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Final project report BS mechanical

Session

Fall 2014-18

(Mechanical

Designing and Wood


Engraving
OF

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Final project report BS mechanical

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Final project report BS mechanical

Project Supervisor: Engineer Ahmed Bilal


MUHAMMAD ABID (G.L) Reg No.14F-US-528--06

Cell No: 0308-3474063


Email: jamabid786.ja@gmail.com

HAMMAD ASLAM Reg No.14F-US-528--10

Cell No: 0301-5634144


Email: hammad_aulakh@yahoo.com

MUHAMMAD AWAIS BASHIR Reg No.14F-US-528-11

Cell No: 0344-7237102


Email: awais_rct@yahoo.com

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Final project report BS mechanical

Department of Mechanical Technology

UNIVERSITY OF SARGODHA

2018

It is certified that the project entitled “DESIGNING AND


WOOD ENGRAVING OF CNC MILLING MACHINE”
submitted by MUHAMMAD ABID, HAMMAD ASLAM and
MUHAMMAD AWAIS BASHIR is in scope and standard for the
partial fulfillment of award of degree in BS.Technology
Mechanical.

INTERNAL EXAMINER

SIGNATURES: -----------------------------------------------------------

DATE: ------------

EXTERNAL EXAMINER

SIGNATURES: ---------------------------------------------------------

DATE: ------------

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Final project report BS mechanical

PROJECT

3 Axis CNC Milling


Machine

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Final project report BS mechanical

Contents

Chapter 1 ------ Milling Machine


1.1 Introduction.…………………………………………………………..11

1.2 Milling Process.……………………………………………………….12

1.2.1 Face Milling………….………………………………………………..13

1.2.2 Peripheral Milling…………………………………….……………….14

1.3 Milling Cutters ………………………………………………………..14

1.4 Gang Milling …………………….………………………………….. 15

1.5 Mill Orientation ……………………………………….……………...16

1.5.1 Vertical Mill ……………………………………………..………….. 16

1.5.1.1 Turret Mill ………………………………………………..………….18

1.5.1.2 Bed Mill……………………………………………………...………19

1.5.1.3 Drill Mill……………………………………………………………..19

1.5.2 Horizontal Mill………………………………….................................20

1.5.3 Comparative Merits…………………………………………………....21

1.5.4 Difference between Horizontal & Vertical Mill ………………………22

1.5.5 Box Mill ……………………………………………………………….23

1.5.6 C-Frame Mill ………………………………………………………….23

1.5.7 Floor Mill ……………………………………………………………...23

1.5.8 Gantry Mill …………………………………………………………….23

1.5.9 Horizontal Boring Mill ………………………………………………. 23

1.5.10 Jig borer Vertical Mill ………………………………………………..24

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1.5.11 Knee Mill ……………………………………………………………24

1.5.12 Ram type Mill ……………………………………………………….24

Chapter 2 ------ Concept of CNC


2.1 CNC…………………………………………………………………..26

2.2 CNC Milling Machine………………………………………………..26

2.2.1 Operating System……………………………………………………..27

2.3 Numerical Control ……………………………………………………27

2.3.1 Operations ……………………………………………………………28

2.4 Features of CNC ……………………………………………………. 29

2.5 Advantages of CNC Machine ………………………………………..30

2.6 Machine Control Unit ………………………………………………..30

2.6.1 MCU Components …………………………………………………...31

2.7 Numerical Control Mode …………………………………………….31

2.8 Part Program …………………………………………………………32

2.8.1 ISO Standards for Coding ……………………………………………32

2.8.2 G&M Codes…………………………………………………………..34

2.8.3 Absolute Dimensioning System……………………………………..42

2.8.4 Incremental Dimensioning System……………………………….…45

2.9 Tools ……………………………………………………………..…..47

2.10 Pocket Milling ………………………………………………………..49

2.11 Tool Path ……………………………………………………………..49

2.11.1 Linear Tool Path ……………………………………………………..50

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Final project report BS mechanical

2.11.1.1 Zig-zag Tool Path ……………………………………………….…..50

2.11.1.2 Zig Tool Path …………………………………………………….….50

2.11.2 Non-linear Tool Path ………………………………………………….51

2.11.2.1 Contour-Parallel Tool Path ……………………………………….…51

2.11.2.2 Curvilinear Tool Path………………………………………………..52

Chapter 3 ------ 3 Axis CNC Milling machine


3.1 CNC……………………………….………………………………..…..54

3.2 Axis ………………………………………………………………..…...54

3.3 Assembly Instructions…………………………………………….……54

3.3.1 Parts Size ……………………………………………………………….54

3.3.2 Frame ..………………………………………………………………....57

3.3.3 Frame 2…………………………………………………………………59

3.3.4 Frame 3…………………………………………………………………59

3.3.5 Polished Rod 1 ……………………………………………………….. 60

3.3.6 Polished Rod 2 ……………………………………………………….. 60

3.3.7 Y-Axis ………………………………………………………………....61

3.3.8 Stepper Motor ………………………………………………………….62

3.3.9 X-Axis & Z-Axis …………………………………………………….. 63

3.3.10 Lead Screw Installation ……………………………………………….64

3.3.11 Coupling Assembly ………………………………………………….. 65

3.3.12 Bearing Assembly …………………………………………………… 65

3.3.13 Control Board Assembl…..……………………………………………67

3.3.14 Wiring Assembly………………………………………………..…….68


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3.3.15 Final Product ……………………………………………………….…69

3.4 Electrical Parts ………………………………………………………...69

3.5 Mechanical Parts ………………………………………………………70

3.6 Working ……………………………………………………………….70

3.7 Milling Machine Uses ………………………………………………...71

References …………………………………………………………………...71

Bibliography……………………………………………………………...….73

Internet……………………………………………………………………….73

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Chapter 1

Milling Machine

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Milling Machine

1.1 Introduction
Milling is the machining process of using rotary cutters to remove
material from a work piece by advancing (or feeding) the cutter into the work
piece at a certain direction. The cutter may also be held at an angle relative to
the axis of the tool. Milling covers a wide variety of different operations and
machines, on scales from small individual parts to large, heavy-duty gang
milling operations. It is one of the most commonly used processes for
machining custom parts to precise tolerances.
Milling can be done with a wide range of machine tools. The original
class of machine tools for milling was the milling machine (often called a mill).
After the advent of computer numerical control (CNC), milling machines
evolved into machining centers: milling machines augmented by automatic tool
changers, tool magazines or carousels, CNC capability, coolant systems, and
enclosures. Milling centers are generally classified as vertical machining centers
(VMCs) or horizontal machining centers (HMCs).
The integration of milling into turning environments, and vice versa,
begun with live tooling for lathes and the occasional use of mills for turning
operations. This led to a new class of machine tools, multitasking machines
(MTMs), which are purpose-built to facilitate milling and turning within the
same work envelope.

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Fig. 1.1 Milling Machine

1.2 Milling Process


Milling is a cutting process that uses a milling cutter to remove material
from the surface of a work piece. The milling cutter is a rotary cutting tool,
often with multiple cutting points. As opposed to drilling, where the tool is
advanced along its rotation axis, the cutter in milling is usually moved
perpendicular to its axis so that cutting occurs on the circumference of the
cutter. As the milling cutter enters the work piece, the cutting edges (flutes or
teeth) of the tool repeatedly cut into and exit from the material, shaving
off chips (swarf) from the work piece with each pass. The cutting action is shear
deformation; material is pushed off the work piece in tiny clumps that hang
together to a greater or lesser extent (depending on the material) to form chips.
This makes metal cutting somewhat different (in its mechanics) from slicing
softer materials with a blade.

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The milling process removes material by performing many separate,


small cuts. This is accomplished by using a cutter with many teeth, spinning the
cutter at high speed, or advancing the material through the cutter slowly; most
often it is some combination of these three approaches. The speeds and
feeds used are varied to suit a combination of variables. The speed at which the
piece advances through the cutter is called feed rate, or just feed; it is most often
measured in length of material per full revolution of the cutter.
There are two major classes of milling process:
 Face milling
 Peripheral milling

1.2.1 Face Milling


In face milling, the cutting action occurs primarily at the end corners of
the milling cutter. Face milling is used to cut flat surfaces (faces) into the work
piece, or to cut flat-bottomed cavities.

Fig. 1.2 Face Milling

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1.2.2 Peripheral Milling


In peripheral milling, the cutting action occurs primarily along the
circumference of the cutter, so that the cross section of the milled surface ends
up receiving the shape of the cutter. In this case the blades of the cutter can be
seen as scooping out material from the work piece. Peripheral milling is well
suited to the cutting of deep slots, threads, and gear teeth.

Fig. 1.3 Peripheral and Face Milling

1.3 Milling Cutters


Many different types of cutting tools are used in the milling process.
Milling cutters such as end mills may have cutting surfaces across their entire
end surface, so that they can be drilled into the work piece (plunging). Milling
cutters may also have extended cutting surfaces on their sides to allow for
peripheral milling. Tools optimized for face milling tend to have only small
cutters at their end corners.

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The cutting surfaces of a milling cutter are generally made of a hard and
temperature-resistant material, so that they wear slowly. A low cost cutter may
have surfaces made of high speed steel. More expensive but slower-wearing
materials include cemented carbide. Thin film coatings may be applied to
decrease friction or further increase hardness.
They are cutting tools typically used in milling machines or machining
centers to perform milling operations (and occasionally in other machine tools).
They remove material by their movement within the machine (e.g., a ball nose
mill) or directly from the cutter's shape (e.g., a form tool such as a hobbing
cutter).
As material passes through the cutting area of a milling machine, the
blades of the cutter take swarfs of material at regular intervals. Surfaces cut by
the side of the cutter (as in peripheral milling) therefore always contain regular
ridges. The distance between ridges and the height of the ridges depend on the
feed rate, number of cutting surfaces, the cutter diameter. With a narrow cutter
and rapid feed rate, these revolution ridges can be significant variations in
the surface finish.
The face milling process can in principle produce very flat surfaces.
However, in practice the result always shows visible trochodial marks following
the motion of points on the cutter's end face. These revolution marks give the
characteristic finish of a face milled surface. Revolution marks can have
significant roughness depending on factors such as flatness of the cutter's end
face and the degree of perpendicularity between the cutter's rotation axis and
feed direction. Often a final pass with a slow feed rate is used to improve the
surface finish after the bulk of the material has been removed. In a precise face
milling operation, the revolution marks will only be microscopic scratches due
to imperfections in the cutting edge.

1.4 Gang Milling


Gang milling refers to the use of two or more milling cutters mounted on
the same arbor (that is, ganged) in a horizontal-milling setup. All of
the cutters may perform the same type of operation, or each cutter may perform
a different type of operation. For example, if several work pieces need a slot, a
flat surface, and an angular groove, a good method to cut these (within a non-

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CNC context) would be gang milling. All the completed work pieces would be
the same, and milling time per piece would be minimized.
Gang milling was especially important before the CNC era, because for
duplicate part production, it was a substantial efficiency improvement over
manual-milling one feature at an operation, then changing machines (or
changing setup of the same machine) to cut the next op. Today, CNC mills with
automatic tool change and 4- or 5-axis control obviate gang-milling practice to a
large extent.

Fig. 1.4 Gang Milling

1.5 Mill Orientation


Mill orientation is the primary classification for milling machines. The
two basic configurations are:
 Vertical
 Horizontal

1.5.1 Vertical Mill


In the vertical mill the spindle axis is vertically oriented. Milling
cutters are held in the spindle and rotate on its axis. The spindle can generally
be extended (or the table can be raised/lowered, giving the same effect),
allowing plunge cuts and drilling.

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Fig. 1.5 Vertical Mill

There are three subcategories of vertical mills:


 Bed Mill
 Turret Mill
 Drill Mill

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1.5.1.1 Turret Mill


A turret mill has a stationary spindle and the table is moved both
perpendicular and parallel to the spindle axis to accomplish cutting. The
most common example of this type is the Bridgeport, described below.
Turret mills often have a quill which allows the milling cutter to be raised
and lowered in a manner similar to a drill press. This type of machine
provides two methods of cutting in the vertical (Z) direction: by raising or
lowering the quill, and by moving the knee.

Turret mills are generally considered by some to be more versatile of the


two designs. However, turret mills are only practical as long as the machine
remains relatively small. As machine size increases, moving the knee up and
down require considerable effort and it also becomes difficult to reach the
quill feed handle (if equipped). Therefore, larger milling machines are
usually of the bed type.

Fig. 1.6 Turret Mill

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1.5.1.2 Bed Mill


In the bed mill, however, the table moves only perpendicular to the
spindle's axis, while the spindle itself moves parallel to its own axis.

Fig. 1.7 Bed Mill

1.5.1.3 Drill Mill


A third type also exists, a lighter machine, called a mill-drill, which is a
close relative of the vertical mill and quite popular with hobbyists. A mill-drill is
similar in basic configuration to a small drill press, but equipped with an X-Y
table. They also typically use more powerful motors than a comparably sized
drill press, with potentiometer-controlled speed and generally have more heavy-
duty spindle bearings than a drill press to deal with the lateral loading on the
spindle that is created by a milling operation. A mill drill also typically raises
and lowers the entire head, including motor, often on a dovetailed vertical,
where a drill press motor remains stationary, while the arbor raises and lowers
within a driving collar.

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Fig. 1.8 Drill Mill

1.5.2 Horizontal Mill


A horizontal mill has the same sort but the cutters are mounted on a
horizontal spindle. Many horizontal mills also feature a built-in rotary table that
allows milling at various angles; this feature is called a universal table. While
end mills and the other types of tools available to a vertical mill may be used in
a horizontal mill, their real advantage lies in arbor-mounted cutters, called side
and face mills, which have a cross section rather like a circular saw, but are
generally wider and smaller in diameter. Because the cutters have good support
from the arbor and have a larger cross-sectional area than an end mill, quite
heavy cuts can be taken enabling rapid material removal rates. These are used to
mill grooves and slots. Plain mills are used to shape flat surfaces. Several
cutters may be ganged together on the arbor to mill a complex shape of slots
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and planes. Special cutters can also cut grooves, bevels, radii, or indeed any
section desired. These specialty cutters tend to be expensive. Simplex mills have
one spindle, and duplex mills have two. It is also easier to cut gears on a
horizontal mill. Some horizontal milling machines are equipped with a power-
take-off provision on the table. This allows the table feed to be synchronized to
a rotary fixture, enabling the milling of spiral features such as hypoid gears.

Fig. 1.9 Horizontal Mill

1.5.3 Comparative Merits


The choice between vertical and horizontal spindle orientation in milling
machine design usually hinges on the shape and size of a work piece and the
number of sides of the work piece that require machining. Work in which the

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spindle's axial movement is normal to one plane, with an end mill as the cutter,
lends itself to a vertical mill, where the operator can stand before the machine
and have easy access to the cutting action by looking down upon it. Thus
vertical mills are most favored for die sinking work (machining a mold into a
block of metal). Heavier and longer work pieces lend themselves to placement
on the table of a horizontal mill.
Prior to numerical control, horizontal milling machines evolved first,
because they evolved by putting milling tables under lathe-like headstocks.
Vertical mills appeared in subsequent decades, and accessories in the form of
add-on heads to change horizontal mills to vertical mills (and later vice versa)
have been commonly used. Even in the CNC era, a heavy work piece needing
machining on multiple sides lends itself to a horizontal machining center, while
die sinking lends itself to a vertical one.

1.5.4 Difference between Horizontal and Vertical Mill


Table 1.1
Sr. No Horizontal Milling Machine Vertical Milling Machine
1 Spindle is horizontal & parallel Spindle is vertical and perpendicular
to work table. to the work table.
2 Cutter cannot be moved up & Cutter can be moved up & down.
down.
3 Cutter is mounted on the Cutter is directly mounted on the
arbor. spindle.
4 Spindle cannot be tilted. Spindle can be tilted foe angular
cutting.
5 Operations such as plain Operations such as slot milling,T-slot
milling, gear cutting, form milling, angular milling, flat milling,
milling, straddle milling, gang etc. can be performed and also
milling, etc. can be drilling, reaming, boring can be
performed. carried out.

1.5.5 Box Mill


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Box mill or column mill Very basic hobbyist bench-mounted milling


machines that feature a head riding up and down on a column or box way.

1.5.6 C-Frame Mill


These are larger, industrial production mills. They feature a knee and fixed
spindle head that is only mobile vertically. They are typically much more
powerful than a turret mill.

1.5.7 Floor Mill


These have a row of rotary tables, and a horizontal pendant spindle mounted
on a set of tracks that runs parallel to the table row. These mills have
predominantly been converted to CNC, but some can still be found (if one
can even find a used machine available) under manual control.

1.5.8 Gantry Mill


The milling head rides over two rails (often steel shafts) which lie at each
side of the work surface.

1.5.9 Horizontal Boring Mill


Large, accurate bed horizontal mills that incorporate many features from
various machine tools. They are predominantly used to create large
manufacturing jigs, or to modify large, high precision parts.

1.5.10 Jig Borer Vertical Mill

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These are built to bore holes, and very light slot or face milling. They are
typically bed mills with a long spindle throw. The beds are more accurate.

1.5.11 Knee Mill


Knee mill or knee-and-column mill refers to any milling machine whose x-y
table rides up and down the column on a vertically adjustable knee. This
includes Bridge ports.

1.5.12 Ram-type Mill

This can refer to any mill that has a cutting head mounted on a
sliding ram. The spindle can be oriented either vertically or
horizontally.

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Chapter 2

Concept of CNC

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Concept of CNC

2.1 CNC
CNC means Computer Numerical Control. This means a computer
converts the design produced by Computer Aided Design software (CAD), into
numbers. The numbers can be considered to be the coordinates of a graph and
they control the movement of the cutter.

2.2 CNC Milling Machine


Most CNC milling machines (also called machining centers) are
computer controlled vertical mills with the ability to move the spindle vertically
along the Z-axis. This extra degree of freedom permits their use in die sinking,
engraving applications, and 2.5D surfaces such as relief sculptures. When
combined with the use of conical tools or a ball nose cutter, it also significantly
improves milling precision without impacting speed, providing a cost-efficient
alternative to most flat-surface hand-engraving work.
CNC machines can exist in virtually any of the forms of manual
machinery, like horizontal mills. The most advanced CNC milling-machines,
the multi axis machine, add two more axes in addition to the three normal axes
(XYZ). Horizontal milling machines also have a C or Q axis, allowing the
horizontally mounted work piece to be rotated, essentially allowing asymmetric
and eccentric turning. The fifth axis (B axis) controls the tilt of the tool itself.
When all of these axes are used in conjunction with each other, extremely
complicated geometries, even organic geometries such as a human head can be
made with relative ease with these machines. But the skill to program such
geometries is beyond that of most operators. Therefore, 5-axis milling machines
are practically always programmed with CAM.

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2.2.1 Operating System


The operating system of such machines is a closed loop system and
functions on feedback. These machines have developed from the basic NC
(NUMERIC CONTROL) machines. A computerized form of NC machines is
known as CNC machines. A set of instructions (called a program) is used to
guide the machine for desired operations. Some very commonly used codes,
which are used in the program are:
G00 Rapid traverse
G01 Linear interpolation of tool
G21 Dimension in metric units
M03/M04 Spindle start (clockwise/counter clockwise)
T01 M06 Automatic tool change to tool 1
M30 Program end

Various other codes are also used. A CNC machine is operated by a single
operator called a programmer. This machine is capable of performing various
operations automatically and economically.
With the declining price of computers and open source CNC software, the
entry price of CNC machines has plummeted.

2.3 Numerical Control


Numerical control (NC) refers to the automation of machine tools that are
operated by abstractly programmed commands encoded on a storage medium,
as opposed to manually controlled or mechanically automated via cams alone.
The first NC machines were built in the 1940s and ‘50s, based on existing tools
that were modified with motors that moved the controls to follow points fed into
the system on paper tape. These early servomechanisms were rapidly
augmented with analog and digital computers, creating the modern computer
numerical controlled (CNC) machine tools that have revolutionized the design
process. In modern CNC systems, end-to-end component design is highly
automated with CAD/CAM programs. The programs produce a computer file
that is interpreted to extract the commands needed to operate a particular

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machine; and then loaded into the CNC machines for production. Since any
particular component might require the use of a number of different tools,
modern machines often combine multiple tools into a single cell.

Modern CNC machines differ little in concept from the original model
built at MIT in 1952. Mills typically consist of a table that moves in the Y-axis
and a tool chuck that moves in X and Z (depth). The position of the tool is
driven by motors through a series of step down gears in order to provide highly
accurate movements, or in modern designs, direct drive stepper motors. As the
controller hardware evolved, the mills themselves also evolved. One change has
been to enclose the entire mechanism in a large box as a safety measure, often
with additional safety interlocks to ensure the operator is far enough from the
working piece for safety operation. Mechanical manual controls disappeared
long ago.

2.3.1 Operations
CNC like systems are now used for any process that can be described as a
series of movements and operations. These include:

 Laser cutting
 Welding
 Friction stir welding
 Ultra-sonic welding
 Flame and plasma cutting
 Bending
 Spinning
 Pinning
 Gluing
 Fabric cutting
 Sewing
 Tape and fiber placement
 Routing
 Picking and placing (PnP)
 Sawing

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2.4 Features of CNC


CNC systems include additional features beyond what is feasible with
conventional hardwired NC. These features, many of which are standard of
most CNC machine control units (MCU) where others are optional, include the
following

 Storages of more than one part. With improvement in computer storage


technology, newer CNC controllers have sufficient capacity to store
multiple programs.
 Various forms of programs input. Hard-wired MCUs are limited to
pushed tapes as the input medium for entering part programs, whereas
CNC controllers possess multiple data entry capabilities.
 Programs editing at the machine tool. CNC permits a part program to be
edited while it resides in the MCU computer memory. Hence, the process
of testing and correcting a program can be done entirely at the machine
site rather than returning to the programming office to edit the tape.
 Fixed cycles and programming sub routines. The increased memory
capacity and the ability to program the control computer provide the
opportunity to store frequently used machining cycles as macros that can
be called by the part program. Instead of writing the full instructions for
the particular cycle into every program, a call statement is included in the
part program to indicate that the macro cycle should be executed.
 Interpolation. Linear and circular interpolation is sometimes hard-wired
into the control unit, but helical, parabolic and cubic interpolation are
usually executed in a stored program algorithm.
 Positioning features for set up. Setting up the machine tool for a given
work part involves installing and aligning a fixture on the machine tool
table. The alignment task can be facilitated using certain features made
possible by software option in CNC system. Position set is one of these
features. With position set, the operator is not required to locate the
fixture on the machine table with extreme accuracy.
 Cutter length and size compensation. In older style controls, cutter
dimensions had to be set very precisely to agree with the tool path
defined in the part program.
 Acceleration and deceleration calculation. This feature is applicable when
cutter moves at high feed rate. It is designed to avoid tool marks on the

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work surface that would be generated due to machine tool dynamics


when cutting path changes abruptly.
 Communication interface. Most modern CNC controllers are equipped
with RS-232 or other communication interface to allow machine to be
linked to other computers and computer driven devices.
 Diagnostics. Many CNC systems possess an online diagnostics capability
that monitors certain aspects for machine tool to detect malfunctions or
sign of impending malfunctions or to diagnose system breakdowns.

2.5 Advantages of CNC Machines


CNC machines have several advantages with emphasis on machine tool
applications. When the production application satisfies the characteristics
needed, CNC yields many benefits over manual production methods. The
benefits translate into economic saving for the user company. Some of the
advantages are:

 Non-productive time is reduced through fewer steps, less setup time, less
work piece handling time and automatic tool changes.
 Greater accuracy and repeatability
 Lower scrap rates
 Inspections requirements are reduced
 More complex parts geometries are possible
 Engineering changes can be accommodated more gracefully.
 Simple fixtures are needed
 Shorter manufacturing lead times
 Reduced parts inventory
 Less floor space required
 Operator skill level requirements are reduced

2.6 Machine Control Unit (MCU)


CNC machine is fitted with MCU which performs the various controlling
features under the program control. The MCU may be generally housed in a
separated cabinet like cabinet body or may be mounted on the machine itself.
Appearance wise it looks like a computer with a display panel generally of
small size and a number of buttons to control like machine tool along with a

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keyboard. This control unit controls the motion of cutting tool, spindle speeds,
feed rate, tool changes, cutting fluid applications and several other functions of
the machine tool.

2.6.1 MCU Components


The MCU consists of following components and subsystems:

 Central processing unit


 Memory
 Input and output interface
 Control for machine tool axes and spindle speed
 Sequence control for other machine tools
This subsystem are interconnected by means of a system bus.

2.7 Numerical Control Mode


The controller has number of modes in which they can operate. There
could be four possible modes in which controller can function in relation to a
machine center.

 Termed as point to point mode. In this mode, the control has the
capability to operate all the three axis, but not necessarily simultaneously.
It would be possible to move the tool to any point (in X and Y axis) and
carry out the machining operation in one axis (Z axis) at that point.
 Improvement over point to point mode. The machine tool has the
capability to carry out a continuous motion in each of the axis direction.
 A control system, which has simultaneously motion capability any two
axes.
 The highest form of control that gives the capability of simultaneous
three or more axes motion.

2.8 Part Program

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Part program is a very important software element in the NC


manufacturing system. It is a detailed plan of manufacturing instructions
required for machining the part as per drawing. The format standardized by
ISO. For example:

N30 G00 X120 Y45 Z85

N40 G90

N50 G03 X200 I100 J0 F200

2.8.1 ISO Standards for Coding

Table 2.1
Character Address for
A Angular dimension around X Axis
B Angular dimension around Y Axis
C Angular dimension around Z Axis
D Angular dimension around 3rd feed function
E Angular dimension around 2nd feed function
F Feed function
G Preparatory function
H Unassigned
I Distance to arc center to X
J Distance to arc center to Y
K Distance to arc center to X
L Do not use
M Miscellaneous function

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N Sequence number
O References rewind up
P Third rapid traverse dimension
Q Second rapid traverse dimension
R First rapid traverse dimension
S Spindle speed function
T Tool function
U Secondary motion dimension parallel to X
V Secondary motion dimension parallel to Y
W Secondary motion dimension parallel to Z
X Primary X motion dimension
Y Primary Y motion dimension
Z Primary Z motion dimension

2.8.2 G&M CODES

Table 2.2

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G&M CODES

Catego Functi
Code Notes
ry on
Move in a
straight line XYZ of
G00 Motion
at rapids endpoint
speed.
Move in a
straight line
at last
XYZ of
G01 Motion speed
endpoint
commanded
by a
(F)feedrate
XYZ of
Clockwise endpoint
circular arc IJK
G02 Motion
at relative to
(F)feedrate center R
for radius
XYZ of
Counter-
endpoint
clockwise
IJK
G03 Motion circular arc
relative to
at
center R
(F)feedrate
for radius
Dwell: Stop P for
for a millisecon
G04 Motion
specified ds X for
time. seconds
FADAL
G05 Motion Non-Modal
Rapids
Exact stop
G09 Motion
check

Programma
Compensatio ble
G10 n parameter
input

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Final project report BS mechanical

Turn Polar
Coordinates
G15 Coordinate OFF, return
to Cartesian
Coordinates
Turn Polar
G16 Coordinate Coordinates
ON
Select X-Y
G17 Coordinate
plane
Select X-Z
G18 Coordinate
plane
Select Y-Z
G19 Coordinate
plane
Program
G20 Coordinate coordinates
are inches
Program
G21 Coordinate coordinates
are mm
Reference
G27 Motion point return
check
Return to
G28 Motion home
position
Return from
the
G29 Motion
reference
position
Return to
the 2nd,
G30 Motion 3rd, and 4th
reference
point
Constant
lead
threading
G32 Canned (like G01
synchronize
d with
spindle)

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Tool cutter
compensati
Compensati
G40 on off
on
(radius
comp.)
Tool cutter
compensati
Compensati
G41 on left
on
(radius
comp.)
Tool cutter
compensati
Compensati
G42 on right
on
(radius
comp.)
Apply tool
Compensati length
G43
on compensati
on (plus)
Apply tool
Compensati length
G44
on compensati
on (minus)
Tool length
Compensati
G49 compensati
on
on cancel
Reset all
Compensati scale
G50
on factors to
1.0
Turn on
Compensati
G51 scale
on
factors
Local
workshift for
all
G52 Coordinate coordinate
systems:
add XYZ
offsets
G53 Coordinate Machine
coordinate
system

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Final project report BS mechanical

(cancel
work
offsets)
Work
coordinate
G54 Coordinate
system (1st
Workpiece)
Work
coordinate
G55 Coordinate
system (2nd
Workpiece)
Work
coordinate
G56 Coordinate
system (3rd
Workpiece)
Work
coordinate
G57 Coordinate
system (4th
Workpiece)
Work
coordinate
G58 Coordinate
system (5th
Workpiece)
Work
coordinate
G59 Coordinate
system (6th
Workpiece)
Exact stop
G61 Other
check mode
Automatic
G62 Other corner
override
Tapping
G63 Other
mode
Best speed
G64 Other
path
Custom
G65 Other macro
simple call
G68 Coordinate Coordinate
System

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Final project report BS mechanical

Rotation
Cancel
Coordinate
G69 Coordinate
System
Rotation
High speed
drilling cycle
G73 Canned
(small
retract)
Left hand
G74 Canned tapping
cycle
Fine boring
G76 Canned
cycle
Cancel
G80 Canned canned
cycle
Simple
G81 Canned
drilling cycle
Drilling
cycle with
G82 Canned dwell
(counter-
boring)
Peck drilling
G83 Canned cycle (full
retract)
Tapping
G84 Canned
cycle
Boring
canned
G85 Canned cycle, no
dwell, feed
out
Boring
canned
cycle,
G86 Canned
spindle
stop, rapid
out
G87 Canned Back boring

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Final project report BS mechanical

canned
cycle
Boring
canned
cycle,
G88 Canned
spindle
stop,
manual out
Boring
canned
G89 Canned
cycle, dwell,
feed out
Absolute
programmin
G90 Coordinate g of XYZ
(type B and
C systems)
Absolute
programmin
G90.1 Coordinate g IJK (type
B and C
systems)
Incremental
programmin
G91 Coordinate g of XYZ
(type B and
C systems)
Incremental
programmin
G91.1 Coordinate g IJK (type
B and C
systems)
Offset
coordinate
G92 Coordinate system and
save
parameters
Clamp of
G92
maximum
(alternat Motion S
spindle
e)
speed
G92.1 Coordinate Cancel
offset and

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Final project report BS mechanical

zero
parameters
Cancel
offset and
G92.2 Coordinate
retain
parameters
Offset
coordinate
G92.3 Coordinate system with
saved
parameters
Units per
minute feed
G94 Motion mode. Units
in inches or
mm.
Units per
revolution
feed mode.
G95 Motion
Units in
inches or
mm.
Constant
G96 Motion surface
speed
Cancel
constant
G97 Motion
surface
speed
Return to
initial Z
G98 Canned plane after
canned
cycle
Return to
initial R
G99 Canned plane after
canned
cycle

M-Codes
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Final project report BS mechanical

Functio
Code Category Notes
n
Program
M00 M-Code Stop (non-
optional)
Optional
Stop:
M01 M-Code Operator
Selected to
Enable
End of
M02 M-Code
Program
Spindle ON
M03 M-Code (CW
Rotation)
Spindle ON
M04 M-Code (CCW
Rotation)
Spindle
M05 M-Code
Stop
Tool
M06 M-Code
Change
Mist
M07 M-Code
Coolant ON
Flood
M08 M-Code
Coolant ON
Coolant
M09 M-Code
OFF

FADAL
M17 M-Code subroutine
return
Rigid
Tapping
M29 M-Code Mode on
Fanuc
Controls
M30 M-Code End of
Program,
Rewind and

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Final project report BS mechanical

Reset
Modes

Haas-Style
M97 M-Code Subprogram
Call
Subprogram
M98 M-Code
Call

2.8.3

What Is Absolute dimensioning system?


When programming in absolute, all of your coordinates and movement values will
come from the origin (0,0) point. If you want to be in Absolute, the G-code that
defines this is G90, which is a modal code.

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Example fig 2.6 (a)

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Final project report BS mechanical

Example fig 2.6 (b)

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Final project report BS mechanical

2.8.4

What Is Incremental dimensioning system?


instead of all of your coordinates/numbers coming from one location (0,0 offset),
each move is the distance from your current location.

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Example fig 2.7 (a)

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Final project report BS mechanical

Example fig 2.7 (b)

2.9 Tools
The accessories and cutting tools used on machine tools (including
milling machines) are referred to in aggregate by the mass noun "tooling".
There is a high degree of standardization of the tooling used with CNC milling
machines, and a lesser degree with manual milling machines. To ease up the
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Final project report BS mechanical

organization of the tooling in CNC production many companies use a tool


management solution.
Milling cutters for specific applications are held in various tooling
configurations.
CNC milling machines nearly always use SK (or ISO), CAT, BT or HSK
tooling. SK tooling is the most common in Europe, while CAT tooling,
sometimes called V-Flange Tooling, is the oldest and probably most common
type in the USA. CAT tooling was invented by Caterpillar Inc. of Peoria,
Illinois, in order to standardize the tooling used on their machinery. CAT tooling
comes in a range of sizes designated as CAT-30, CAT-40, CAT-50, etc. The
number refers to the Association for Manufacturing Technology (formerly the
National Machine Tool Builders Association (NMTB)) Taper size of the tool.

Fig. 2.1 Milling Tools

High speed steels and cobalt end mills are used for cutting operations in milling
machines.

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Final project report BS mechanical

2.10 Pocket Milling


Pocket milling has been regarded as one of the most widely used
operations in machining.
It is extensively used in aerospace and shipyard industries. In pocket
milling the material inside an arbitrarily closed boundary on a flat surface of a
work piece is removed to a fixed depth. Generally flat bottom end mills are used
for pocket milling. Firstly roughing operation is done to remove the bulk of
material and then the pocket is finished by a finish end mill. Most of the
industrial milling operations can be taken care of by 2.5 axis CNC milling. This
type of path control can machine up to 80% of all mechanical parts. Since the
importance of pocket milling is very relevant, therefore effective pocketing
approaches can result in reduction in machining time and cost. NC pocket
milling can be carried out mainly by two tool paths, viz. linear and non-linear.

Fig. 2.2 Pocket Milling

2.11 Tool Path


Tool follows two paths
 Linear tool path
 Non-linear tool path

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Final project report BS mechanical

2.11.1 Linear Tool Path


In this approach, the tool movement is unidirectional. Zig-zag and zig
tool paths are the examples of linear tool path.

2.11.1.1 Zig-zag Tool Path


In zig-zag milling, material is removed both in forward and backward
paths. In this case, cutting is done both with and against the rotation of the
spindle. This reduces the machining time but increases machine chatter and tool
wear.

Fig. 2.3 Zig-zag tool path

2.11.1.2 Zig Tool Path


In zig milling, the tool moves only in one direction. The tool has to be
lifted and retracted after each cut, due to which machining time increases.
However, in case of zig milling surface quality is better.

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Final project report BS mechanical

Fig. 2.4 Zig tool path

2.11.2 Non-linear Tool Path


In this approach, tool movement is multi-directional. One example of
non-linear tool path is contour-parallel tool path.

2.11.2.1 Contour-parallel Tool Path


In this approach, the required pocket boundary is used to derive the tool
path. In this case the cutter is always in contact with the work material. Hence
the idle time spent in positioning and
retracting the tool is avoided. For large-
scale material removal, contour-parallel
tool path is widely used because it can be
consistently used with up-cut or down-cut
method during the entire process.

Fig. 2.5 Contour-parallel tool path

2.11.2.2 Curvilinear Tool Path


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Final project report BS mechanical

In this approach, the tool travels along a gradually evolving spiral path.
The spiral starts at the center of the pocket to be machined and the tool
gradually moves towards the pocket boundary. The direction of the tool path
changes progressively and local acceleration and deceleration of the tool are
minimized. This reduces tool wear.

Fig. 2.6 Curvilinear tool path

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Final project report BS mechanical

Chapter 3

3 axis CNC Milling


Machine

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Final project report BS mechanical

3 Axis CNC Milling Machine

3.1 CNC
CNC means Computer Numerical Control. This means a computer
converts the design produced by Computer Aided Design software (CAD), into
numbers. The numbers can be considered to be the coordinates of a graph and
they control the movement of the cutter.

3.2 Axis
An axis is a direction of motion controlled by the CNC machine control.
It can be linear (motion along a straight line) or circular (a rotary motion).

3.3 Assembly Instructions

3.3.1 Parts Size

Fig. 3.1 Main parts

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Final project report BS mechanical

CNC Wood Engraving

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Final project report BS mechanical

Fig. 3.2 Main parts

Fig. 3.3 Main parts

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Final project report BS mechanical

3.3.2 Frame 1
 Base: 330mm×2、360mm×3
 Angle Support×6、M5*10×12
 Spacer×12

Fig. 3.4 Main frame

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Final project report BS mechanical

Main frame back view

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Final project report BS mechanical

3.3.3 Frame 2
 Base 220mm×2、360mm×2
 Angle Suport×4、M5*10×8
 Specer×8

Fig. 3.5 Frame

3.3.4 Frame 3
 Angle Support×6、M5*10×16
 Spacer×12
 Connecting pieces×2

Fig. 3.6 Frame

3.3.5 Polished Rods 1

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Final project report BS mechanical

Size of Polished Rod Supporting Base 1

Fig. 3.7 Polished rods

3.3.6 Polished Rods 2


Size of Polished Rod Supporting Base

Fig. 3.8 Polished rod

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Final project report BS mechanical

3.3.7 Y-Axis

 M6*10×10
 Sliding Block×5
 Worktable×1

Fig. 3.9 Y-Axis

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Final project report BS mechanical

3.3.8 Stepper Motor

Fig. 3.10 Stepper motor

3.3.9 X-Axis & Z-Axis

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Final project report BS mechanical

Fig. 3.12 X-Axis & Z-Axis

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Final project report BS mechanical

3.3.10 Lead Screws Installation

Fig. 3.13 Lead screw and installation

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Final project report BS mechanical

3.3.11 Couplings Assembly

Tighten two screws from one side only

Fig. 3.14 Coupling Assembly

3.3.12 Bearing Assembly

Fig. 3.15 Bearing Assembly

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SPINDLE OF CNC:

CNC Spindle

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Final project report BS mechanical

3.3.13 Control board Assembly

Fig. 3.16 Control board Assembly

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Final project report BS mechanical

3.3.14 Wiring Diagram

Fig. 3.17 Wiring

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Final project report BS mechanical

3.3.15 Final Product

Fig. 3.18 CNC Milling Machine

3.4 Electrical Parts


Following are the different Electrical parts used in this CNC Milling
Machine:

 Arduino
 GRBL-Shield
 Stepper Driver
 Power Supply
 Stepper Motors
 Milling Spindle
 Inverter

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Final project report BS mechanical

3.5 Mechanical Parts


Following are the different Mechanical parts used in this CNC Milling
Machine

 Linear bearings
 Linear rails
 Ball circulating spindles
 Fix spindle bearing and stepper holder
 Lose spindle bearings
 Spindle stepper coupling
 Frame
 Gantry
 Linear X- bearing
 Y-Profile
 Z-Profile
 Z-Sliding plate for spindle mounting

3.6 Working
Computer numerical control (CNC) has been incorporated into a variety
of new technologies and machinery. Perhaps the most common type of machine
that is used in this realm is known as a CNC mill.
CNC milling is a certain type of CNC machining. Milling is a process
that is quite similar to drilling or cutting, and milling can perform these
processes for a variety of production needs. Milling utilizes a cylindrical cutting
tool that can rotate in various directions. Unlike traditional drilling, a milling
cutter can move along multiple axes. It also has the capability to create a wide
array of shapes, slots, holes, and other necessary impressions. Plus, the work
piece of a CNC mill can be moved across the milling tool in specific directions.
A drill is only able to achieve a single axis motion, which limits its overall
production capability.
CNC mills are often grouped by the number of axes on which they can
operate. Each axis is labeled using a specific letter. For example, the X and Y
axes represent the horizontal movement of the mill’s work piece. The Z axis
designates vertical movement. The W axis represents the diagonal movement
across the vertical plane.

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Final project report BS mechanical

The majority of CNC milling machines offer from 3 to 5 axes. More


advanced mills must be programmed with CAM technology to run properly.
These advanced CNC machines can produce specific shapes that are basically
impossible to produce with any manual tooling techniques. In addition, most
CNC mills are equipped with a special device that pumps fluid to the cutting
tool during the production process

3.7 Milling Machine Uses


Following Operations are performed on the Milling machine

 Plain milling
 Gear cutting
 Form milling
 Straddle milling
 Gang milling
 Slot milling
 T-slot milling
 Angular milling
 Flat milling
 Drilling
 Reaming
 Boring

References
 Brown & Sharpe 1914, p. 7.

 CMMC 1922, p. 122.

 Usher 1896, p. 142.

 CMMC 1992, pp. 125–127.

 "How to use a Milling Machine". American Machine Tools Co.

 Encyclopedia Britannica 2011


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Final project report BS mechanical

 Currently the term "miller" refers to machines built when that term
was current, as with "phonograph" and "horseless carriage."

 Kramer, Thomas R. (1992). "Pocket Milling with Tool Engagement


Detection". Journal of Manufacturing Systems.

 Held, Martin (1991). "A geometry-based investigation of the tool path


generation for zigzag pocket machining".

 Choy, H.S.; Chan, K.W. (February 2003). "A corner-looping based


tool path for pocket milling". Computer-Aided Design.

 Hansen, Allan; Arab, Farhad (April 1992). "An algorithm for


generating NC tool paths for arbitrarily shaped pockets with
islands". ACM Transactions on Graphics.

 Jeong, J.; Kim, K. "Tool Path Generation for Machining Free-Form


Pockets Voronoi Diagrams". Springer Link. The International Journal
of Advanced Manufacturing Technology

 Persson, H. (May 1978). "NC machining of arbitrarily shaped


pockets". Computer-Aided Design

 Bieterman, Michael B.; Sandstrom, Donald R. (Nov 11, 2003). "A


Curvilinear Tool-Path Method for Pocket Machining". Journal of
Manufacturing Science and Engineering

 Woodbury 1972, p. 23.

 Roe 1916, p. 206.

 Woodbury 1972, p. 17.

 Roe 1916, caption of figure facing p. 142.

 Roe 1918, p. 309.

 Woodbury 1972, pp. 16–26.

 Baida 1987

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Final project report BS mechanical

 Roe 1916, Chapter V: Inventors of the Planer, pp. 50–62.

 Woodbury 1972, pp. 24–26.

 Roe 1916, p. 165.

 Roe 1916, pp. 208–209.

 Woodbury 1972, pp. 51–55.

 Woodbury 1972, pp. 79–81.

 American Precision Museum 1992.

 Pease 1952

 Noble 1984, throughout.

 "Design Guide: CNC Machining" (PDF). xometry.com.

Bibliography
 Usher, John T. (1896). The Modern Machinist (2nd ed.). N. W. Henley.
Retrieved 2013-02-01.

 Practical treatise on milling and milling machines. Brown & Sharpe


Manufacturing Company. 1914. Retrieved 2013-01-28.

 A treatise on milling and milling machines. Cincinnati, Ohio: Cincinnati


Milling Machine Company. 1922. Retrieved 2013-01-28.

 Noble, David F. (1984), Forces of Production: A Social History of


Industrial Automation, New York, New York, USA: Knopf, ISBN 978-0-
394-51262-4, LCCN 83048867.

 Roe, Joseph Wickham (1916), English and American Tool Builders, New
Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, LCCN 16011753. Reprinted
by McGraw-Hill, New York and London, 1926 (LCCN 27-24075); and
by Lindsay Publications, Inc., Bradley, Illinois,(ISBN 978-0-9179-73-7)

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Final project report BS mechanical

 Roe, Joseph Wickham (1916), English and American Tool Builders, New
Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, LCCN 16011753. Reprinted
by McGraw-Hill, New York and London, 1926 (LCCN 27-24075); and
by Lindsay Publications, Inc., Bradley, Illinois, (ISBN 978-0-914-73-7).

Internet
 www.wikipedia.org
 www.szmillingmachine.com
 www.warco.com
 www.axminster.com
 www.indiamart.com
 www.toolco
 www.engineeringtools.com
 www.engineeredge.com
 www.machinex.com
 www.skyfirecnc.com

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