952.

Institute Project 316, University of Texas, in preparation.

1976.

only. Any use of this material in relation to any specific appli-

cation should be based on independent examination and verification

of its unrestricted availability for such use, and a determination

of suitability for the application by professionally qualified

personnel. No license under any United States Steel Corporation

patents or other proprietary interest is implied by the pUblication

of this paper. Those making use of or relying upon the material

assume all risks and liability arising from such use or reliance.

Table I

Simply Supported M8x6.5 I-Shaped Section

for Different Loading Conditions

Critical

Top-Flange Loading*

Restraints MSC/ %

Case Load Conditions Lateral Torsional Theory NASTRAN Error

g

(/)

At top flange

~

1-3 p' = 1 k o o 1.129 1.683 2.7

At web centroid 8

1-4 p = 1 k o o 2.257 2~164 4.1 ~

At bottom fiange §

1-5 p = 1 k/in. o o 0.0160 0.0159 0.6 c::

(/)

At top .flange

~

1-6 p= 1 k/in. o o 0.0200 0.0195· 2.5 ~

At web centroid (/)

-At bottom flange

1 k 4.45 kN ......

1 k-in. 113.0 kN-mm \0

\0

1 k/in. 0.175 kN/mm

~oo SIXTH SPECIALTY CONFERENCE

Table II

Two-Span Continuous Beams with 1- and C-Shaped Sections

Distance

Length From Center Critical Stress,

Top of Each Support to ksi Effective

Flanse Restraint Span L, Inflection MSC/ Length,

Case Lateral Torsional in. Point, in. Theory NASTRAN in.

*Using Equation 5a; for all other cases with C-shaped sections,

Equation 5b was used.

1 in. 25 • 4 rom

1 ksi = 6.89 MPa

DESIGN OF CONTINUOUS BEAMS 201

Appendix A

Figure A-I

202 SIXTH SPECIALTY CO~ERENCE

A-2

f t::O.Obl£.l. ~

6=0.7554, S" ; 1=O'84<i4" I

.Lt _:~==~~>-~_.~~~=_=~~~~~~~:~C_.=G~.

I~r=o, J242~" ~~V~-~-.=R=;-=3=/=3!t;;~1

. " ~ ti 8 ~O'18 7'1 'I"

d=J.814-' m

SHEAR

d" /, (, 2"," Ct=N TER.

A'=U75"

,Figure A-2

Area of e~uivalent .column:

A t [a + 2b + 2ul (A-2)

+ 0.149r} (A-3)

Yo m + x (A-7)

DESIGN OF CONTINUOUS BEAMS 203

The result is

0.007008

EI

J "THIcK SECTION

Figure A-3

decking. In this case, the top flange of the beam was assumed to

The joist spacing used was 24 inches (61 cm) and the plywood

204 SIXTH SPECIALTY CONFERENCE

infinitely stiff.

I. 12."

.\~ I Z. "

.1

QUAD4

MRS'ON" ~S~RING

ELEMENT.s

~ (FLANGE)

R£STRAINTOFTop FLANGE

CASE C-3 AND C-4

EfJD V,EW'

Figure A-4

The total deflection is

Therefore, ~ = O.OOl/D

tions for this case parallel those discussed for Case C-3:

DESIGN OF CONTINUOUS BEAMS 205

1

A~

SIMPLIFICATION DUE. To

SYMMETRY AT B

BOTTOM FLANGE IN

COMPRESSION

COMPR.£SS/otJ 8

...t=o.2SL

MOM£NT DIAGRAM

FtGURE I

206 SIXTH SPECIALTY CONFERENCE

t; =0.18'1 ,I

8.0 "

.-L =- 144- 1/

7.25·'

/ in:25.4",m

...-t:. = Z40 u

BEAM GEOMETRII:S

FIGURE. 2

BEAM LINE ELEMENTS \I .}mUR GUA04

t;"LEMeN,S

END VIEW

8. L Ei. "',s (S As L )

V

tTl

[fJ

I 5

I[$I Iff 11111111111111111111111 ~J 111111111111111. z

o"rj

QUAD4 ELEMENTS

8

~

L=- 24oin. (t.O%7nm)

BEAM SPACING:: '2.4in.('-'OIYII'l'1) ~

o

~ .... _ ... 1:"'&'I"\;"')~ _

c:::

[fJ

to

£XTE:RIOR. $UPPOteT..$

~

[fJ

£l..£VATION

FIGURe oS ~

-l

CONrINUOcJ~ ~

00

ToRSIONAL. SPR.ING

QUAD4 D ...£MENT.5

CASt: C-3 AND C-4

C/l

~

::r::

C/l

rilQ

L = NO in.(bO%mm)

9

BE.AM SPACING :- 24 if}. ( 10/0 mm) 8

fiXED END, OR, ~

HINGE:D ENDj OR / N TeR lOR. .sf.) PPORT g;

EXTERIOR SUPPORTS

g

ELEIIATION

FIGURE 4-

DESIGN OF CONTINUOUS BEAMS 209

CASE I-'1

170./ ks;

"0 I

I

I

140 I EQUATION 4

(A DItPTED FROM AISC)

I

I

~

/20

EFFECTIVE LENGTHS,-4>;.r

CI1

CASE I-8- No ROTATIONAL STIFFNESS

-¥ ..L€,ff" 53 in.>3r". in.

/00

':' :. UNCONSERVATIVE.

l-

CAse I-'1-/NFIN,T"E ROTATIONAL.

~ SrIFFNES~

II) ..eeH gt 2 ~ in. <.3(. in.

tI)

I&J

80 :. CONSERVATIVE.

...I:\(

({)

-J

<C.

\.J

..... (,,0

I-- I in. '" 25.4mm

/ltsi='-.8'tSMF4..

8 CASE Fa

40 44.t../(5;

22 in.

o

INFLI<CTION PO"JT 3,il').

EFFE"CTIVE LENGTH, in.

fOte M8x(".S I SHAP£

210 SIXTH SPECIALTY CONFERENCE

300

I

250 I

I

I

I

....

If)

I

~ I

I

I

I CASE. C-4, AND 4-~ I U" Z Hi

-+

I I

I I

_1-t CASE C-3, 14-4.5 ksi

lih. = 25,4l1'1m

Il<.si =-".895 M PA.,

...

~ 100

f3= 0.0038

CASES C-2,3J 4) AND 4"-

so {3=O

CASe: C-/

~ ~

o 20 40 60 80 100

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