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1. It was a beautiful day and the sun was

Answer: shining

2. Oh, dear it’s raining and I forgot my

Answer: raincoat

3. Yeah, we’ve got two boys and a

Answer: girl

4. What music do I like? I am pretty keen on rhythm and

Answer: blues

5. We’ve found the answers by the process of trail and

Answer: error

6. I have a big Mac and

Answer: fries

7. Britain’s greatest was prime minister. I say

Answer: Hatcher

8. You know what I think should have been Australia’s national anthem, waltzing

Answer: Matilda

9. He is quiet a nice guy, isn’t

Answer: he?

10. You say Elsevier broke the window. No, she

Answer: couldn’t have?



1. The western world is apparently observed with diet yet

Answer: levels of obesity are higher than ever before

2. In the we are, are now 10% fatter than we were 20 years ago despite

Answer: spending ever increasing sums on slimming products

3. People are under increasing pressure to have the perfect body, one way of responding to
this is to confirm to attempt to control our body shape, the other way

Answer: is to eat less and exercise more

4. In previous ages only the well off could afford to eat well

Answer: so plumpness was seen as a sign of prosperity

5. When rich people were fatter, a rounded figure was praised, now the poorer society classes
tends to be fatter being overweight is looked down, in the other words

Answer: society relates body shape to financial or social position

6. It is often assumed that the poor eat unhealthily because they afford to eat well but actually
we find that the

Answer: typical fast food diet of the poor is relatively expensive

7. Intense worry about body shape it is not seem to have spread to the meditarian societies.
They eat relatively high fat diet with lots of cheese but the thing is

Answer: that they are on average much slimmer than in the US.

8. The answer in my opinion is we need to stop allowing our desired food for perfect body to
influence over diet then we can relax and the result will be

Answer: a happier healthier and paradoxically slimmer population



Lisa: Hi, can I speak to marry please?

Marry: Speaking

Lisa : Hi, marry this is Lisa at my I got some properties for you

Marry: Great

Lisa: Ok, yeah have you got a pencil and paper, Right, there are three properties. The first
which is the one I think you like best is a small townhouse. It’s in Netherland literally on the
French unique and the rent is quiet reasonable 200 dollars and it is fully furnished the
transport is excellent it’s just one basest to city, the only drawback is that only one bedroom
and there is no parking but then when you need a car you can walk in to the unit. This is
going to be pretty popular so if you it I’ll go for it today if you can.

Mary : It seems good when I can see it

Lisa : I have made an appointment at 11:00. I wanted to get in quickly .ok .the second one
is a flat it is little bit further out but again the transport is very god. It’s just one bus in to the
unit and the bus runs every 20 min. it’s the same price as the town house but you get two
bedrooms so you can split the cost. it is semi furnished ,which means you’ll get bed ,sofa
,basic cookery ,knifes forks spoons and so on ,but you will have to provide sheets blankets
and you will have to probably have to buy TV the sort of things. There is parking but only in
the street there is no garage. this one is pretty nice as well, it’s in Sciacca, quite a lively
neighbourhood with restaurants ,book shops ,it’s got a really pleasant feeling to it and of
course if you share it’ll work out cheaper than the town house . I’d made an appointment for
2:15 I am just assuming that you’ll be free today; if it’s a problem I can change it.

Mary : No that’s fine, they both sound good and how about the 3rd one
Lisa : Right will the third one is little bit different .It is a house and it is a little bit further
out in Kinsley I thought you might like it is a bit more out in the country and I know that you
would like that. There are some nice walking and its very peaceful the price is surprisingly
reasonable at 250$ I’m not sure why it is so cheap but I have been out there and everything
seems fine .its quit a new house and it is a 3/1, 3 bed rooms and one bathroom, obviously you
need a car because public transport is going to be a bit rare for you there but the house a
garage, now the house is unfurnished so I’m not sure how much a problem that is

Marry :I’m not sure I want to go buy lots of furnishers

Lisa : OK! I have spoken to the land lord and there are one or two thing that he is
prepared to lend you .Umm there is couple of beds and a sofa, so it will save a bit of money I
think its probably worth going to have a look I have made an appointment fir this one but we
can go right after seeing that flat if you like.

Property 1 Property 2 Property 3

Type of property townhouse flat house

Rent /week $200 $200 $250

No. of bedrooms one Two Three

Transport to unit Walk Bus Three

Furnished Fully furnished Semi-furnished unfurnished

Parking no on street in garage



1. Give me a call, my extension is 3477

2. I was born in 1977

3. I live in no: 17 zed road

4. That’s amazing, I live in no: 80 zed road

5. It was written in 1506

6. I have read about one third of the book

7. Yes, about 40 pages

8. 26%of people who emigrate like to return

9. I make the answer 22637

10. He came to the throne at the age of 14

11. We measured out 30 grams of reagent

12. After the ¼ voters stayed away

13. The winning candidate hold 20006 votes

14. The Website dictionary contains more than 410000 definitions

15. She is doing very well for 90 year old



1. Can I leave a message? My name is meadows

2. We first met in Manchester

3. Professor Smith is lecturing this afternoon

4. Parramatta, how do you spell Parramatta?

5. The conference is in Edinburg

6. Yes, She is an artist, Careen obi

7. it’s a Wednesday yes towards the end of February

8. I always wanted to live in Europe

9. I am flying to Saint Louis Missouri




1. The song “happy Birthday” in English

2. A conversation with a friend in our language

3. A lecture on “Nuclear fission” in your language

4. A short talk on “My favourite holiday” in English

5. A conversation with an English speaking friend

6. A railway station announcement in your language


7. A TV program on your favourite subject in Russian



Good evening and it’s very nice to have so many people here tonight. I am going to talk
you about mummies. But I should warn you this point, that one thing I am not going to do is
actually unwrap a mummy. This the very common practice about 100-250 years ago in
England. Rich tourist brings a mummy back from Egypt and then invites friends around for a
sort of unwrapping party. To have more insensibility this shows rather disrespectful and bad
taste. But it does point in the turn of fascination we have with this very well preserved bodies
of people who have died thousands of years ago. Why are we fascinated by mummies? One
of the thing is that ancient societies trying to do through mummification was to protect the
loved ones from death even though the loved one may be a father, may be a daughter are
actually died. They want to preserve them in this world, to retain the family relationship.
Surely this is an understandable feeling. The other side of it is that rich people in particular
were trying to cheat death. And human beings are still trying to do this. I have read a
newspaper article only this week about a company in California that freezes your body after
your die. The hope is that medical science will be able to bring you back in life in 50 or 100
years. So we wish to mummify our self. But where did it actually start?

Well not in Egypt, you may be surprised here. The first known mummies dies around
6000BC and was discovered in South America on the fringes of Atacama desert in southern
crude and northern chilly they were made by the chinch ore people who literally took the
body into pieces and put into pieces and it back together again they would removes the flush
and the internal organs from the corpse, dry out bones and then recreate the shape of the body
using the bones and branches a bit like mummies culture. They could then replace the skin
which should treated of course and place a clay mask over the face. The mummies would be
placed in family groups and could eventually be buried together. So again they have this idea
of trying to keep the family the loved ones together in the face of death.

The Egyptians we think begin around 2000 years later, yes it is easy to lose perspective of
time friends involve that 2000 years firstly they simply buried their dead in sand. The bodily
fluid which normally causes the body to decompose drained away into the sand and the
bodies were preserved. But it was not for another 1000 years that the Egyptians really became
the master of the mummification. This was when they started to internal organs; they also
screwed out the brain using a sort of long spoon and them after they worked out how to
preserve the body perfectly. Then they had hair dresses, manicures, working on the preserved
mummies to make them look as beautiful as they had in life. Yes as they mastered the
process, they become to build graves to house the mummies and it eventually turned into the
great pyramids.

What has the western to mummies been well that is pointing I am afraid. In South
America the Spanish conquest was destroyed all the mummies they would find it offended
the religious beliefs that the body should be preserved without a soul. The British and the
Americans are tended to take a pseudoscientific interest but the public mummy unwrapping
would really little more than a freak show. Now that’s just a very brief introduction to the
vast subject of mummies and mummification. Now I like you to ask me questions and we
will explore the aspects that I really interest about the subject.

1. Gathering where mummies were unwrapped demonstrate that

Answer: people have always interested in mummies

2. One of the main objectives of mummification was

Answer: to keep the family together

3. The earth known mummies are

Answer: 6000 years old

4. The chinch ore people mummified their dead by

Answer: drying the bones and preserving their skin

5. The speaker stresses that we are

Answer: dealing in huge time spans

6. The key to successful mummification is

Answer: taking out the organs

7. The speaker points to another outcome of the preservation of the dead

Answer: spectacular tombs

8. What does the speaker think of the western attitudes of mummies?

Answer: he is saddened by the lack of respect for the culture.



Dave: Look at this, hoe they go again the tree huggers on route I has been suspended due to
protest over the impact the proposed highway will have on the habitat of massupeo mouse.

Charles: I mean, come on.

Tasman: Come on, these things are important we are not talking about one mouse, we are
talking about the kind of world we are going to leave for future generations, And quite
frankly, it’s going to be the world covered by concrete and tarmac. Is that really what
you want?

Dave: Well for a start, that’s a massive over action. Yes, we do move forward, we develop;
we build hospitals and schools and how much point in having hospitals and schools if
there are no roads to get to them, is there? But we also have national parks, we also
protect the environment.

Charles: Yeah, we are very good at protecting the environment we don’t want. But hoe
serious is that?

Dave: What do you mean, Charlie?

Charles: Oh, just one example. In the 1860’s the Native Americans were given protective
land and perpetuity forever right. How long that last? Exactly, as long as it discover
the gold on the land. Then they were immediately driven off and so called protective
land was dug out.

Dave: Yes, but times have changed since then.

Tasman: Have they, Dave? What about western mining companies going into developing
countries and kicking out the villages, polluting the water they drink, destroying the

Charles: Exactly, nothing is really changed. But there’s got to a balance we do need
progress, Tasman. This new road Dave’s talking about. How many hours have spend
sitting in traffic jam waiting to get into the city? How many productive hours is been
lost to the economy. Sure, it is bad luck on the mouse but we have to balance the
benefits and costs.

Tasman: Well, I’m sure mice will find it very comforting to know that you thought it off
through. You know where your argument pulls down; it is when you start speaking
about progress. You say that new schools and hospitals is progress. But, Are people
happier? Are they spending time with their families? Are they enjoying nature?

Dave: So, what are you proposing? Is that we all go back to nature and live in eco-
communities milking cows and collecting berries?

Tasman: Well, I think if you did live on the land in a community like I don’t the mesh, you
would find re-examining you values. You would ask why you are so desperate to
spend your life sitting in a car and in office, saving up to buy things you don’t really

Dave: You mean things like clothes and eating and drinking at the café with friends and the
car you’re so keen on.

Charles: Yes Tasman, why do you think so? Few people do live on the land. Because it is a
miserable life. Development has given us lots of things we really missed if we didn’t
have them. Probably the best example is the modern medicine. Do you know how
many women used to die in child birth?

Tasman: What’s wrong with the natural remedies?

Charles: What’s wrong with them is that most of them didn’t actually work. Look I think
what we talking about is trying to improve the way we live practically. I mean having
a nice house to live in, having warm clothes and I don’t know. Shampoo while still
having the respect for the environment.

Dave: Well, Charles that’s all very fine in theory. But I am afraid that the world doesn’t work
like that. It’s against human nature and it’s not going to work. We have chance to get
ahead to make money to provide for yourself. You going to take it. And if
environment gets in the way then it’s bad luck for the environment. That’s why WE
have progress and that’s why I am afraid that highway’s going to win and massupeo
mouse is going to lose.
1. The first speaker considers the protests to be ridiculous.

2. The female speaker believes that we need to protect the environment in general.

3. Charles’s attitude towards society’s environment is cynical.

4. The female speaker believes that nothing has changed since the 1860’s.

5. Do you think Tasman is proposing to live off the land? No.

6. Charles believes in a balance between development and environment concern

7. Dave’s attitude to people who live off the land is unsympathetic.

8. Dave’s prediction for the environment are bleak.



Petrol Engine was developed by the German engineers Karl Benz and Gottlieb Daimler in
1885. This invention was considered to be one of the greatest achievements in the automotive
industry. A petrol engine uses petrol typically known as gasoline in the United States, as a
fuel. Inside the engine, the burning of fuel coupled with air forces the hot gases to expand
against various parts of the engine and cause them to move. Hence, petrol engines are termed
as internal-combustion engines. Additionally, petrol engines are highly compact and
lightweight for the power produced by them. The rate at which it generates work is typically
computed in horse power or watts.

Principle of a Four Stroke Petrol Engine

The principle used in a four stroke petrol engine is commonly known as Otto Cycle. It
states that there would be one power stroke for every four strokes. Such engines use a spark
plug which is used for the ignition of the combustible fuel used in the engine. Most of the
cars, bikes and trucks use a 4 stroke engines.

In every Otto cycle there is an adiabatic compression, addition of heat at constant volume,
an adiabatic expansion and the release of heat at constant volume.

The major components of the petrol engine can be categorized into a number of systems

The Fuel System: The fuel system is responsible for pumping fuel from the petrol tank into
the carburetor, where it mixes with air and gets sucked into the engine cylinders. Further,
with the help of electronic fuel injection, it traverses directly into the cylinders from the tank
through an electronic monitor.

The ignition system: This system supplies the sparks in order to ignite the fuel mixture
within the cylinders. It boosts the 12-volt battery voltage by means of an ignition coil and
contact breaker, up to the rates of 18,000 volts or greater. Through a distributor, these pulses
then travel to the spark plugs inside the cylinders, where they can produce the sparks. Due to
the ignition of the fuel inside the cylinders, temperatures of approximately 700 or more are
produced, when the engine must be cooled to avoid overheating.

Water-cooling system: Almost all engines nowadays have a water-cooling system, which
allows circulation of water through channels within the cylinder block, thereby extracting the
heat. The water flows through pipes within a radiator, which is cooled by fan-blown air. Most
motorcycles and cars are air-cooled, where the cylinders are surrounding by several fins to
offer a large surface area for the air.

The Lubrication system: This system also reduces some amount of heat; however, it main
job is keeping the moving parts of the engine coated with adequate oil, which is continuously
pumped under pressure to the crankshaft, valve-operating gear as well as the camshaft.
The underlying principle behind the working of any reciprocating internal combustion
engine is that if a small amount of high-energy fuel such as gasoline is placed in a small,
enclosed space and ignited, it produces an incredible amount of energy in the form of
expanding gas. This released energy can be used to propel a potato 500 feet. For such cases,
the energy is converted into potato motion. This energy can also be used for more productive
purposes, such as if one creates a cycle which allows explosions to set off like hundreds of
times per minute, and if that energy is harnessed is a profitable way, then you have the core
of the car engine.

Parts of a Petrol Engine

Internal combustion engines are comprised of a variety of parts, and every part holds its own
location and function which may stimulate the functionality of other parts.

The following section discusses the engine parts in detail:

Cylinder Block: The Cylinder block is the bore of the cylinder where the fresh charge of
air/fuel mixture is ignited, compressed by the piston and finally expanded to give the desired
power to the piston.

Cylinder Head: Here, the inlet and the exhaust valve are carried. It admits the fresh charge
of mixture through inlet valve and exhausts the burnet gas from the exhaust valve. A spark
plug, in case of petrol engine and an injector for a diesel engine is mounted on cylinder head.

Spark plug: The spark plug is responsible for supplying the spark for igniting the air-fuel
mixture to enable the combustion to take place. The spark must occur at just the right instant
of time for things to work accurately.

Valves: The intake and exhaust valves are opened at the perfect moment to let in air as well
as fuel and to let out exhaust. It can be noted that both these valves are shut throughout
compression and combustion so as to seal the combustion chamber.
Piston: As aforesaid, the piston is a cylindrical metallic piece which moves up and down
within the cylinder.

Connecting Rod: The connecting rod acts as a connection between the piston and the
crankshaft. Additionally, the rod can rotate at both ends so as to enable flexibility when its
angle changes with the movement of the pistons and as the crankshaft rotates.

Crankshaft: The crankshaft converts the up and down motion of the piston into uniform
circular motion similar to a crank in a jack-in-the-box does.

Carburettor: The carburettor does the job of converting petrol in fine spray and mixing with
air in proper ratio as demanded by the engine.

Working of a Four Stroke Petrol Engine

A stroke is the movement of the piston from the top, to the bottom of the cylinder. As the
name suggest the Four Stroke Petrol Engine uses a cycle of four strokes and petrol as the fuel.
Each cycle includes 2 rotations of the crankshaft and four strokes, namely: 1.An Intake
Stroke 2.A Compression Stroke 3.A Combustion Stroke also called Power Stroke 4.An
Exhaust Stroke

The steps involved are as follows:

1. Intake Stroke: As the name suggests in this stroke the intake of fuel takes place. When the
engine starts, the piston descends to the cylinder's bottom from the top. Thus the pressure
inside the cylinder reduces. Now the intake valve opens and the fuel and air mixture enters
the cylinder. The valve then closes.
2. Compression Stroke: This stroke is known as compression stroke because the
compression of the fuel mixture takes place at this stage. When the intake valve closes
(exhaust valve is already closed), the piston forced back to the top of the cylinder and the fuel
mixture gets compressed. The compression is around 1/8th of the original volume. An engine
is considered more efficient if its compression ratio is higher.

3. Combustion/Power Stroke: Now in case of petrol engine when the fuel mixture
compresses to the maximum value the spark plug produces spark which ignites the fuel
mixture. The combustion leads to the production of high pressure gases. Due to this
tremendous force the piston is driven back to the bottom of the cylinder. As the piston moves
downwards, the crankshaft rotates which rotates the wheels of the vehicle.

4. Exhaust Stroke: As the wheel moves to the bottom the exhaust valve opens up and due to
the momentum gained by the wheel the piston is pushed back to the top of the cylinder. The
gases due to combustion are hence expelled out of the cylinder into the atmosphere through
the exhaust valve. The exhaust valve closes after the exhaust stroke and again the intake
valve opens and the four strokes are repeated.

Four stroke engines have higher fuel efficiency in comparison to two stroke engines.

 The four stroke petrol engines are the most commonly used engines in today’s
automobile sector and vehicles, both in cases of single cylinder and multi cylinder
 Four stroke petrol engine commonly used in petrol cars, motorbikes, scooters, small
propeller aircrafts, formula one, small motor powered boats, auto-rickshaw, water
spray systems, etc.
 The petrol four strokes have a wide application since the higher value of the low end
punch capabilities of the engines.

Even after years of its discovery in the 19thcentury, gasoline (petrol) engines account for
the most used engines currently, much ahead of its diesel counterpart which is evident
enough to denote our dependency on petrol. However petrol as we know is a limited
resource. The rate at which it replenishes is way much lower than the rate at which we are
consuming it .Moreover burning of the fuel causes pollution. Keeping that in mind and
following the context of my study, I feel it is a great move by president Obama to order the
vehicle industry to double the gross fuel economy of their vehicles by the year 2025

Book Name
“A Text Book on Thermal Engineering” by Vijaya Ragavan

Year of publication
Apr 2015


The 19th century British scientist and inventor Michael Faraday discovered that
compressing and liquefying ammonia could chill air when the liquefied ammonia was
allowed to evaporate. In 1842, American physician Dr. John Gorrieused compressor
technology to create ice, which he used to cool air for his patients. He hoped eventually to
use his ice-making machine to regulate the temperature of buildings and even considered
cooling entire cities with a system of centralized air conditioning units.

Working conditions
Air conditioners work by removing the heat from the space they service. An air
conditioner is simply a big refrigerator that uses the process of refrigeration to provide
cooling for a building. Air conditioners work by using direct expansion coils or chilled water
coils to remove the heat from the air as air is blown across the coils. Types of air conditioner
systems that use direct expansion coils for cooling are window units, split system air
conditioners, package unit air conditioners, packaged terminal air conditioners like the air
conditioners used in hotels, and mini-split ductless air conditioners. Air conditioners which
utilize chilled water for air conditioning are typically commercial air conditioners for large
commercial buildings. It doesn't matter what type of air conditioner is used the coils in the air
conditioner system are brought to a temperature colder than the air. These air conditioners
coils are designed with materials like copper or aluminum to absorbed heat easily and pass
this heat to the refrigerant whether the refrigerant is Freon or another type refrigerant
chemical or whether that refrigerant is water. Any type of refrigerant is designed to absorb
heat. That is how air conditioning works.

 Compressor
 Condenser
 Metering drive
 Evaporator Coil

Air conditioners use refrigerant that is pumped through coils where the refrigerant can either
absorb heat or reject heat. For the process of how air conditioning works there needs to be
some primary air conditioning components in the air conditioner system. The following is a
description of the chief components in an air conditioning system that will show you how an
air conditioner works.

There are different types of compressors used in air conditioning. There are scroll
compressors, reciprocating compressors, rotary compressors, screw compressors, and
centrifugal compressors. All the different types of compressors have different capacities and
are used in various applications. The air conditioner compressor is like a pump. It pumps cool
refrigerant vapor from the air conditioner evaporator and compresses the vapor. When the
vapor is compressed its pressure and temperature are raised. This high temperature vapor is
pumped to the air conditioner condenser coils.


The air conditioner condenser coils receive the hot vapor from the compressor and
immediately the air conditioner compressor begins to condense the refrigerant into a liquid by
removing heat from the hot vapor. The heat being removed from the hot vapor is the heat the
refrigerant absorbed when the refrigerant was running through the air conditioner evaporator
coils. The air conditioner condenser is responsible for rejecting the heat absorbed in the
evaporator coil.

Metering Device

The most widely used metering devices are thermostatic expansion valves (TXV)
followed by piton metering devices and capillary tubes. The refrigerant leaves the condenser
as a liquid and is pumped to the air conditioner metering device. The metering device meters
the refrigerant only allowing a certain quantity to get past it. Typically the quantity of
refrigerant is based on the size or capacity of the air conditioning system. TXV's will meter
the refrigerant based on superheat or a calculated quantity of refrigerant needed to satisfy
demand. Capillary tubes and pistons meter the same quantity of refrigerant no matter the
demand. This is the reason why TXV metering devices are used in air conditioner systems
rated for higher efficiency than the air conditioner systems that use capillary tubes or pistons
to meter the refrigerant. The bottom for metering devices in an air conditioner system is that
the metering creates a pressure drop of the liquid refrigerant. When the refrigerant drops in
pressure it drops in temperature. Some of the liquid will flash to a gas state depending on the
temperature pressure relationship but the refrigerant is now cold and ready to enter the air
conditioner evaporator coil.

Evaporator Coil

The evaporator coil in an air conditioner system is responsible for absorbing heat. As air
(can also be water in a chiller) passes over the evaporator coils a heat exchange process takes
place between the air and the refrigerant. The refrigerant absorbs the heat and as it absorbs
the heat it flashes to a vapor. The air conditioner evaporator conditions the air in two ways
when it is typically operating below the dew point. It causes sensible cooling and it causes
latent heat removal. The latent heat removal is the process of drawing moisture out of the air
and the sensible cooling is dropping the temperature of the air. Both types of heat removal
make you more comfortable in the summer time. Most evaporator coils can be found in or
near the air handling unit.
Cooling and heating cycle
Refrigerant passes through the indoor coil, evaporating from a liquid to a vapor. As the
liquid evaporates, it absorbs heat, cooling the air around the coil. An indoor fan pushes this
cooled air through ducts inside the house. Meanwhile, the vaporized refrigerant laden with
heat passes through a compressor which compresses the vapor, raising its temperature and
pressure. The reversing valve directs the flow of hot, high pressure vapor to the outdoor coil
where the heat released during condensation is fanned into the outdoor air, and the cycle
begins again.

During the heating cycle the refrigerant flows in reverse. Liquid refrigerant now flows to
the outdoor coil picking up heat as it evaporates into a low pressure vapor. The vapor travels
through the compressor where it is compressed into a hot, high pressure vapor, then is
directed by the reversing valve to the indoor coil. Then vapor turns into liquid as it passes
through the indoor coil, releasing heat that is pushed through the ducts by the indoor fan.

Most people use air conditioners to stay more comfortable in their homes or
offices during hot and humid summer weather. Under extreme conditions, air conditioners
may keep elderly and other vulnerable people safer from heat-induced health problems. Air
conditioners are used in many commercial settings not only for increased comfort but for
decreasing heat stress on delicate machinery such as computers, and reducing food spoilage
in grocery stores and restaurants.

Prevents Dehydration and Heat strokes

Being exposed to excessive heat for long periods can cause dehydration. This is because
high temperature leads to profuse sweating and makes your body lose water. If you fail to
replenish this lost water, the result will be dehydration. Since air conditioners reduce
sweating, they can minimize the risk of water loss and dehydration.

Heat strokes are another problem that excessive heat can cause. This is because too much
heat can make it difficult for the body to regulate its temperature. Failing to treat this problem
early enough can cause damage to the brain and other organs of the body. Since air
conditioners reduce the temperature of the air, they can be helpful in preventing heat strokes.

Improves the Quality of Air

Air conditioners can significantly improve indoor air quality and create a much healthier
atmosphere. This is because they are capable of flittering out pollen, dust, and other allergens
present in the environment. By reducing humidity, air conditioners can check the growth of
mildew and mold.

Helps to Reduce Asthma and Allergies

Air conditions can help to filter as well as disinfect the air that we breathe. This can help
to reduce the risk of asthma attacks and allergies by removing pollen and dust, and also
preventing the growth of mildew and mold. Being exposed to mold is one of the main factors
that increase the risk of asthma attacks, allergic reactions, and other respiratory issues. The
fact that we close our windows while using air conditioners helps to prevent the entry of
environmental allergens, bacteria, and dust.

Air conditioners use a lot of electricity. This creates both financial disadvantages for the
people who have to pay for the power, and more generalized environmental disadvantages
caused by power production. Because a large percentage of electricity is created by coal-
burning power plants, air conditioning contributes indirectly to the release of greenhouse
gases and other pollutants. In addition, according to The Independent, spending too much
time in an air conditioned environment can contribute to health problems such as asthma,
tightness in the chest and other respiratory ailments.

Skin Dryness

Spending increased amount of time in an air-conditioned room can make your skin lose its
moisture, thereby becoming sensitive and dry. It can also cause irritation and dryness of the
mucous membrane.

Aggravation of Respiratory Problems

A sudden change in temperature has shown to exacerbate the symptoms of various

respiratory diseases. Fortunately, you can significantly reduce the risk of this problem by
setting a higher temperature and decreasing it gradually.

Respiratory Tract Infections and Allergies

Not cleaning the air conditioner can cause the buildup of dust, bacteria, and pollen in the
air filters. This will significantly increase the risk of asthma attacks and respiratory tract

All the components mentioned in How Air Conditioners Work article are necessary
components to make any air conditioner system work except in evaporative coolers or swamp
coolers which use a different process to create cooling. There are different types of
components in the air conditioner system but by a large air conditioners need these basic
components to work. In higher efficient models of air conditioners more components are
added especially air conditioner controls to make the air conditioner more efficient.

Book Name
“A Text Book on Environmental science” by Vijaya Ragavan

Year of publication
Apr 2015


Air pollution occurs when harmful substances including particulates and biological
molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere. It may cause diseases, allergies or death in
humans; it may also cause harm to other living organisms such as animals and food crops,
and may damage the natural or built environment. Human activity and natural processes can
both generate air pollution. Indoor air pollution and poor urban air quality are listed as two of
the world’s worst toxic pollution problems in the 2008 Blacksmith Institute World's Worst
Polluted Places report. According to the 2014 WHO report, air pollution in 2012 caused the
deaths of around 7 million people worldwide, an estimate roughly matched by the
International Energy Agency.

What Is Air Pollution

Being sick is pretty lousy, isn't it? If you know someone who has a cold, you tend to
steer clear of them because you don't want to catch their germs. Every time that person
coughs or sneezes, their germs get put into the air and are then free to travel to the next
person. Can you imagine trying to contain something like that in the air? It would be pretty
difficult because, not only are the germs invisible, but they expand outward as they enter the

We don't think of germs as air pollution, but it really is the same idea. Air pollutants are
gases and particles in the atmosphere that harm organisms and affect climate. Air pollution,
then, is the release of these particles and gases into the air. For the previous example, the
germs would be the pollutants.

Sources of Air Pollution

When you think of air pollution, you likely think of human activities, such as coal-
burning plants and emissions from cars, planes and boats. But, air pollution also comes from
natural sources. Volcanoes are a great example of a natural pollution source; they produce
large amounts of particles and gases, and the eruptions send them up into the atmosphere.
Forest fires are natural processes that also produce large amounts of potentially harmful gas
and particulate matter.
No matter the source, there are two ways pollution can enter the air. Point source pollution
is when the air pollutants come from a single source of origin, such as smokestacks at a single
factory. Non-point source pollution is when the air pollutants come from many sources, such
as all of the cars in the U.S.

Just like not all sources of pollution are the same, pollutants also vary in their effects.
Primary pollutants are those that cause direct harm or that can react to form harmful
substances in the atmosphere. Secondary pollutants are those harmful substances that are
created from the reactions between primary pollutants and the components of the atmosphere.

Types of Air Pollutants

In another lesson, we learned about the Clean Air Act of 1970, which set limits on
emissions and standards for air quality, provided funding for pollution control research and
made it possible for citizens to sue those who violate the standards. The standards set forth in
this legislation by the Environmental Protection Agency, or EPA, identified six pollutants as
those that posed the greatest threat to human health. Let's look at each one.

Carbon monoxide is both odorless and colorless, and it's produced through combustion.
Most carbon monoxide emissions come from vehicles, about 62%, but they also come from
forest fires, lawn equipment and the burning of industrial waste. This pollutant is dangerous
to human health because, even in very small concentrations, it can prevent oxygen from being
delivered through your body to major organs. At higher levels, it can cause death.

Sulfur dioxide is also a colorless gas, and it's highly reactive. About 70% of sulfur dioxide
emissions come from combustion at industrial power plants, like those that generate
electricity from coal. Sulfur in the coal reacts with atmospheric oxygen in the air and forms
the compound sulfur dioxide. Once in the air it may react further to create sulfur acid, which
can fall back to Earth as acid rain. Sulfur dioxide can also cause respiratory illnesses when it's
breathed in.

Nitrogen oxides are a family of gases that are also very reactive, but you can definitely see
and smell these! Both nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide are in this family, and these are the
gases that contribute to the smog you see over large cities, like Los Angeles. More than half
of these pollutants come from vehicle combustion emissions, with a large amount also
coming from industrial combustion. Nitrogen oxides also cause respiratory illnesses.

Ozone is a tricky one because when it's in the stratosphere layer of the atmosphere, it protects
us from harmful UV radiation. However, when ozone is lower in the atmosphere, it becomes
dangerous to our health because it causes respiratory illnesses and damages ecosystems.
Ozone is a secondary pollutant because it reacts from a combination of sunlight, heat,
nitrogen oxides and volatile carbon containing compounds.

Particulate matter is just what it sounds like, particles suspended in the air. This can be
both liquids and solids, and about 60% of particulate matter pollution is wind-blown dust.
The problem is that particulate matter can also be some of those harmful pollutants
previously described, as well as toxic chemicals and metals.

Effects of Air Pollution

1. Respiratory and heart problems: The effects of Air pollution are alarming. They are
known to create several respiratory and heart conditions along with Cancer, among other
threats to the body. Several millions are known to have died due to direct or indirect effects
of Air pollution. Children in areas exposed to air pollutants are said to commonly suffer from
pneumonia and asthma.

2. Global warming: Another direct effect is the immediate alterations that the world is
witnessing due to Global warming. With increased temperatures worldwide, increase in sea
levels and melting of ice from colder regions and icebergs, displacement and loss of habitat
have already signaled an impending disaster if actions for preservation and normalization
aren’t undertaken soon.

3. Acid Rain: Harmful gases like nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides are released into the
atmosphere during the burning of fossil fuels. When it rains, the water droplets combines
with these air pollutants, becomes acidic and then falls on the ground in the form of acid rain.
Acid rain can cause great damage to human, animals and crops.

4. Eutrophication: Eutrophication is a condition where high amount of nitrogen present in

some pollutants gets developed on sea’s surface and turns itself into algae and adversely
affect fish, plants and animal species. The green colored alga that is present on lakes and
ponds is due to presence of this chemical only.

5. Effect on Wildlife: Just like humans, animals also face some devastating affects of air
pollution. Toxic chemicals present in the air can force wildlife species to move to new place
and change their habitat. The toxic pollutants deposit over the surface of the water and can
also affect sea animals.

6. Depletion of Ozone layer: Ozone exists in earth’s stratosphere and is responsible for
protecting humans from harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays. Earth’s ozone layer is depleting due to
the presence of chlorofluorocarbons, hydro chlorofluorocarbons in the atmosphere. As ozone
layer will go thin, it will emit harmful rays back on earth and can cause skin and eye related
problems. UV rays also have the capability to affect crops.

Solutions for Air Pollution

1. Use public mode of transportation: Encourage people to use more and more public
modes of transportation to reduce pollution. Also, try to make use of car pooling. If you and
your colleagues come from the same locality and have same timings you can explore this
option to save energy and money.
2. Conserve energy: Switch off fans and lights when you are going out. Large amount of
fossil fuels are burnt to produce electricity. You can save the environment from degradation
by reducing the amount of fossil fuels to be burned.

3. Understand the concept of Reduce, Reuse and Recycle: Do not throw away items that
are of no use to you. In-fact reuses them for some other purpose. For e.g. you can use old jars
to store cereals or pulses.

4. Emphasis on clean energy resources: Clean energy technologies like solar, wind and
geothermal are on high these days. Governments of various countries have been providing
grants to consumers who are interested in installing solar panels for their home. This will go a
long way to curb air pollution.

5. Use energy efficient devices: CFL lights consume less electricity as against their
counterparts. They live longer, consume less electricity, lower electricity bills and also help
you to reduce pollution by consuming less energy.

Several attempts are being made worldwide on a personal, industrial and governmental
level to curb the intensity at which Air Pollution is rising and regain a balance as far as the
proportions of the foundation gases are concerned. This is a direct attempt at slacking Global
warming. We are seeing a series of innovations and experiments aimed at alternate and
unconventional options to reduce pollutants. Air Pollution is one of the larger mirrors of
man’s follies, and a challenge we need to overcome to see a tomorrow.

Urban air pollution has long been a serious problem in the FSU, reflecting both the
importance of highly polluting, resource-intensive industries for the national economy and
political factors such as the low priority of environmental issues and lack of public
participation. At the beginning of the transition from a centrally planned to a free market
economy and a more open society, it was assumed that environmental performance in the
FSU would improve. In particular, a shift away from heavy industries to less resource-
intensive sectors and improvements in energy efficiency were expected to reduce air
pollution levels. All countries of the FSU experienced a decline in industrial output following
the change in economic regime and emissions of main pollutants have fallen as a result of a
slump in production. Many commentators saw this as a much needed break for the
environment. However, while absolute levels of emissions have decreased, the ongoing
economic crisis and persisting financial problems have ensured that decreases in emissions
have been smaller than declines in output as a result of the associated deterioration of
regulatory mechanisms, a lack of investment into pollution abatement equipment, weak
enforcement of environmental legislation and public disengagement. In the areas benefiting
from economic changes, and especially in large cities, environmental pressures have
increased because of growing car ownership

Book name
“A Text Book on Environmental science and engineering” by Prabhu Devarathinam

Year of publication
Jan 2016


Global warming is a gradual process of heating of earth’s surface and whole environment
including oceans, ice caps, etc. The global rise in atmospheric temperature has been clearly
noticed in the recent years. According to the Environmental Protection Agency, in the past
century there is increase in the earth’s surface average temperature by around 1.4 degree
Fahrenheit (means 0.8 degrees Celsius). It has also been estimated that global temperature
may increase by another 2 to 11.5 degrees F in the next century.

Causes of Global Warming

There are many causes of the global warming, some are natural causes and some are
human made causes. The most important cause of global warming is greenhouse gases which
are generated by some natural processes as well as human activities. The increase in the level
of green house gases has been seen in the 20th century because of the increasing population,
economy and use of energy. Increasing demand of industrialization in the modern world to
fulfill almost each need is causing the release of variety of green house gases through many
industrial processes in the atmosphere.

The release of carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) gas has been increased
in the recent years by 10-fold. The release of carbon dioxide gas varies according to the
natural and industrial processes including photosynthesis and oxidation cycles. Methane is
another green house gas release in the atmosphere by the anaerobic decomposition of organic
materials. Other greenhouse gases are like oxides of nitrogen (nitrous oxide), halocarbons,
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), chlorine and bromine compounds, etc. Such green house gases
get collected to the atmosphere and disturb the radioactive balance of atmosphere. They have
capability to absorb heat radiations and cause warming of the earth surface.

Another cause of global warming is ozone depletion means declination of ozone layer
over Antarctica. Ozone layer is declining day by day by increasing release of
chlorofluorocarbon gas. It is a human generated cause of global warming.
Chlorofluorocarbon gas is used at many places as aerosol propellants in the industrial
cleaning fluids and in the refrigerators, the gradual release of which causes declination to the
ozone layer in the atmosphere.

Ozone layer causes protection to the earth surface by inhibiting the harmful sun rays to
coming to the earth. However, gradually declining ozone layer is the big indication of
increasing global warming of the earth surface. Harmful ultraviolet sun rays are entering to
the biosphere and get absorbed by the green houses gases which ultimately increase the
global warming. According to the statistics, it has been estimated that the size of ozone hole
has been twice the size of Antarctica (more than 25 million km2) by 2000. There is no any
clear trend of ozone layer declination in the winter or summer seasons.

Man-Made Causes for Global Warming

1. Man-induced Deforestation: Deforestation is the cutting down of trees and plants to make
way for any development activity. Mother Nature taking out an entire forest is one thing, but
man doing it for the use of crop cultivation, fuel, and other consumption, is another. Each day
our forests are bulldozed for the prospect of farms and factories. Fuel used for wood and

Only adds to the polluted gases in the atmosphere. Our consumer commodities provided
by forestry includes paper and lumber. The loss of our forests results in a chain reaction
where too much carbon is released into the air, with not enough oxygen to combat it.

This means that it is very important to protect our trees to stop the greenhouse effect, and
also so we can breathe and live. Deforestation is blamed for rise in the greenhouse gases
present in the atmosphere by cutting or burning them. New development projects,
requirement of land for homes and factories, requirement for wood and also soil erosion are
the major factors that are causing deforestation, which in turn leading to global warming.

2. Fossil Fuels: Pollution whether it is vehicular, electrical or industrial is the main

contributor to the global warming. Everyday billions of vehicles release various gases into the
atmosphere. This causes earth to warm up and increase its average temperature. Electricity
causes pollution in many ways. Over 75% of the electricity worldwide is produced by
burning of fossil fuels. Many gases are sent into the air when fossil fuels are burnt of which
main is the carbon dioxide gas.

Fossil fuel like coal is burnt to produce electricity. Coal is the major fuel that is burnt to
produce power. Coal produces around 1.7 times as much carbon dioxide per unit of energy
when flamed as does natural gas and 1.25 times as much as oil.

3. Landfills: When we throw garbage out of our house it goes to landfills. Landfills are those
big chunks of garbage that stink and can be seen in so many places around the world. The
garbage is then used by big recycling companies to make some useful products out from it.
Most of the time that garbage is burnt which releases toxic gases including methane into
the atmosphere. These enormous amounts of toxic greenhouse gases when go into the
atmosphere make global warming worse.

4. Overpopulation: Another cause of global warming is overpopulation. Since carbon

dioxide contributes to global warming, the increase in population makes the problem worse
because we breathe out more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. More people mean more
demand for food, more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, more demand for cars and more
demand for homes.

More demand for food will lead to more transportation since movement of goods and
services is done by transportation sector. More demand for cars means more pollution in the
air and more traffic on the roads which means longer waiting time on the traffic lights and
that will result in burning of more fuel. More demand for homes means cutting down of
plants and trees to make way for homes, schools and colleges.

5. Mining: Oil and coal are two main culprits in producing greenhouse gases. Methane, like
carbon dioxide creates a thick shield over the atmosphere trapping the sun’s rays. With the
continued use of mining operations, these harmful gases will only increase.

6. Fertilizer Use: Think of the countless farmlands across the heartland of America. The
unique thing about fertilizer is that it produces nitrous oxide once it absorbs the soil. Nitrous
oxide is 300 times more dangerous than carbon dioxide. The EPA strongly warns that the
farming industry’s use of fertilizer is one of the leading causes of global warming.

Natural Causes of Global Warming

The climate has continuously changing for centuries. The global warming happens
because the natural rotation of the sun that changes the intensity of sunlight and moving
closer to the earth.Another cause of global warming is greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases
are carbon monoxide and sulphur dioxide it trap the solar heats rays and prevent it from
escaping from the surface of the earth. This has cause the temperature of the earth
increase.Volcanic eruptions are another issue that causes global warming. For instance, a
single volcanic eruption will release amount of carbon dioxide and ash to the atmosphere.
Once carbon dioxide increase, the temperature of earth increase and greenhouse trap the solar
radiations in the earth.

Finally, methane is another issue that causes global warming. Methane is also a
greenhouse gas. Methane is more effective in trapping heat in the atmosphere that carbon
dioxide by 20 times. Usually methane gas can release from many areas. For instance, it can
be from cattle, landfill, natural gas, petroleum systems, coal mining, mobile explosion, or
industrial waste process.
Global Warming Effects
Rise in sea levels worldwide

Scientists predict an increase in sea levels worldwide due to the melting of two massive
ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland, especially on the East coast of the U.S. However,
many nations around the world will experience the effects of rising sea levels, which could
displace millions of people. One nation, the Maldives, is already looking for a new home,
thanks to rising sea levels.

Killer storms

The severity of storms such as hurricanes and cyclones is increasing, and research
published in Nature found:

“Scientists have come up with the firmest evidence so far that global warming will
significantly increase the intensity of the most extreme storms worldwide. The maximum
wind speeds of the strongest tropical cyclones have increased significantly since 1981,
according to research published in Nature this week. And the upward trend, thought to be
driven by rising ocean temperatures, is unlikely to stop at any time soon.”

Massive crop failures

According to recent research, there is a 90% chance that 3 billion people worldwide will
have to choose between moving their families to milder climes and going hungry due to
climate change within 100 years. One of the main causes of this will be the spread of
desertification, and its accompanying effects.

“Climate change is expected to have the most severe impact on water supplies. “Shortages
in future are likely to threaten food production, reduce sanitation and hinder economic
development and damage ecosystems. It causes more violent swings between floods and

Guardian: Global warming causes 300,000 deaths a year.

Global Warming Solutions

We need to control the effects of global warming which require a meaningful discussion
and positive action oriented habits. Earth’s surface temperature is rising day by day
continuously without taking rest. It is very tough to reduce the effects of global warming
however not impossible. Our regular and get together effort may make it possible to get
control over global warming. Threats of global warming such as melting of glaciers, climate
change, rising sea level, droughts, deadly storm events, epidemic diseases, lost endangered
species, etc are increasing. We should use energy efficient products means the products
which use less energy such as fluorescent bulbs instead of common bulbs.
Use of nuclear energy may reduce the level of carbon emission and thus global warming
to great extent. We should reduce the burning of fossil fuels (wood or coal) by reducing our
dependence over fossil fuels in order to reduce carbon emissions. Deforestation should be
stopped on urgent basis in order to improve the absorption of green house gases from the
atmosphere and reduce the effect of global warming.

It is a fact that burning fossil fuels like oil, coal and gas releases greenhouse gases in the
atmosphere. The gases raise the temperature of the atmosphere. The switch to renewable
resources for energy such as wind energy, solar energy and hydropower will help to moderate
the demand of fossil fuels which will cut down the emission of greenhouse gases. We can
also contribute by planting trees, saving electricity, using public transport instead of car, and
creating awareness to prevent global warming.


Book name
“A Text Book on Environmental science” by Vijaya Ragavan

Year of publication
Jan 2016


No,29 perumal Koil Street,



The HR ,
Hyundai Company,

Respected Sir/Madam,

Sub: Application for the post of Quality Engineer-ref

With reference to your advertisement in the Hindu newspaper dated on 06/03/19 I would
like to apply for the post of QE in your reputed organization .I have completed my B.E in
Mechanical Engineering in Rajiv Gandhi Engineering College with the aggregate mark of 8.0
And I have got good exposure to CAD, Programming language etc. If I am given an
opportunity to work in your Organization, I would do my best to the fullest expectation of my
I have enclosed my detailed resume for your kind perusal. Expecting your positive
Reply soon and I will be available for the interview at any time.

Thanking You

Yours Truly




No,29 perumal koil street 8220234373




To work in a firm with a professional work driven environment where I can utilize
and apply my knowledge skills which would enable me as a fresh graduate to grow while
fulfilling organizational goals.


Qualification Board/University Year Percentage

B.E.Mechanical Rajiv Gandhi College 2019 92%
of Engg
Higher Secondary Govt. Boys 2015 86%
High school Govt. Boys 2013 88%


PROJECT WORK: Mini Project is hydraulic sheet bending machine.(Rajiv Gandhi

college of engg)


Workshop in Strength of material. (Rajiv Gandhi College of engg)

Workshop in Cad,Cam,Ansys.(Rajiv Gandhi college of engg)


 First prize in paper presentation on Laser.(Anna university)


Cricket,Volley ball,Kabaddi.


Name :K.Kebha

DOB : 04-07-1998

Gender : Male

Father’s name : N.Kumar

Nationality : Indian

Religion : Christian

Languages known : Tamil,English,Telugu

Marital Status : non-married

Interest and Hobbies : playing cricket and playing volleyball


I do hereby declare that the above information is true to the best of my knowledge and

Place: yours faithfully



Practice Good Nonverbal Communication

It’s about demonstrating confidence: standing straight, making eye contact and connecting
with a firm handshake. That first nonverbal impression can be a great beginning – or quick
ending – to your interview.

Dress for the Job Or Company

Today’s casual dress codes do not give you permission to dress as “they” do when you
interview. It is important to know to wear an interview and to be well-groomed. Whether you
wear a suit or something less formal depends on the company culture and the position you are
seeking. If possible, call to find out about the company dress code before the interview.


From the very beginning of the interview, your interviewer is giving you information,
either directly or indirectly. If you are not hearing it, you are missing a major opportunity.
Good communication skills include listening and letting the person know you heard what was
said. Observe your interviewer, and match that style and pace.

Don’t Talk Too Much

Telling the interviewer more than he needs to know could be a fatal mistake. When you
have not prepared ahead of time, you may ramble when answering interview questions,
sometimes talking yourself right out of the job. Prepare for the interview by reading through
the job posting, matching your skills with the position’s requirements and relating only that

Don’t Be Too Familiar

The interview is a professional meeting to talk business. This is not about making a new
friend. Your level of familiarity should mimic the interviewer’s demeanor. It is important to
bring energy and enthusiasm to the interview and to ask questions, but do not overstep your
place as a candidate looking for a job.
Use Appropriate Language

It’s given that you should use professional language during the interview. Be aware of any
inappropriate slang words or references to age, race, religion, politics or sexual orientation –
these topics could send you out the door very quickly.

Don’t Be Cocky

Attitude plays a key role in your interview success. There is a fine balance confidence,
professionalism and modesty. Even if you’re putting on a performance to demonstrate your
ability, overconfidence is as bad, if not worse, as being too reserved.

Take Care to Answer the Questions

When interviewers ask for an example of a time when you did something, they are asking
behavioral interview questions, which are designed to elicit a sample of your past behavior. If
you fail to relate a specific example, you not only don’t answer the question, but you also
miss an opportunity to prove your ability and talk about your skills.

Ask Questions

When asked if they have any questions, most candidates answer, “No.” wrong answer.
Part of knowing how to interview is being ready to ask questions and demonstrate an interest
in what goes on in the company. Asking questions also gives you the opportunity to find out
if this is the right place for you. The best questions come from listening to what you’re asked
during the interview and asking for additional information.

Don’t Appear Desperate

When your interview with the “please, please hire me” approach; you appear desperate
and less confident. Reflect the three Cs during the interview: cool, calm and confidence. You
know you can do the job; make sure the interviewer believes you can, too.

Here are several tips to crake the job interview:

1- Candidates must have good command on communication skills

2- They must be aware with job profile and responsibilities
3- Must be positive thinker and happy
4- Plan to be 15 minutes before the time schedule
5- Ensure that you fully aware with job description
6- Know the time and place of interview
7- Dress professionally
8- Speak clearly and slowly, don’t try to rush your answer
9- Avoid saying negative things about your previous or current employers
10- Relax, smile and positive during the interview

Most common interview questions that you need to prepare:

1- Can you tell me something about yourself?

2- Introduce yourself
3- Why you want to change your current company?
4- Can you tell me your short term and long term goals?
5- What are your achievements?
6- Why should, we hire you?
7- Tell me some more about you overall experience
8- What do you know about our organization?
9- What can you do for us that others can’t?

In modern English, presentation tend to be much less formal then they were even
twenty years ago. Most audience these days prefers a relatively informal approach. However,
there is a certain structure to the opening of a presentation that you should observe.

Theme of Presentation

It is important to have a theme for the presentation. The theme is different from a subject.
A presentation cannot be on a subject of Alcohol Abuse. Rather it should be a theme which
zeros in on the particular aspect of Alcohol Abuse, e.g. Abuse of Alcohol my Manual
Labourers in Tamil Nadu. Use of such a theme can give us an angle, an approach to
presentation of the presentation. It can help us avoid all other aspects of Alcohol which can
be very voluminous. The opening words of the presentation should be courteous, beginning
with a “Good Morning” or “Good day,” and introduce ourselves to the audience. For
example, we can use such words as;-

“I am Mr. Jagdish Shah. I am in-charge of the arrangement of today’s function.”

We should open the presentation with an introduction of the Theme of the presentation. To
being with, we can talk on a recent news items on the subject or we can raise a serious of
pointed questions relating to the subject, which questions, the presentation is likely to answer.
Such opening words are likely to evoke interest in the audience and prepare them to look
forward to the answers in the course of the discussion. The introduction should make clear
the purpose of your presentation.

After the introduction of the presentation, we should go into three or more major aspects
of the subject which will be presented, one by one.You should liberally use illustrations,
pictures, photographs, statistics, latest news, popular opinion, sayings of renowned persons
etc. on the subject.

After introduction you should go on expanding the presentation by using the following
At times do you practice your speech? As a general rule, you should spend about 30 hours
of preparation and rehearsal time for every hour you will be speaking.Use a tape recorder or
videotape yourself. This will help you to get an accurate picture of how you speak.

Give of Yourself – Use personal examples and stories in your speech whenever possible.
Make sure your stories help to emphasize or support your point. The stories must match your
message. Use examples from your personal and professional life to make your point. In either
case be willing to give of yourself by sharing some of yourself with the audience.

Stay Relaxed – To stay relaxed you should be prepared. Also, focus on your message and
not the audience. Use gestures, including walking patterns. Practice the opening of your
speech and plan exactly how will say it. The audience will judge you in the first 30 seconds
they see you.

Use Natural Humor – Don’t try to be a standup comedian. Use natural humor by poking
fun at yourself and something you said or did. Be sure NOT to make fun of anyone in the
audience. People will laugh with you when you poke fun at yourself but don’t overdo it.

Plan Your Body & Hand Positions – During the practice of your speech look for
occasion where you can use a gesture. Establish three positions where you will stand and
practice not only how to move to them but where in your speech do you move. Pick three
positions, one on center stage, one to your right, and one to your left. Do not hide behind the
lectern. When you do move maintain eye contact with the audience.

Pay attention to all details – Make sure you have the right location (school, hotel, room
& time). Make sure you know how to get to where you are speaking. Ask how large an
audience you will be speaking to. Make sure you bring all your visual aids and plenty of
handouts. Arrive early so you can check out where you will be speaking and make any last
minute adjustments. It is very important that you pay attention to even the smallest details.
You can never over plan. Remember, “He who fails to plan is planning for failure”

After covering all the important points of the outline of your presentation, you should give
an effective summary of the discussion and appropriate words of conclusion. The words of
conclusion should be on positive note and motivate the audience to positive action.
Use of Audio / Video material

The presentation can be made more effective by adding Audio Video materials wherever
required and also can include interviews with individuals / government officials / NGOs from
the respective field of activity

Group discussion is a new trend that has come up in order to evaluate student personality.
A group of participants are made to discuss on a topic or subject for a limited time and then
assessed accordingly. It is a chance for you to be more vocal.

There are a lot of advantages of a group discussion:

1- It helps to shed away the shyness of a candidate and brings his viewpoint amidst all.
2- It stimulates to think in a different, new way.
3- It helps the candidate in understanding his/her own strengths and weakness.
4- It acts as an aid in expansion of the knowledge of the participant.
5- It helps to analyze the social or economic issues more logically.


A group discussion (GD) is a simulated exercise, where you cannot suddenly put up a
show, since the evaluators will see through you easily. In this page you can find tips on GD
and how to handle them to ensure a positive outcome.

Here’s how most group discussions work

● Normally groups of 8-10 candidates are formed into a leaderless group, and are
given a specific situation to analyze and discuss within a given time limit.
● The group may be given a case study and asked to come out with a solution for a
● The group may be given a topic and asked to discuss on the same.

A panel will observe the proceedings and evaluate the members of the group.


Let us start from the basic. One needs to know what one’s objective in the group is. A
good definition of your objective is – to be noticed to have contributed meaningfully in an
attempt to help the group reach the right consensus. What does this essentially mean?

1) The first implication is that you should be noticed by the panel. Merely making a
meaningful contribution and helping the group arrive at a consensus is not enough. You have
to be seen by the evaluating panel to have made the meaningful contribution. What does that
mean in practice?

● You must ensure that the group hears you. If the group hears you, so will the
evaluator. That does not mean that you shout at the top of your voice and be
noticed for the wrong reasons.
● You have to be assertive. If you are not a very assertive person, you will have
to simply learn to be assertive for those 15 minutes. Remember, assertiveness
does not mean being bull-headed or being arrogant.
● And most importantly, you have to make your chances. Many group
discussion participants often complain that they did not get a chance to speak.
The fact is that in no group discussion will you get a chance to speak. These is
nothing more unacceptable in a GD than keeping one’s mouth shut or just
murmuring things which are inaudible.
● Participate in as many practice GDs as possible before you attend the actual
GD. There is nothing like practice to help you overcome the fear of talking in
a GD.

2) The second important implication is that making just any sort of contribution is not
enough. Your contribution has to be meaningful. A meaningful contribution suggests that

● You have a good knowledge base

● You are able to put forth your arguments logically and are a good
● The quality of what you said is more valuable than the quality. There is this
myth amongst many group discussion participants that the way to succeed in a
group discussion is by speaking loudly and at great length. One could not be
more wrong. You must have meat in your arguments.

Therefore, think things through carefully.

Always enter the room with a piece of paper and a pen. In the first two minutes jot down as
many ideas as you can.

When you jot down points, keep these pointers in mind. If it is a topic where are you are
expected to take a stand, say for examples, “Should India sign the Comprehensive Test Ban
Treaty?” note down points for both side of the argument. It will be useful on two counts –

● One, if you do not start the GD and are not amongst the first five speakers and find
that everyone in the group is talking for the topic, and then it makes sense to take the
alternate approach and oppose the topic even if you initially intended to talk for the
● Second, it helps to have knowledge of how group members who take a stand
diametrically opposite to yours will put forth their argument and to be prepared with
counter arguments.

3) Everybody else will state the obvious. So highlight some points that are not obvious.
The different perspective that you bring to the group will be highly appreciated by the panel.
Some pointers on being relevant while having a different perspective are:

a) Be careful that the “something different” you state is still relevant to the topic being
b) Can you take the group ahead if it is stuck at one point?
c) Can you take it in a fresh and more relevant direction?

4) The last implication is that you must be clearly seen to be attempting to build a

5) Gaining support or influencing colleagues is the mantra adopted by many a successful

Business Leaders.

6) Nobody expects a group of ten intelligent, assertive people, all with different points of
view on a controversial subject to actually achieve a consensus. But what matter is “Did you
make attempts to build a consensus?”

7) The reason why an attempt to build a consensus is important is because in most work
situations you will have to work with people in a team, accept joint responsibilities and take
decisions as a group.
8) You must demonstrate the fact that you are capable and inclined to work as part of a

Dos & Don’ts

Here is a list of what should be done and what should be avoided at a Group Discussion (GD)

1) Be as natural as possible. Do not try to be someone you are not. Be yourself. In an

attempt to be someone else, your opinions will not be portrayed.

2) Sit with a straight and confident posture.

3) Do not start speaking until you have clearly understood and analyzed the subject.

4) Be assertive yet humble. You need to stick to your values and beliefs, but learn to
respect the values and opinions of others too.

5) Grab the opportunity to speak first, i.e. to start the group discussion with your
opinion. It generally leaves a good impression on the evaluator, but take the move only if you
have complete knowledge of the subject.

6) Do not repeat a point, or be lengthy or irrelevant. Also intervene, if someone else is

going on an irrelevant track.

7) Facilitate contribution from others. Do not just go on and on with only your
opinionated view. Remember, it is a group discussion. Allow others to speak too.

8) Make an eye contact with all the participants. It creates more room for conversation.
Also keep nodding, when others speak, it shows receptivity.

9) Be an active and dynamic participant. The examiner wants to hear you speak. So do
put forth your views.

10) Be positive and prepare your thoughts well but do not be over-confident.

11) Think well before you speak. You are being heard and judged upon.

12) Do not lose your cool if anyone says anything you object to. The key is to stay
objective; Do not take the discussion personally.
13) Always be polite: Try to avoid using extreme phrases like “I strongly object” or “I
disagree”. Instead, try phrases like: “I would like to share my views on…” Or “One
difference between your point and mine is…” or “I beg to differ with you”.

14) Understand that the aim is not to speak often or for long periods. The aim is to be
precise and clear with your points. Ultimately, the discussion has to reach a conclusion and
you must strive towards that.

15) When raising an objection to a point kept by another speaker, back it up with a sold
reason to get the point across.

16) Use quotes, facts and figures, statements, everyday life examples to express a clear
chain of thoughts. Also it might leave a good impression on the examiner and help you score

17) These are some basic yet very vital tips that will help feel a bit more confident about
yourself and make you ready to appear for that group discussion trend. Apart from the above
points, the panel will also judge team members for their alertness and presence of mind,
problem-solving abilities, ability to work as a team.

Apart from the above points, the panel will also judge team members for their alertness and
presence of mind, problem-solving abilities, ability to work as a team without alienating
certain members, and creativity.

TIPS to Ace Your Group Discussion

In a Group Discussion (GD), you are expected to contribute meaningfully and help arrive at a
consensus. It is not a platform for you to fight your way through and dominate. Flexibility
and gelling with the group is also very important.

Make a note of the following points and you’ll get through with flying colours:

1) Arrive on time and dress formally. This is not a casual discussion, but one that will
help you get a job with a company. You need to look impressive, well groomed and

2) If you have some doubts or want some clarifications on the subject/topic of the
discussion, make sure to ask and clear them out before the discussion begins and not after
3) Always carry a pen and a notebook. This allows you to prefer to what others have said

4) Initiating the discussion is a major plus point but do so only if you’re very clear about
the topic and know a lot about the same.

5) Maintain eye contact with team members and not evaluators. They’re not a part of the
discussion. Ensure that you get to speak your point, if the other members hear you, the
evaluators will too.

6) Having said that, ensure that you listen as well and appreciate what others are saying.
If you do not agree with someone’s point, let them complete and then raise your objection.
Do not interrupt.

7) Be positive and do not be over confident.

8) Try and sort out contradictions and arguments. Providing a meaningful direction to
the discussion always leaves a good impression on the evaluators.

9) Understand that aim is not speak often or for long periods. The aim is to be precise
and clear with your points. Ultimately, the discussion has to reach a conclusion and you must
strive towards that.

10) Listen to the Topic Given during GD carefully: Listen to the topic carefully and
understand it… Be alert and vigilant. Sometimes, the topic may be really simple but the
manner, in which it is presented to you, can be baffling. The first thing that you should do
after hearing the topic is by structuring it on the sheet that is given to you to make notes.
Make a rough sketch of the points that you would like to speak aloud. You will be at an
advantage if you open the discussion, but then beware of what you speak. Deviating from the
main topic or passing strong statements like ‘I agree/ or disagree …’ should be avoided. Your
strategy should be test the waters and make a generic statement relevant to the topic. If you
can, back it up by relevant data.

11) Try and Maintain a Balance in your Tone: Besides what you are saying, remember
that the panelists are observing your body language as well. If you do not agree with the other
student’s point of view, do not raise your tone in objection. Listen to his point of view and
instead of dismissing it upfront, try and draw a common ground.
12) Listening Skills are Essential: Carefully listen to what others have to say. Just
speaking throughout the discussion doesn’t make you smart; you should also give others a
chance to speak. Try and listen to him/her, respect their view point too. If the speaker is
making an eye-contact with you remember to acknowledge him by saying “yes, you agree” or
just by nodding your head, so that the speaker is aware that his listeners are listening to him
and paying full attention. This will also show that you are vigilant and are active participant
in the discussion.

13) Body Gestures are very important. The panelists observe the way you sit and react in
the course of the discussion. Body gestures are very important, because your body language
says a lot about you. In a GD, sit straight; avoid learning back on to the chair or knocking the
table with pen or your fingers. Also, do not get distracted easily. For example, if the door in
room you are sitting in opens, do not look back to see who it is, this will how distracted you