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INDEX

Page numbers followed by e, f, and t indicate equations, figures, and tables, respectively.

American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM),  1, 68–69 concentric loading, two angle member example,  56, 56f
American Welding Society Standard,  1 concrete, design requirements,  22–23, 23f, 49, 50f
analysis methods,  29–33, 30f–33f connections. See design of connections
anchor bolts,  10, 21–23, 22f coupon tests,  19
angles
compression members,  5–7, 6f, 7f,  35–37, 36f, 38f dead-end structures,  29
design tensile stress,  9–10 deflections,  19–20, 39, 48
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equal leg,  11–12, 12f, 39, 55 deformed bar anchor bolts,  23


shear load on,  12, 13f deformed bars,  1, 21
stub,  21–23, 22f, 23f design bearing stress,  15, 41
symmetrical lipped,  7–8, 38 design compressive stress
welded,  13, 18, 40, 45 described,  5
angle shear connectors,  23–24, 23f, 49 on gross cross-sectional area,  6–8
assembly and erection,  19, 48 design-factored loads,  1, 19, 29
attachment holes,  16, 43–44, 44f design of connections
axial compression and bending,  10, 39 attachment holes,  16, 43–44, 44f
axial tension and bending,  10 bearing stress,  15, 41
Commentary,  41–44, 42f–44f, 43t
bars, used as tension hangers in cross arms,  68 explanation of,  15, 41
beams,  11–12, 12f, 39 fasteners,  15, 41
beam webs,  12, 39 general requirements,  15
bearing capacity,  67 minimum distances,  15–16, 41–43, 43f, 43t
bearing stress,  15, 41 post angle member splices,  16, 44
block shear,  1 test verification,  16
bolt hole spacing,  16, 42, 42f, 43t design of members
bolts axial compression and bending,  10, 39
anchor,  10, 21–22, 22f axial tension and bending,  10, 39
bearing capacity,  67 beams,  11–12, 12f, 39
design elements,  15 Commentary,  35–40, 36f–38f
shear capacity,  15, 41, 67 compression members: angles,  5–7, 6f, 7f, 35–37, 36f, 37f
spacing minimum,  17 compression members: miscellaneous,  8–9, 9f, 38
subject to combined shear and tension,  15, 41 compression members: symmetrical lipped angles,  7–8, 38
tension capacity,  15, 41 design compression,  5, 35
bracing system, redundant members,  13 design shear,  12, 13f, 39
butt splices,  16 material,  5, 35
minimum sizes,  5, 35
center-to-center bolt hole spacing,  16, 42, 42f, 43t properties of sections,  5–6, 35
closed cross sections,  9 redundant members,  13, 40
Code Requirements for Nuclear Safety-Related Concrete slenderness ratios,  5
Structures (ACI 1985),  49 stitch bolts,  10
coefficient of friction values,  22, 22f tension members,  9–10, 10f, 39
cold bending,  17 test verification,  13
Commentary to ASCE/SEI 10-15 welded angles,  13, 40
design of connectors,  41–44, 42f–44f, 43t design requirements, for concrete and reinforcing steel,  22–23,
design of members,  35–40, 36f–38f 23f, 49, 50f
detailing and fabrication,  45 design shear,  12, 39
explanation of,  27 design tensile stress,  9
loading, geometry, and analysis,  29–33, 30f–33f detailing,  17
quality assurance and quality control,  51 deterioration considerations,  21, 49
structural members and connections used in determination of Fa,  6, 36
foundations,  49, 50f direct embedded structures,  47
testing,  47–48, 48f distance
compression formulas,  69 edge,  16, 43
compression members end,  15, 41–42
angles,  5–7, 6f–7f, 35–37, 36f, 38f minimum,  15–16, 41–43, 43f, 43t, 67
miscellaneous,  8–9, 9f, 38 double symmetric open cross sections,  9, 11
symmetrical lipped angles,  7–8, 38 downthrust,  1
welded angles,  13 drawings,  17

Design of Latticed Steel Transmission Structures 73

Design of Latticed Steel Transmission Structures


eccentric connections,  10 load lines,  19
eccentricity of load, on angle members,  10–12 load measurement,  19, 48
edge distance,  16, 43 loads
end connections effects on member capacity example,  56, 56f on angles,  11–12, 12f
end distance,  15, 41–42 Commentary,  29
engineer of record (EOR),  1, 17, 19, 32 design-factored,  3, 19, 29
equal leg angles,  11–12, 12f, 39, 55 eccentricity of,  10
equal leg angle with symmetrical bracing example,  55, 55f
equivalent radius of gyration,  8 man-load on horizontal members,  68
Euler formula,  35 material
examples conforming to standard specifications,  5
channel as column,  63–64, 63f specifications used in older towers,  68–69
cold formed angle,  61, 62f testing,  19, 47
cold formed lipped angle,  62, 62f maximum overstrengths,  47, 48f
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concentric loading, two angle member,  56, 56f members


subdivided panels,  58–59, 58f bearing capacity,  67
effect of end connections on member capacity,  56, 56f compression,  5–9, 6f, 7f, 13
effect of subdivided panels and end connections,  58, 58f design of,  5–13, 9f, 10f, 12f, 13f
equal leg angle with symmetrical bracing,  55, 55f man-load on horizontal,  68
j-value determination,  66, 66f primary,  1
k-bracing, two-angle member,  57, 57f redundant,  1, 6–7, 13, 15
m-section as column member,  63, 63f structural,  21–24, 22f, 23f
Schifflerized angle with symmetrical bracing,  64–65, 64f tension,  9–10, 10f, 13, 35
Schifflerized angle with unsymmetrical bracing,  65–66, 65f tension-only,  2, 17
t-section as column,  64, 64f member use ratios,  68
x-brace systems with intermediate redundant supports,  mill test reports,  19
60–61, 60f, 61f minimum distance,  15–16, 41–43, 43f, 43t, 67
x-brace systems with no intermediate redundant supports,  minimum embedment, for anchor bolts,  23
59, 59f m-section as column member example,  63, 63f

fabrication,  17–19, 45, 47 National Electrical Safety Code (IEEE 2012),  29


failure, premature structural,  20 nonsymmetric cross sections,  9, 38
fasteners,  15, 41. See also bolts North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed
foundations Steel Structural Members (AISI 2007),  38, 39
structural members and connections used in,  21–24, 22f,
34f, 49, 50f piece marks,  18
testing,  19, 47 point-symmetric open cross sections,  9
post angle member splices,  16, 44
galvanizing,  18 pressed plates,  21, 49
geometric configurations,  29 primary members,  1
grillages,  21
Guidelines for Electrical Transmission Line Structural quality assurance (QA),  25, 51
Loading (ASCE 2009),  29 quality control (QC),  25, 51
guidelines for existing towers,  67–69
guys,  10, 38–39 redundant members
gyration, equivalent radius of,  8 bracing system,  13
end distance,  15
hot bending,  17–18 explanation of,  1, 6–7, 40
reinforcing steel,  22–23, 23f, 49
j-value determination example,  66, 66f rigid structures,  47

k-bracing, two-angle member example,  57, 57f Schifflerized angle with symmetrical bracing example,  64–65,
64f
lap splices,  16 Schifflerized angle with unsymmetrical bracing
lattice structures example,  65–66, 65f
components,  3 section properties,  5, 35
explanation of,  3, 29–30, 30f shear connectors,  23–24, 23f, 49
geometric configurations,  3 shear friction,  1
loads,  3 shipping procedures,  18
methods of analysis,  30–33, 30f–33f shop check assembly,  17
leg members,  1, 6, 7f shop detail drawings,  17
line security,  1 shop operations,  17–18
lip depth, minimum,  8, 8f simplified tower model,  30, 31f
load application,  19, 48 singly symmetric sections,  9, 11, 39
load factor,  1 slenderness ratios,  5, 35, 67

74 STANDARDS 10-15

Design of Latticed Steel Transmission Structures


smooth bar anchor bolts,  23 guys,  10, 39
snug-tight,  2 threaded rods and anchor bolts,  10
steel welded angles,  13
design requirements for reinforcing,  22–23, 23f, 49, tension-only members
50f detailing,  17
deterioration considerations,  21 explanation of,  2, 35
quality control,  17 test engineer,  2
weathering,  17 testing
steel grillages,  21 Commentary,  47–48, 48f
stitch bolts,  10 detail failure during,  17
strain gauging,  47 functions,  19–20
strain measurements,  19, 47–48 test loads,  19
strain structures,  29 test reports,  20
stress gradients,  8–9, 9f, 38 test verification,  13, 16, 24
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structural failure, premature,  20 threaded-rod members,  10


structural members towers
anchor bolts,  21–22, 22f ASTM material specifications used in older,  68–69
design requirements,  22–23 detail drawings,  17
general considerations,  21, 22f guidelines for existing,  67–69
shear connectors,  23–24, 23f original compression formulas used in older,  69
stub angles,  21 simplified model,  30, 31f
test verification,  24 tested,  68
Structural Stability Research Council (SSRC) formula,  35 t-section as column example,  64, 64f
stub angles,  21–23, 22f, 23f
stud shear connectors,  23, 49 unfactored load,  2
subdivided panels effects and end connections example,  58, uniformly compressed elements,  8
58f uplift,  2
suspension structures,  29
symbols list,  53–54 weathering steel,  17
symmetrical bracing,  55 welded angles,  13, 18, 40, 45
symmetrical lipped angles,  7–8, 38 welding procedure,  18
wind-on-structure loads,  19
tangent,  29
tension members x-brace systems with intermediate redundant supports
angle members,  9–10, 10f example,  60–61, 60f, 61f
design tensile stress,  9 x-brace systems with no intermediate redundant supports
eccentric connections,  10 example,  59, 59f

Design of Latticed Steel Transmission Structures 75

Design of Latticed Steel Transmission Structures