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MAE 320-Chapter 5 • Apply the conservation of mass principle to various systems including

steady- and unsteady-flow control volumes.

• Apply the first law of thermodynamics as the statement of the

conservation of energy principle to control volumes.

• Identify the energy carried by a fluid stream crossing a control surface as

Mass and Energy Analysis the sum of internal energy, flow work, kinetic energy, and potential

energy of the fluid and to relate the combination of the internal energy

of Control Volumes and the flow work to the property enthalpy.

• Solve energy balance problems for steady-flow devices such as nozzles,

compressors, turbines, throttling valves, mixers, heaters, and heat

exchangers.

• Apply the energy balance to general unsteady-flow processes with

particular emphasis on the uniform-flow process as the model for

commonly encountered charging and discharging processes.

The content and the pictures are from the text book: Çengel, Y. A. and Boles, M. A., “Thermodynamics:

An Engineering Approach,” McGraw-Hill, New York, 6th Ed., 2008

Conservation of mass: Mass, like energy, is a conserved property, and it The differential mass flow rate of a fluid across a a small area element dAc:

cannot be created or destroyed during a process.

process. Mass flow rate

Control volumes: Mass can cross the boundaries, and so we must keep average velocity:

track of the amount of mass entering and leaving the control volume.

Mass is conserved even during chemical reactions. The average velocity Vavg is

defined as the average speed

through a cross section.

The conservation of mass principle for a control volume (CV): The net General conservation of mass:

mass transfer to or from a control volume during a time interval Δt is equal to

the net change in the total mass within the control volume during Δt.

The mass balance of a control volume:

mCV = ∫ ρdV

CV

for an ordinary bathtub.

1

Mass Balance for Steady-Flow Processes Special Case: Incompressible Flow

During a steady-flow process, the total amount of mass contained within a The conservation of mass relations can be simplified even further when the

control volume does not change with time (mCV = constant). fluid is incompressible, which is usually the case for liquids.

Then the conservation of mass principle requires that the total amount of

mass entering a control volume equal to the total amount of mass leaving it. Steady, incompressible

For steady-flow processes, the mass Steady, incompressible flow (single stream)

flow rate for multiple inlets and exits:

of volume” principle.

For single stream: However, for steady flow of liquids, the

volume flow rates, as well as the mass

flow rates, remain constant since liquids

are essentially incompressible substances.

Many engineering devices such as

nozzles, diffusers, turbines, compressors,

and pumps involve a single stream (only During a steady-flow process, volume

one inlet and one outlet). Conservation of mass principle for a two- flow rates are not necessarily conserved

inlet–one-outlet steady-flow system. although mass flow rates are.

Example 5-2

4 ft =

0.5 in

V = 2 gh

3 ft

Example 5-2 Example 5-2

2

Dtan dh

dt = − k

⋅

D 2jet 2 gh

2

Flow Work and Energy of Flowing Fluid Total Energy of a Flowing Fluid

The energy per unit mass for a stationary liquid (nonflowing fluid):

Flow work or flow energy: The work

(or energy) required to push the mass

into or out of the control volume. This The flow energy is

work is necessary for maintaining a The energy per unit mass for a flowing fluid:

automatically taken

continuous flow through a control care of by enthalpy. In

volume. h = u + Pv fact, this is the main

reason for defining the

property enthalpy.

Schematic for flow work

The total energy consists of three parts for a nonflowing fluid and four parts for a

flowing fluid.

The energy for a flowing fluid:

When the kinetic and potential energies of a fluid stream are negligible:

Under steady-flow conditions, the

volume, the mass and energy contents

of a control volume remain constant.

Many engineering systems

such as power plants operate

When the properties of the mass at each under steady conditions.

inlet or exit change with time as well as

over the cross section

The product m & iθi is the energy the fluid properties at an inlet

transported into control volume by or exit remain constant (do not

mass per unit time. change with time).

Mass and Energy balances for a steady-flow process Mass and Energy balances for a steady-flow process

Mass balance for a steady-flow system: Energy balance for a steady-flow system:

steady-flow system:

It is not “u” for a flow system

3

Mass and Energy balances for a steady-flow process Energy Transport by Mass

Energy balance relations with sign conventions (i.e., heat input and work output

are positive)

are negligible:

and electrical work are the only forms

of work a simple compressible system

may involve.

Example 5-3 Example 5-3

Many engineering devices operate essentially under the same conditions Nozzles and diffusers are commonly utilized

for long periods of time. The components of a steam power plant (turbines, in jet engines, rockets, spacecraft, and even

compressors, heat exchangers, and pumps), for example, operate nonstop for garden hoses.

months before the system is shut down for maintenance. Therefore, these

devices can be conveniently analyzed as steady-flow devices.

A nozzle is a device that increases the

velocity of a fluid at the expense of pressure.

pressure of a fluid by slowing it down.

Energy

balance for

At very high velocities,

a nozzle or

even small changes in Nozzles and diffusers are

velocities can cause

diffuser:

shaped so that they cause

significant changes in the

A modern land-based gas turbine used for electric power

kinetic energy of the fluid. large changes in fluid

production. This is a General Electric LM5000 turbine. It velocities and thus kinetic

has a length of 6.2 m, it weighs 12.5 tons, and produces energies.

55.2 MW at 3600 rpm with steam injection.

4

Nozzles and Diffusers Nozzles and Diffusers

Example 5-4

Example 5-4 Example 5-4

Energy balance for the Turbine drives the electric generator In

compressor and turbine steam, gas, or hydroelectric power plants.

As the fluid passes through the turbine, the

shaft rotates, and the turbine produces

work.

Compressors, as well as pumps and fans,

are devices used to increase the pressure

of a fluid. Work is supplied to these devices

from an external source through a rotating

shaft.

Compressor

5

Turbines and Compressors Turbines and Compressors

Example 5-7 Example 5-7

Example 5-7 Example 5-7

Throttling valves are any kind of flow-restricting

devices that cause a significant pressure drop in

the fluid.

The pressure drop in the fluid is often

accompanied by a large drop in temperature, and

for that reason throttling devices are commonly

used in refrigeration and air-conditioning.

Energy balance

Since w=0, ,

not change during a throttling

(h = constant) process since h = h(T).

6

Throttling valves Throttling valves

Example 5-8 Example 5-8

In engineering applications, the section 60°C

where the mixing process takes place

is commonly referred to as a mixing

chamber.

140 kPa

10°C 43°C

chamber in the figure is:

serves as the mixing chamber for the

hot- and the cold-water streams.

Example 5-9 Example 5-9

7

Mixing chambers Heat exchangers

Example 5-9 A heat exchanger can be as

Heat exchangers are devices where simple as two concentric pipes.

two moving fluid streams exchange

heat without mixing. Heat

exchangers are widely used in

various industries, and they come in

various designs.

associated with a

heat exchanger

may be zero or

nonzero depending

on how the control

volume is selected.

Example 5-10

Example 5-10 Example 5-10

8

Heat exchangers Pipe and duct flow

Example 5-10

The transport of liquids or gases in pipes

and ducts is of great importance in many

engineering applications. Flow through a

pipe or a duct usually satisfies the steady-

flow conditions.

one form of work at the same time.

in the figure is

Many processes of interest, however, involve changes within the control Most unsteady-flow processes can be represented reasonably well by the

volume with time. Such processes are called unsteady-flow, or transient-flow, uniform-flow process.

processes. Uniform-flow process: The fluid flow at any inlet or exit is uniform and

steady, and thus the fluid properties do not change with time or position

over the cross section of an inlet or exit. If they do, they are averaged and

treated as constants for the entire process.

supply line is an unsteady-flow volume may change during an

process since it involves changes A uniform-flow system may involve electrical,

unsteady-flow process. shaft, and boundary work all at once.

within the control volume.

Mass balance for any system: • Conservation of mass

9 Mass and volume flow rates

9 Mass balance for a steady-flow process

9 Mass balance for incompressible flow

Energy balance for any system: • Flow work and the energy of a flowing fluid

9 Energy transport by mass

• Energy analysis of steady-flow systems

• Some steady-flow engineering devices

Energy balance for a uniform- flow system: 9 Nozzles and Diffusers

9 Turbines and Compressors

9 Throttling valves

Where

9 Mixing chambers and Heat exchangers

9 Pipe and Duct flow

• Energy analysis of unsteady-flow processes

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