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Structural Design Of

Pavements
Dr. Md. Mizanur Rahman

CE 6505
Staged Construction of Flexible 
Pavement
Staged Construction of Flexible 
Pavement
Staged Construction of Flexible 
Pavement
Staged Construction of Flexible 
Pavement
Staged Construction of Flexible 
Pavement
Example:
Solution:

Determine ESAL for first 10 years and ESAL for the 20 years
design period.

Growth factor for 10 yrs = 12.58 (from Table 18.6)


Growth factor for 20 yrs = 33.06 (from Table 18.6)
n1 = 60000*12.58
60000*12 58 = 754800
n2 = 60000*(33.06-
60000*(33.06-12.58) = 1228800

N1 = 1.67 * 754800 = 1260516


N2 = 2.5
2 5 * 1228800 = 3072000

From Figure 18.5 Required thickness for first stage h1=7.5 in


R
Required
i d thickness
thi k for
f second d stage
t h2=9.5
9 5 iin
(9.5-7.5) = 2 in
Depth of Overlay = (9.5-
AASHTO Design Method of Flexible 
Pavement
# The AASHTO method for design g of highway
g yppavements is based
primarily on the results of the AASHTO road test
test..

# The factors considered in the AASHTO procedure for the


design of flexible Pavement are
are::

Pavement performance
Traffic
Subgrade materials
Materials of Construction
Environment
a age
Drainage
Reliability
AASHTO Design Method of Flexible 
Pavement (Example)
(Example)
A Flexible pavement for an urban interstate highway
g y is to be designed
g
using AASHTO Design method to carry a design ESAL of 2 X 106.
It is estimated that it takes about a Week for water to be drained from
within the pavement and the pavement structure Will be exposed to
moisture levels approaching saturation for 30%
30% of the time
time..

The following additional information is available:


available:

Resilient modulus of asphalt concrete at 68 F = 450000 psi


CBR value of base course materials = 100
CBR value of subbase course materials = 22
CBR value of subgrade materials = 6
Initial Serviceability index Pi = 4.5
T
Terminal
i l serviceability
i bili index
i d Pt =2.5
Determine a suitable pavement structure.
structure.
The Structural Number (SN) represents the overall structural
requirement needed to sustain the design’s traffic loadings
loadings..

It is an abstract number that expresses the structural strength


of a pavement required for given combinations of soil support (MR),
total traffic expressed in ESALs, terminal serviceability and environment.

The following equation can be used to relate individual material


t
types andd thicknesses
thi k t the
to th structural
t t l number
number:
b :

SN = aa1D1 + aa2D2m2 + aa3D3m3


SN 

a1, a2, a3 = structural-layer


y coefficients of the wearing
g
surface, base, and subbase layers, respectively,
D1, D2, D3 = thickness of the wearing surface, base, and subbase
layers in inches, respectively, and
m2, m3 = drainage coefficients for the base and subbase, respectively.
Solution:

Reliability level ( R ) = 99 percent from Table 18.17


Standard deviations (So) = 0.49 (For Flexible Pavement range 0.4 – 0.5)
Mr = 9000 psi for roadbed/subgrade
S
Serviceability
i bilit Loss
L = Pi – Pt = 4.5
4 5 - 2.5
25=2
Determine Design Structural Number SN = 4.4 from Figure 18.20
Determine the appropriate structural layer coefficient for each
construction Materials :

a1 = 0.44 (Mr of asphalt cement = 450000 psi, From Figure 18.17)


a2 = 0.14 (CBR of base course material = 100, From Figure 18.16)
a3 = 0.10 (CBR of subbase course material = 22, From Figure 18.15)

Determine appropriate
pp p drainage
g coefficient mi from Table 18.15 and 18.16.
Value of m2 = m3 =0.8 (Since only one set of conditions is given for both
the Base and Subbase)

Several values of D1 D2 D3 can be obtained to satisfy the SN value of 4.40.


Layer thickness, however, are usually rounded up to the nearest 0.5 in.
For Mr = 31000 psi SN1 = 2.6 from figure 18.20

D1 = SN1/a1 = 2.6/.44 = 5.9 in

Using 6 in Surface course


SN1* = 0.44*6 =2.64

For Mr = 13500 psi SN2 = 3.8 from Figure 18.20


D*2 (SN2 SN1*)/ 2 2 =10.36
D*2=(SN2-SN1*)/a2m2 10 36 iin
Use 12 in
SN2*=0.14*.8*12 + 2.64 = 1.34 + 2.64 = 3.98

D3*= (SN3 – SN2*)/a3m3 = 5.25 in

Use 6 in

SN3*= 2.64+1.34+.8*.1 = 4.46 > 4.4


99

Standard Deviation, So

Flexible Pavements 0.49 0.40 – 0.50


Rigid Pavements 0.30 – 0.40
Reliability level, R = 99%, Overall Standard Deviation, So = 0.49, ESAL = 2 X 106
Resilient Modulus of Subgrade = 9000psi, Serviceability Loss PSI = 4.5-
4.5-2.5 = 2

Design SN = 4.4
0.44

Figure 18.17
0.14

Figure 18.16
0.10

Figure: 
18.15
Table 18.15
6”
12”
6”
THE DESIGN PROCESS

There are three main steps to be followed in designing a new


road pavement These are:
are:

(i) estimating the amount of traffic and the cumulative


number of equivalent standard axles that will use the road
over the selected design life;

(ii) assessing the strength of the subgrade soil over which


the road is to be built;

(iii) selecting the most economical combination of pavement


materials and layer thicknesses that will provide satisfactory
service over the design life of the pavement (It is usually
necessary to assume that an appropriate level of
maintenance is also carried out).
This method considers each of these steps in turn and puts
special emphasis on five aspects of design that are of
major
j significance
i ifi i designing
in d i i roads
d in
i mostt tropical
t i l
countries:
• The influence of tropical
p climates on moisture conditions
in road subgrades.
• The severe conditions imposed on exposed bituminous
surfacing materials by tropical climates and the
implications of this for the design of such surfacings.
• The interrelationship between design and maintenance. If
an appropriate
i t level
l l off maintenance
i t cannott be
b assumed.d it
is not possible to produce designs that will carry the
anticipated
p traffic loadingg without high
g costs to vehicle
operators through increased road deterioration.
• The high axle loads and tyre pressures which are common
in most countries.
countries
• The influence of tropical climates on the nature of the
soils and rocks used in road building.
Definition of Pavement Layers
The
e Pavem
ment De
esign P
Process
Traffic Classes used in Design
Subgrade Classes used in Design
Index o
of Structtural Cattalogue
Structural Catalogue (1)
St t l C t l (1)
Structural Catalogue (2)
St t l C t l (2)
Structural Catalogue (3)
St t l C t l (3)
Structural Catalogue (4)
St t l C t l (4)
Structural Catalogue (5)
St t l C t l (5)
Structural Catalogue (6)
St t l C t l (6)
Structural Catalogue (7)
St t l C t l (7)
Structural Catalogue (8)
St t l C t l (8)
CBR Requirements of various Pavements layers in
the RHD Specifications
Design Life and Traffic Growth Rates
Determining Cumulative ESAs Over
the Pavement Design Life
Design Chart of RHD (Flexible Pavements)
Determination of Improved 
f d
Sub‐‐grade Thickness
Sub