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3/29/2019 Pink-necked green pigeon - Wikipedia

Pink-necked green pigeon

The pink-necked green pigeon (Treron vernans) is a species of bird of
the pigeon and dove family, Columbidae. It is a common species of
Pink-necked green pigeon
Southeast Asia, found from Myanmar and Vietnam south through to the
major islands of Indonesia and the Philippines. It is a medium sized pigeon
with predominantly green plumage; only the male has the pink-neck that
gives the species its name. The species lives in a wide range of forested and
human-modified habitats, and is particularly found in open habitats. Its diet
is dominated by fruit, in particular figs. Pairs lay two eggs in a flimsy twig
nest in a tree, shrub or hedge, and work together to incubate the eggs and
raise the chicks. The species is thought to be an important disperser of fruit Male in Singapore
seeds. The species has adapted well to human changes to the environment,
and can be found in crowded cities as long as fruiting trees are present, and
is not considered to be at risk of extinction.

Taxonomy Female in Singapore
Description Conservation status
Distribution and habitat
Status Least Concern (IUCN 3.1)[1]
References Scientific classification
External links
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Taxonomy Class: Aves
Carl Linnaeus described the pink-necked green pigeon as Columba vernans Order: Columbiformes
in 1771. Its specific name, vernans, is derived from the Latin word vernantis
Family: Columbidae
for "brilliant" or "flourishing".[2] It was later moved to the green pigeon
genus Treron. Within that genus the species is most closely related to the Genus: Treron
similar looking orange-breasted green pigeon of India and Southeast Asia.
Species: T. vernans
The species has had up to nine subspecies described, along with the
nominate race, but among the important ornithological checklists the Binomial name
International Ornithological Congress' (IOC) Birds of the World: Treron vernans
Recommended English Names, the Howard and Moore Complete Checklist (Linnaeus, 1771)
of the Birds of the World and The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World
do not accept any described subspecies as valid and all treat the species as
monotypic.[3][4][5] Only the Handbook of the Birds of the World's HBW 1/5
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Alive lists any subspecies, with the proviso that the difference between them
is in many cases clinal and further research is necessary to determine if any
of them are valid.[6]

"Pink-necked green pigeon" has been designated as the official common

name for the species by the IOC.[3] It is also known as the pink-necked

The pink-necked green pigeon is a medium-sized pigeon, measuring 25 to approximate distribution
30 cm (9.8–11.8 in) in length and weighing around 105–160 g (3.7–5.6 oz).
The species has sexually dimorphic plumage. The male has a grey head, pinkish neck and upper breast, and the rest of the
breast is orange. The back is olive green and the wings are green with black primaries and yellow edging on the tertiaries
which create a yellow bar across the wing in flight. The belly is yellowish with grey flanks, and the tail is grey with a black
band at the end, and a chestnut uppertail coverts. The female is smaller overall, has a yellowish belly, throat and face, and
greenish crown and back of the neck, although is otherwise similar to the male. The legs are pink or reddish, and the bill is
white, pale blue green or grey. Juvenile birds look similar to females but are greyer above.[6]

Pigeons in the genus Treron are unusual in the family for not having cooing calls, instead making whistling and quacking
noises,[7] but some cooing notes have been recorded for the pink-necked green pigeon, as the male makes a tri-syballic
whistling call ending in a coo.[6] It is also reported to make a rasping krrak krrak... call,[8] but the species is generally held
to not be particularly vocal, usually only calling in communal roosts and when it finds food.[6]

Distribution and habitat

The range of the pink-necked green pigeon extends from southern Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam south
through the Malay Peninsula and across the Greater Sundas (and their surrounding islands), Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa and
as far east as the Moluccas, as well as the Philippines. It occupies a variety of habitats, including primary forest, forest
edge, secondary forest and coastal mangroves.[6] It favours more open environments, and where it is found in association
with denser forest it is typically on the edges.[9] It is also readily found in human dominated environments such as
gardens, plantations and farmland. It is more common in lowlands and close to the coast, but can be found up to 300 m
(980 ft) in the Philippines,[6] 750 m (2,460 ft) in Borneo[9] and 1,200 m (3,900 ft) in Sulawesi. The species is recorded as
non-migratory by the Handbook of the Birds of the World,[6] but other sources have described it as making local
movements.[8] A related species, the thick-billed green pigeon, covers vast distances in search of fruit, and it is likely that
the pink-necked green pigeon has a similar behaviour.[10]

After the main island of Krakatoa was obliterated in a volcanic eruption in 1883, leaving a handful of smaller islands, the
pink-necked pigeon was observed on the first bird survey of these remnants. The survey was conducted in 1908, and at the
time the pigeon was the only obligate frugivore (meaning it ate mostly fruit, as opposed to as part of a wider diet or
opportunistically) that had established itself on the islands.[10][11] Within the archipelago it was able to colonise Anak
Krakatau, a volcano that emerged from the sea from the caldera in 1927, within 36 years of the new island suffering a large
eruption in 1952.[12] The delay between the island settling down and colonisation was likely due to the time taken for figs
to become established on the island and begin fruiting.[13] It later became extinct on that island, due to a small population
and predation.[14] The species has recently expanded its range, having colonised Flores at some time since 2000.[15]

Behaviour 2/5
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The pink-necked green pigeon is primarily a frugivore, taking a range of fruits,

particularly figs (Ficus). Fruit of other trees are taken as well, including
Glochidion, Breynia, Vitex, Macaranga, Muntingia, Melastoma,[6]
Oncosperma and Bridelia.[11] Shoots, buds and seeds are also taken, but much
less commonly so, often by quite a substantial margin. In one study of the
frugivores of Sulawesi 55 observations were made of this species feeding and
every one was of it eating fruit, mostly figs.[16] The species feeds in the mid-
canopy of the forest and rarely feeds in the understory or on the ground. It is
described as being agile when clinging on fine branches to reach fruits at the
end.[6] Like other members of the genus Treron, the gizzard is muscular and Recently-fledged chicks
contains grit, which is used to grind and digest seeds inside fruit.[7] Studies of
closely related species have found that not every individual has grit, and it is
likely the same is true of this species.[10] It is social, feeding in small groups or, where an abundant source of food is found,
quite large flocks of up to 70 birds. The species also roosts communally, and can form roosting flocks of hundreds of

There is no defined breeding season and it has been recorded breeding all year across its range, except in February. The
task of building the nest is divided by sex, with the male being responsible for collecting the nesting material and the
female building it. The nest itself is a simple and flimsy platform of twigs and finer material. Two eggs are laid, which are
white and measure 26.8 mm–28.9 mm × 20.3 mm–21.8 mm (1.06 in–1.14 in × 0.80 in–0.86 in). The nest is placed in a
tree, shrub or hedge, and can be quite close to the ground, ranging from 1 to 10 m (3.3–32.8 ft). The breeding biology of
this species is virtually unknown,[6] with only a single breeding report from Singapore. In that report the pair shared
incubation duties, with the male incubating during the day and the female at night, with the incubation time being 17 days.
On hatching the chicks are brooded continuously for the first few days of life, as with incubation the male broods during
the day and the female at night. Chicks are near-naked and have brown skin with a few white pin feathers on hatching.
Chicks leave the nest 10 days after hatching, but remain in the nesting area for a few days after hatching, and continue to
be fed by their parents.[17]

Like many fruit-eating pigeons, the pink-necked green pigeon is thought to be
an important disperser of fruit seeds in forests and woodlands. The grinding
gizzard was thought to mean the species was entirely a seed predator instead of
a seed disperser, but studies of closely related species have shown that not
every bird crop contains grinding stones and some seeds could pass through,
and the same is likely to be true of this species. The species is thought to be one
of those responsible for helping the return of many of the Ficus species to the
islands of Krakatoa after the obliteration of the original island in a volcanic
eruption. It may not have been responsible for the first shrubby fig species,
which may have been carried by generalists such as bulbuls, but once some
fruiting figs had established on the island it could have been responsible for
both bringing new species of Ficus to the islands and then moving the seeds
between the islands. Its flight time to the islands of Krakatoa has been
estimated at 48 minutes, far shorter than the estimated seed retention time in
its gut of 60 to 480 minutes.[10] Male on Rakata in Krakatoa 3/5
3/29/2019 Pink-necked green pigeon - Wikipedia

The pink-necked pigeon has been reported being preyed upon by white-bellied sea-eagles, and peregrine falcons have been
implicated in the localised extinction of the species on Anak Krakatau.[18]

An adaptable species, T. vernans has fared well with human-made changes to its range. It has readily moved into cities
and is common in Singapore's protected areas and even its gardens,[6] and has become more common over time.[19] In
spite of suffering some hunting pressure in Thailand, Malaysia and Sumatra,[6] and being targeted by the cage bird
trade,[20] it remains common there and across most of its range.[6] It is so common that in a study of one reserve in
Peninsula Malaysia it was one of the most abundant birds sampled.[21] Because it is not considered to be in any danger of
extinction it has been evaluated as least concern by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.[1]

1. BirdLife International (2016). "Treron vernans" ( IUCN Red
List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2016: e.T22691137A93303843. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-
3.RLTS.T22691137A93303843.en (
Retrieved 29 March 2019.
2. Jobling, J. A. (2018). "Key to Scientific Names in Ornithology" (
s-in-ornithology?name=vernans). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. Retrieved
21 February 2019.
3. Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2019). "Pigeons" ( World Bird List
Version 9.1. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
4. Dickinson, Edward; Christidis, Les (2014). "The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World
version 4.0 (Downloadable checklist)" ( The Howard and Moore Complete
Checklist of the Birds of the World. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
5. Clements, J; Schulenberg, T; Iliff, M; Roberson, D; Fredericks, T; Sullivan, B; Wood, C (2018). "The eBird/Clements
checklist of birds of the world: v2018" ( The Cornell Lab of
Ornithology. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
6. Baptista, L.; Trail, P.; Horblit, H.; Kirwan, G. M.; Garcia, E. (2019). del Hoyo, Josep; Elliott, Andrew; Sargatal, Jordi;
Christie, David A; de Juana, Eduardo, eds. "Pink-necked Green-pigeon (Treron vernans)" (
es/pink-necked-green-pigeon-treron-vernans). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.
Retrieved 20 February 2019. (Subscription required (help)).
7. Baptista, L.; Trail, P.; Horblit, H. (2019). del Hoyo, Josep; Elliott, Andrew; Sargatal, Jordi; Christie, David A; de Juana,
Eduardo, eds. "Pigeons, Doves (Columbidae)" ( Handbook
of the Birds of the World Alive. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. Retrieved February 26, 2019. (Subscription required (help)).
8. Robson, Craig (2005). Birds of Southeast Asia : Thailand, peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos,
Myanmar. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press. p. 80. ISBN 978-0-691-12435-3.
9. Myers, Susan (2009). Birds of Borneo : Brunei, Sabah, Sarawak, and Kalimantan. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton
University Press. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-691-14350-7.
10. Thornton, Ian W. B.; Compton, Stephen G.; Wilson, Craig N. (1996). "The role of animals in the colonization of the
Krakatau Islands by fig trees (Ficus species)". Journal of Biogeography. 23 (4): 577–592. doi:10.1111/j.1365-
2699.1996.tb00019.x (
11. Whittaker, Robert J.; Jones, Stephen H. (1994). "The Role of Frugivorous Bats and Birds in the Rebuilding of a
Tropical Forest Ecosystem, Krakatau, Indonesia". Journal of Biogeography. 21 (3): 245. doi:10.2307/2845528 (https:// 4/5
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12. Thornton, I. W.; Zann, R. A.; Rawlinson, P. A.; Tidemann, C. R.; Adikerana, A. S.; Widjoya, A. H. (1 January 1988).
"Colonization of the Krakatau Islands by vertebrates: equilibrium, succession, and possible delayed extinction" (http
Succession_and_Possible_Delayed_Extinction). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 85 (2): 515–518.
doi:10.1073/pnas.85.2.515 (
13. Compton, S. G.; Thornton, I. W. B.; New, T. R.; Underhill, L. (19 December 1988). "The Colonization of the Krakatau
Islands by Fig Wasps and Other Chalcids (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea)" (
1098/rstb.1988.0138). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 322 (1211): 459–470.
doi:10.1098/rstb.1988.0138 (
14. Thornton, Ian (1994). "Figs, frugivores and falcons: an aspect of the assembly of mixed tropical forest on the
emergent volcanic island, Anak Krakatau". South Australian Geographical Journal. 93: 3–21.
15. Schellekens, Mark; Trainor, Colin; Encallado, Juan; Imansyah, M Jeri (2009). "Status of the Pied Imperial Pigeon
Ducula bicolour and Pink-necked Green-Pigeon Treron vernans on Flores, Nusa Tenggara" (https://www.researchgat
_Treron_vernans_on_Flores_Nusa_Tenggara). Kukila. 14: 16–20.
16. Walker, J. S. (2007). "Dietary specialization and fruit availability among frugivorous birds on Sulawesi". Ibis. 149 (2):
345–356. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919X.2006.00637.x (
17. Wee, Y. C. (2005). "Forging a closer relationship with Pink-necked Green-pigeons" (
766cb6-eForgingaCloserRelationship.pdf) (PDF). Nature Watch. 13 (3): 16–21.
18. Rawlinson, P; Zann, R; van Balen, S; Thornton, I (1992). "Colonization of the Krakatau Islands by Vertebrates".
GeoJournal. 28 (2, Krakatau – a Century of Change): 225–231.
19. KwekYan, C; SiYang, T; Kurukulasuriya, B; YiFei, C; Rajathurai, L; Lim, H; Tan, H (2012). "Decadal changes in urban
bird abundance in Singapore" (
al_changes_in_urban_bird_abundance_in_Singapore/links/00463521b5b03b3dbc000000.pdf) (PDF). Raffles Bulletin
of Zoology. Supplement 25: 89–196.
20. Shepherd, Chris (2006). "The bird trade in Medan, North Sumatra: an overview" (
ation/259802714_The_bird_trade_in_Medan_North_Sumatra_an_overview). BirdingAsia. 5: 16–24.
21. Zakaria, M.; Rajpar, M.; Sajap, A. (2009). "Species Diversity and Feeding Guilds of Birds in Paya Indah Wetland
Reserve, Peninsular Malaysia" ( International Journal of
Zoological Research. 5 (3): 86–100.

External links
Media related to Treron vernans at Wikimedia Commons
Data related to Treron vernans at Wikispecies

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