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LEARNING TARGETS

1. Contrast RNA & DNA.

2. Explain the process of transcription.

LEARNING TARGETS 1. Contrast RNA & DNA. 2. Explain the process of transcription.
LEARNING TARGETS 1. Contrast RNA & DNA. 2. Explain the process of transcription.

THE ROLE OF RNA

Watson and Crick solved the structure of DNA & easily understood how DNA could be copied, but this did not explain

how genes actually worked.

Further research discovered a second nucleic acidRNA

(ribonucleic acid)

RNA was the “missing link” to understanding how genes actually worked.

nucleic acid — RNA (ribonucleic acid) • RNA was the “missing link” to understanding how genes
nucleic acid — RNA (ribonucleic acid) • RNA was the “missing link” to understanding how genes

DNA VS. RNA

S

I M

I L A R I T I E S

Made up of

Made up of

nucleotides

A 5-carbon sugar

A nitrogenous base

A phosphate group

D I F F E R E N C E S

1. The sugar in RNA is ribose (DNA = deoxyribose)

2. RNA is single stranded (DNA = double

stranded)

3. RNA contains Uracil instead of Thymine

The differences between RNA & DNA make it easy for enzymes to tell the difference between the two molecules

of Thymine The differences between RNA & DNA make it easy for enzymes to tell the
of Thymine The differences between RNA & DNA make it easy for enzymes to tell the

FUNCTIONS OF RNA

Think of RNA as a “disposable copy” of DNA

RNA has many functions, but it’s primary function is protein synthesis

Protein is made up of amino acids (the building blocks)

Many aspects of our body, or our daily functions require the use of at least one protein in one way or another.

• Many aspects of our body, or our daily functions require the use of at least
• Many aspects of our body, or our daily functions require the use of at least

There are 3 different types of RNA with unique responsibilities.

Messenger RNA: mRNA Carry info from DNA to other parts of

the cell

Ribosomal RNA: rRNA found on the ribosomes (the site of protein synthesis).

Ribosomes are essentially rRNA & other proteins (up to 80

different ones!)

Transfer RNA: tRNA carries amino acids to the ribosome & matches them to the coded mRNA message

ones!) • Transfer RNA: tRNA  carries amino acids to the ribosome & matches them to
ones!) • Transfer RNA: tRNA  carries amino acids to the ribosome & matches them to

RNA SYNTHESIS

Requires a lot of energy, but the energy input is worth it.

The process of making RNA takes place in a process known as transcription.

Segments of DNA serve as templates to produce complementary RNA molecules

Uses “Chargaff’s Rule” of complimentary base-pairing. (more on this later…)

RNA polymerase = primary enzyme in RNA synthesis

Helps to build/bind nucleotides together to form a chain of nucleotides

polymerase = primary enzyme in RNA synthesis • Helps to build/bind nucleotides together to form a
polymerase = primary enzyme in RNA synthesis • Helps to build/bind nucleotides together to form a

RNA knows what part of DNA to copy due to promoters.

Promoters are specific segments of DNA that signal to RNA polymerase to start the process of transcription.

There are also similar signals to tell RNA to stop the process of

transcription.

start the process of transcription. • There are also similar signals to tell RNA to stop
start the process of transcription. • There are also similar signals to tell RNA to stop

LEARNING TARGETS

1. Identify the genetic code and explain how it is read.

2. Summarize the process of translation.

3. Describe the “central dogma” of molecular biology.

how it is read. 2. Summarize the process of translation. 3. Describe the “central dogma” of
how it is read. 2. Summarize the process of translation. 3. Describe the “central dogma” of

THE GENETIC CODE

STEP 1: Decoding the DNA message

Transcribe DNA RNA (specifically mRNA)

The transcribed info has the code for a specific protein.

Proteins are made from chains of polypeptides

Polypeptides are made from amino acids

REMEMBER: Amino acids are the “building block” of proteins,

just like nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids

Amino acids are the “building block” of proteins , just like nucleotides are the building blocks
Amino acids are the “building block” of proteins , just like nucleotides are the building blocks

The order of amino acids in a polypeptide determines the function of the protein that is being built.

Amino acid sequence is determined by reading the “genetic code”

Genetic code = the arrangements of letters, A, U, G, C found in

RNA

is determined by reading the “genetic code” • Genetic code = the arrangements of letters, A,
is determined by reading the “genetic code” • Genetic code = the arrangements of letters, A,

The genetic code is read three “letters” at a time

Each “word” is 3 bases long

Each “word” is referred to as a CODON

Each word corresponds to a single amino acid

is 3 bases long • Each “word” is referred to as a CODON • Each word
is 3 bases long • Each “word” is referred to as a CODON • Each word
is 3 bases long • Each “word” is referred to as a CODON • Each word

HOW TO READ CODONS

There are only 20 amino acids, but 64 different codons

There will be certain amino acids that have multiple codons

Use an amino acid chart…

but 64 different codons • There will be certain amino acids that have multiple codons •
but 64 different codons • There will be certain amino acids that have multiple codons •
IMPORTANT: You read the codon wheel/chart using mRNA
IMPORTANT: You read the codon wheel/chart using mRNA

IMPORTANT: You read the codon wheel/chart using

mRNA

There are “punctuation” marks found within the code too a signal where to start and stop a polypeptide.

Start codons signal where the polypeptide begins (MET)

Stop codons signal where the polypeptide ends

There are multiple stop codons

the polypeptide begins (MET) • Stop codons signal where the polypeptide ends • There are multiple
the polypeptide begins (MET) • Stop codons signal where the polypeptide ends • There are multiple

TRANSLATION

The sequence of bases on mRNA provides the instructions for amino acid assembly

The order that the amino acids should appear.

Think of it like following directions to assemble something complex

Ribosomes use the sequence of the codons in mRNA to

assemble amino acids into polypeptides AKA Translation.

STEP 2: Translation, but translation is a multi-step process.

amino acids into polypeptides  AKA Translation. • STEP 2: Translation , but translation is a
amino acids into polypeptides  AKA Translation. • STEP 2: Translation , but translation is a

Remember: mRNA has come from the nucleus—it has the “message” from

DNA

1.

Translation begins at the “start” codon. tRNA begins making an “anticodon”

whose base is the compliment of the mRNA strand.

Each tRNA is the compliment of the mRNA

2.

When an anticodon is complete, it joins the amino acid it codes for. On the

ribosome, the amino acid is “removed” from the tRNA (the “transfer” is

complete). The ribosome joins all of the amino acids into a polypeptide chain

3.

This process continues until the ribosome reaches a “stop” codon, signaling that that is the last amino acid and the polypeptide chain is now complete.

reaches a “stop” codon, signaling that that is the last amino acid and the polypeptide chain
reaches a “stop” codon, signaling that that is the last amino acid and the polypeptide chain

DNA--DNA

A

T

C

G

T

A

G

C

DNA--RNA

A

T

C

G

U

A

G

C

RNA--RNA

A

U

C

G

U

A

G

C

DNA--DNA A T C G T A G C DNA--RNA A T C G U A
DNA--DNA A T C G T A G C DNA--RNA A T C G U A

LET’S PRACTICE!

Example 1:

DNA:

mRNA:

tRNA:

A

T

T

A

G

C

G

C

T

A

A

T

G

C

C

G

T

A

A

T

A

T

C

G

C

G

T

A

T

A

A U G
A U
G
G U A
G
U
A
G C U A A C C U U
G
C
U
A
A
C
C
U
U

U A

C

C

A

U

C

G

A

U

U

G

G

A

A

AA:

MET-- VAL--ALA --ASN--LEU

G C G T A T A A U G G U A G C U
G C G T A T A A U G G U A G C U

TRY EXAMPLE 2 ON YOUR OWN…

DNA:

mRNA:

tRNA:

AA:

C

A

G

G

A

A

T

T

G

C

T

C

G

A

T

G

T

C

C

T

T

A

A

C

G

A

G

C

T

A

C

A

G

G

A

A

U

U

G

C

U

C

G

A

U

G

U

C

C

U

U

A

A

C

G

A

G

C

U

A

GLNGLU ACIDLEULEUASP

U G U C C U U A A C G A G C U A
U G U C C U U A A C G A G C U A

THE MOLECULAR BASIS OF HEREDITY

Genes contain instructions for building proteins Each of those proteins effect aspects of an organism

Mendel: protein for pod shape, another protein for pod color,

etc…

Scientists, specifically molecular biologists made a claim early

on, which has been known as the “Central Dogma of Molecular Biology”

INFORMATION IS TRANSFERRED FROM DNA TO RNA TO

PROTEINS”

known as the “Central Dogma of Molecular Biology” • “ INFORMATION IS TRANSFERRED FROM DNA TO
known as the “Central Dogma of Molecular Biology” • “ INFORMATION IS TRANSFERRED FROM DNA TO

The way in which that information is transferred (DNA RNA Protein) is referred to a gene expression.

Gene expression is the way in which genetic information is put into action within a cell.

Despite the variety among living things, we all share the same genetic code and the same mechanism for gene expression.

There is a remarkable unity of life at the molecular level.

genetic code and the same mechanism for gene expression. • There is a remarkable unity of
genetic code and the same mechanism for gene expression. • There is a remarkable unity of

LEARNING TARGETS

1. Define mutations and describe the different types of mutations.

2. Describe the effects mutations can have on genes.

1. Define mutations and describe the different types of mutations. 2. Describe the effects mutations can
1. Define mutations and describe the different types of mutations. 2. Describe the effects mutations can
MUTATIONS • Mutations are heritable changes in genetic information
MUTATIONS
• Mutations are
heritable
changes in
genetic
information

TYPES OF MUTATIONS

Mutations can effect a single gene OR they can effect an entire chromosome.

GENE MUTATIONS

These are a result of a change in one (or a few) nucleotide.

Sometimes they are called “point mutations” because they occur at a single point in the DNA sequence.

• Sometimes they are called “point mutations” because they occur at a single point in the
• Sometimes they are called “point mutations” because they occur at a single point in the

Point mutations typically occur during DNA replication

Due to the nature of replication & cell division, once DNA has

been mutated, every cell that develops from the “original” will also contain the error.

There are 3 different types of point mutations

Substitution

Insertion

Deletion

also contain the error. • There are 3 different types of point mutations • Substitution •
also contain the error. • There are 3 different types of point mutations • Substitution •

SUBSTITUTION

When one nucleotide is replaced with another.

Often only one codon is effected

The amino acid may or may not be effected

EXAMPLE:

SUBSTITUTION:

THEFATCATATETHERAT

THEFATHATATETHE---RAT

be effected EXAMPLE: SUBSTITUTION: THE — FAT — CAT — ATE — THE — RAT THE
be effected EXAMPLE: SUBSTITUTION: THE — FAT — CAT — ATE — THE — RAT THE
be effected EXAMPLE: SUBSTITUTION: THE — FAT — CAT — ATE — THE — RAT THE

INSERTION/DELETION

When a nucleotide base is ADDED (insertion) or REMOVED (deletion) from the DNA sequence

Sometimes called “frameshift mutation” because the reading frame has shifted in some way.

They change the amino acid sequence from the point of the

mutation on and can alter a protein to the point that it no longer functions.

acid sequence from the point of the mutation on and can alter a protein to the
acid sequence from the point of the mutation on and can alter a protein to the

EXAMPLE:

INSERTION:

EXAMPLE:

DELETION:

THEFATCATATETHERAT

THEFATCATAATETH---ERA--T

— THE — RAT THE — FAT — CAT — AAT — ETH---ERA--T THE — FAT

THEFATCATATETHERAT

FAT — CAT — AAT — ETH---ERA--T THE — FAT — CAT — ATE — THE

THEFATATATETHER---AT

FAT — CAT — AAT — ETH---ERA--T THE — FAT — CAT — ATE — THE
FAT — CAT — AAT — ETH---ERA--T THE — FAT — CAT — ATE — THE
FAT — CAT — AAT — ETH---ERA--T THE — FAT — CAT — ATE — THE

CHROMOSOMAL MUTATIONS

Effect the entire chromosome

Deletion: part of the chromosome is deleted (several genes!)

• Deletion: part of the chromosome is deleted (several genes!) • Duplication: part of the chromosome

Duplication: part of the chromosome is duplicated

• Deletion: part of the chromosome is deleted (several genes!) • Duplication: part of the chromosome
• Deletion: part of the chromosome is deleted (several genes!) • Duplication: part of the chromosome
• Deletion: part of the chromosome is deleted (several genes!) • Duplication: part of the chromosome

Inversion: Changes the sequence of genes within a chromosome

Inversion: Changes the sequence of genes within a chromosome • Translocation: when part of one chromosome

Translocation: when part of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another

sequence of genes within a chromosome • Translocation: when part of one chromosome breaks off and
sequence of genes within a chromosome • Translocation: when part of one chromosome breaks off and
sequence of genes within a chromosome • Translocation: when part of one chromosome breaks off and

EFFECTS OF MUTATIONS

Mutations can be caused by natural or artificial means.

Many mutations are produced from errors in the genetic process

Point mutations DNA replication

DNA inserts an incorrect base once in every 10 million bases

Small changes can accumulate over time.

• DNA inserts an incorrect base once in every 10 million bases • Small changes can
• DNA inserts an incorrect base once in every 10 million bases • Small changes can

MUTAGENS

Mutagens are chemical/physical factors that exist in an environment that can cause mutations.

Pesticides, second-hand smoke

X-Rays

Ultraviolet radiation

in an environment that can cause mutations . • Pesticides, second-hand smoke • X-Rays • Ultraviolet
in an environment that can cause mutations . • Pesticides, second-hand smoke • X-Rays • Ultraviolet

HARMFUL & HELPFUL MUTATIONS

Not all mutations are created equal.

Some mutations do not even effect the amino acid sequence, some mutations can even be beneficial.

The effects of mutations on genes vary widely. While some

mutations are beneficial, others can disrupt gene function and

cause negative effects.

on genes vary widely. While some mutations are beneficial, others can disrupt gene function and cause
on genes vary widely. While some mutations are beneficial, others can disrupt gene function and cause

HARMFUL EFFECTS

Dramatic changes to protein function or gene activity.

Disruption of normal biological functions

Cancers uncontrolled cell growth

Worse case death

Sickle Cell Anemia changes shape of RBC (and the ability to carry oxygen)

Pain, stunted growth, high rate of infections

Anemia  changes shape of RBC (and the ability to carry oxygen) • Pain, stunted growth,
Anemia  changes shape of RBC (and the ability to carry oxygen) • Pain, stunted growth,

BENEFICIAL MUTATIONS

Mutations often produce proteins with new or altered functions

that can be useful to organisms in different or changing environments

Insects have become resistant to certain pesticides

Good for insects, not so good for humans

Mutations in humans

Increases in bone density (less common to break a bone)

Increased resistance to HIV (virus that causes AIDS)

We take advantage of good mutations when we can (polyploidy)

Increased resistance to HIV (virus that causes AIDS) • We take advantage of good mutations when
Increased resistance to HIV (virus that causes AIDS) • We take advantage of good mutations when