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SJ FILE

explanations, comments, pictures (edited in MARCH 2018)

Explanations:

- the total number of Qs is different than in the original file, because I don’t like repeated Qs, so I was removing some while editing

- the numbering system is different than in the original file, because I wanted to fit some pictures on a certain

page and due to that I had to move around some Qs, so Qs #123 in this file might be #150 in the original file:

I was regretting that step while studying with other people, but there’s nothing I can do now

- usually the Qs in this file compared to the original are within +/- 20 Qs range, so if you are discussing a Qs with someone else look for it on a certain page, page up & page down = you will find it

- this file is a combination between two SJ files available on the group (forgot which ones), if there was a difference in an answer I would look it up and post an explanation - I edited a lot of answers while studying with others, I believe these answers are correct and have minor mistakes

- I passed studying from this file

- questions with “????” I didn’t understand the qs and I am not sure of the answer

MC = most common Epi = epinephrine NEpi = norepinephrine LN = lymp node

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1.

Papilla of the tongue, no taste: FILIFORM

1. Papilla of the tongue, no taste: FILIFORM 2. Tracheostomy:  PHYSIOLOGICAL DEAD SPACE Physiological dead

2. Tracheostomy: PHYSIOLOGICAL DEAD SPACE

Physiological dead space = anatomical dead space + alveolar dead space Anatomical dead space doesn’t contribute to gas exchange.

Anatomical dead space doesn’t contribute to gas exchange. Anatomical dead space is decreased by: I. Intubation

Anatomical dead space is decreased by:

I. Intubation (nasal cavity is bypassed and diameter of tube is less than airway diameter)

bypassed and diameter of tube is less than airway diameter) II. Tracheostomy (upper airways and nasal

II. Tracheostomy (upper airways and nasal cavity bypassed)

III. Hyperventilation (decreasing lung volume)

IV. Neck flexion

V. Bronchoconstrictors

3. Gustatory of the anterior 2/3 will travel along: CHORDA TYMPANI TRAVELS ALONG LINGUAL NERVE

4. Hamulus from which bone: MEDIAL PTERYGOID PLATE (SPHENOID)

5. Which muscle inserted to coronoid: TEMPORALIS

6. Lung innervation: T2-T4 (S NS), VAGUS (PS NS)

7. Burning sensations of the mouth, which fibers transmit it: C FIBERS

8. Facial paralysis after anesthesia: FACIAL NERVE PARALYSIS (PAROTID GLAND)

9. Which nerve travels with external jugular vein: GREAT AURICULAR

EJV great auricular n., superficial cervical LN IJV accessory n., deep cervical LN

cervical LN IJV – accessory n., deep cervical LN 10. Nerve that innervates muscles below the

10. Nerve that innervates muscles below the true vocal cord: INFERIOR LARYNGEAL (RECURRENT LARYNGEAL)

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11. What cause supination between ulna & radial: BICEPS BRACHII Origin Short head: coracoid process

11. What cause supination between ulna & radial: BICEPS BRACHII

Origin

Short head:

coracoid process (scapula)

Long head:

supraglenoid tubercle

Insertion

Artery

Nerve

Actions

Antagonist

Radial tuberosity and bicipital aponeurosis into deep fascia on medial part of forearm Brachial artery Musculocutaneous nerve (C5C7)

- flexes elbow - flexes and abducts shoulder - supinates radioulnar joint in the forearm Triceps brachii muscle

radioulnar joint in the forearm Triceps brachii muscle 12. What structure doesn’t go through parotid: FACIAL
radioulnar joint in the forearm Triceps brachii muscle 12. What structure doesn’t go through parotid: FACIAL
radioulnar joint in the forearm Triceps brachii muscle 12. What structure doesn’t go through parotid: FACIAL

12. What structure doesn’t go through parotid: FACIAL ARTERY

Structures passing over parotid: facial n., ECA, auriculotemporal n., retromandibular v., superficial temporal v.

Mneumonic:

Great auricular n. (C2-C3) innervates skin over parotid gland passes posteriorly.

FEARS
FEARS
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3

13.

Choose two visceral arteries branches of abdominal aorta.

Abdominal aorta:

- 3 anterior visceral branches

- 3 paired lateral visceral branches

- 5 paired lateral abdominal wall branches

- 3 terminal branches

coeliac, SMA, IMA suprarenal, renal, gonadal inferior phrenic, 4 x lumbar 2 x common iliac, median sacral

inferior phrenic, 4 x lumbar 2 x common iliac, median sacral 14. Pepsinogen is secreted from:

14. Pepsinogen is secreted from: CHIEF CELLS (STOMACH)

Parietal cells = oxyntic cells HCl

Chief cells = peptic cells = gastric zymogenic cells pepsinogen

(HOPa: HCl, Oxyntic, PArietal)

(HOPa: HCl, Oxyntic, PArietal) (PCPe: Pepsinogen, Chief cells, PEptic cells)
(HOPa: HCl, Oxyntic, PArietal) (PCPe: Pepsinogen, Chief cells, PEptic cells)

(PCPe: Pepsinogen, Chief cells, PEptic cells)

15. Epinephrine and glucagon cause: GLYCOGENOLYSIS

16. Gonadotropic hormone causes the release of: LH & FSH

17. Proprioception of trigeminal nerve to which nucleus: MESENCEPHALIC

18. Mechanic proprioception in PDL: INFORMATION IS SENT TO MESENCEPHALIC NUCLEUS

19. Cells of PDL come from: DENTAL SAC

20. Each of the following is located in the external surface of enamel except: HUNTER-SCHERGER BAND

the external surface of enamel except: HUNTER-SCHERGER BAND 21. Too much clenching, abuse activation of: MASSETER

21. Too much clenching, abuse activation of: MASSETER (or temporalis)

22. Vitamin C is important for: COLLAGEN SYNTHESIS (hydroxylation of proline and lysine)

23. Enamel is harder than bone due to: HIGHER INORGANIC CONTENT / BIGGER CRYSTALS

24. ATP needed for all except: PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY / HMP SHUNT

Facilitated diffusion is a passive process: no active energy in form of ATP needed.

25. What causes depolarization: K + MOVES OUTSIDE, Na + MOVES INSIDE

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26. Muscle contraction causes shortening of: H ZONE & I BAND

contraction causes shortening of: H ZONE & I BAND 27. Not important gland: ADRENAL MEDULLA 28.
contraction causes shortening of: H ZONE & I BAND 27. Not important gland: ADRENAL MEDULLA 28.

27. Not important gland: ADRENAL MEDULLA

28. Zona fasciculata produce: GLUCOCORTICOID (CORTISOL)

Mineralocorticoid: aldosterone Androgens: testosterone, DHT, androstenedione, DHEA

29. Herpangina: COX A

30. Cervical cancer: HPV 16 & 18

31. Fungus with capsules: CRYPTOCOCCUS

32. Fungi treated with: POLYENE ANTIFUNGALS

Amphotericin systemic fungal infections Nystatin oral fungal infections

fungal infections Nystatin → oral fungal infections 33. What enzyme does bacteria use to produce caries:

33. What enzyme does bacteria use to produce caries: GLUCOSYLTRANSFERASE

34. Glucosyltransferase: STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS

Cariogenic bacteria synthesize glucans (dextrans) and fructans (levans) from their metabolism of dietary sucrose (via glucosyltransferase), which contribute to their adherence to tooth surfaces. As a consequence, lactic acid is formed, reducing saliva ry pH and creating sites of enamel demineralization and cavitation.

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35.

Which virus is non latent: POLIO & RHINO

36. Where does the vertebral artery enter the skull: FORAMEN MAGNUM

Structures passing through foramen magnum:

Spinal cord, Meninges, Meningeal lymphatics, Accessory n., Sympathetic plexus, Vertebral a., Spinal branches of vertebral a.

Spinal Meninges Make A Special Vertical Sheath

37. Which define the mouth size: THE DEGREE OF FUSION BETWEEN MAXILLARY AND MANDIBULAR PROCESS

Lip formation depends on the same.

38. What is normally not present in plasma: THROMBIN

39. Parafollicular cells produce: CALCITONIN

THROMBIN 39. Parafollicular cells produce: CALCITONIN 40. What muscles are voluntary: RECTUM, 1/3 UPPER ESOPHAGUS
THROMBIN 39. Parafollicular cells produce: CALCITONIN 40. What muscles are voluntary: RECTUM, 1/3 UPPER ESOPHAGUS

40. What muscles are voluntary: RECTUM, 1/3 UPPER ESOPHAGUS

41. Have afferent and efferent vessels: LYMPH NODES

42. What muscle retrudes mandible: POSTERIOR TEMPORALIS

43. During maximal clenching which muscle attach to disc of TMJ to stabilize it: SUPERIOR LATERAL PTERYGOID

44. What ligament attach to the disc of TMJ: COLLATERAL LIGAMENTS

45. What accessory ligament prevent mandible from protrusions: STYLOMANDIBULLAR

46. If the cell starts directly to divide, what will cause to cell cycle (other question: very fast replication of the cells has what kind of effect on other stages of the cell cycle): G1 AND G2 PHASE DECREASES

47. SLE: AUTOANTIBODY

48. The longest part of the cell cycle: G1 (10 hours)

49. Amelogenesis imperfecta due to: AMELX GENE (codes for amelogenin)

50. Alzheimer’s: NEURODEGENERATIVE, DEMENTIA, PLAQUES, NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES (primary marker!)

51. A girl from Africa had TB, what would not be a case of a positive TB test: M. LEPRAE (“+” for Mycobacterium and BCG vaccine)

52. Alzheimer’s testlet; patient has depression and also takes medication for it.

a. Patient’s depression from the causes of his Alzheimer’s – TRUE

b. Effect/deficiency of serotonin in Alzheimer’s – TRUE

c. While extracting you broke the marginal ridge INFORM THE PATIENT

53. Burning sensation, patient wears L RPD: MENTAL NERVE

54. Glucose filtration rate: 0

55. Glucose clearance: 0 mg/dl

56. How much of the occlusal table form over all? 50-60% OF OCCLUSAL SURFACE IS OCCLUSAL TABLE

57. Where does the submandibular duct open? SUBLINGUAL CARUNCLE IN THE FLOOR OF THE MOUTH

58. Infection of the lower anterior teeth: SUBMENTAL LNs

59. Sensation of the face, which nucleus: VPM

60. Pain of the face, which nucleus: VPM

Face: VPM (ventroposterior medial) Body: VPL (ventroposterior lateral)

Mesencephalic nucleus: proprioception of the face & jaw-jerk reflex Spinal nuclei: responsible for pain and T of the face/head/neck; subdivided into oralis, interpolaris and caudalis. Oralis: fine tactile sense from orofacial Interporalis: tactile sense + dental pain Caudalis: nociception + thermal sensation

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61. Paralysis of the face muscles below zygoma: UMN DAMAGE UMN damage: paralysis on contralateral

61. Paralysis of the face muscles below zygoma: UMN DAMAGE

UMN damage: paralysis on contralateral side of the lower quadrant of the face only LMN damage: paralysis on ipsilateral side for the upper and lower quadrants of the face

side for the upper and lower quadrants of the face 62. As the patient ages, the

62. As the patient ages, the arteries loose elasticity what will happen to the pulse pressure: SYSTOLIC, OR NO CHANGE DIASTOLIC, PP, CONTINOUS FLOW IN THE CAPILLARIES WOULD CHANGE INTO A PULSATILE FLOW

Pulse Pressure: difference between systolic and diastolic

63. Pulmonary arteries and aorta are alike because: TRICUSPID SEMILUNAR VALVE, AMOUNT OF BLOOD FLOWING IS THE SAME

64. Primary mandibular incisor: STRAIGHT INCISAL EDGE, NO MAMELONS, SMALLEST F-L DIMENSION OF ALL PRIMARY TEETH

65. Why haptens can’t elicit the formation of an antibody: TOO SMALL, THEY NEED A CARRIER

Super-antigen activates a large number of Th cells at one time.

66. Similarity between salivary gland and kidneys: STRIATED DUCT

67. Similarity between salivary gland and pancreas: INTERCALATED DUCTS

68. Striated ducts of the salivary glands: CONTAIN MITOCHONDRIA

Modifies saliva form isotonic to hypotonic. Striations are related to a combination of foldings of basal cell MBs & radially arranged mitochondria for electrolyte & water transport. Simple, low, columnar epithelium.

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69.

Excessive ACTH will cause: CUSHING’S DISEASE; HYPERGLYCEMIA AND WEIGHT GAIN

Cushing’s disease: excess ACTH being produced (tumor) excess cortisol Cushing’s syndrome: excess cortisol →  ACTH

70. Sphingolipid’s structure: SPHINGOSYNE, 1 X FA, FUNCTIONAL GROUP

Functional groups:

Cerebroside glucose Sphingomyelin choline Ganglioside a lot of sugars Ceramide hydrogen

71. Chronic viral hepatitis: HEPATITIS C

Hepatitis C: flavivirus, ss-RNA, enveloped.

72. Lining the bone marrow: ENDOSTEUM

73. Gets embedded in the endometrium: BLASTOCYST/BLASTULA

73. Gets embedded in the endometrium: BLASTOCYST/BLASTULA 74. Lining of the trachea: PSEUDOSTRATIFIED CILIATED

74. Lining of the trachea: PSEUDOSTRATIFIED CILIATED COLUMNAR

75. Bowman’s capsule: PODOCYTES

76. Colloid-filled follicle: THYROID

77. Functional unit of the thyroid: FOLLICLE

78. Upper cervical ganglion: C1-C4

79. Blood-brain barrier is efficient because: NOT FENESTRATED, WITH TIGHT JUNCTIONS

80. MX 1 st molar root that is not innervated by superior posterior nerve: MB

81. Bifurcated anterior tooth: MN CANINE

82. Liver failure: HYPOALBUMINEMIA

83. Absolute refractory period: BLOCKED Na + INFLUX

84. Latent virus in saliva: EBV, MUMPS

85. Latent virus in salivary glands: CMV

EBV: B-cells, epithelial cells CMV: lymphocytes

glands: CMV EBV: B-cells, epithelial cells CMV: lymphocytes 86. Virus that causes chickenpox can also cause:

86. Virus that causes chickenpox can also cause: SHINGELS/HERPES ZOSTER

87. Patient with diabetes t. I should watch 3 of the following: CARBOHYDRATES, FAT, TOTAL CALORIES

88. Leukoplakia, what type of epithelium: PARAKERATOSIS / ORTHOKERATOSIS = HYPERKERATOSIS (can develop into SCC)

89. Decreased water permeability in distal tubule: ALDOSTERONE

90. Cell not found in a purulent secrection: PLASMA CELLS

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91. ATPase binds to: MYOSIN 92. Promote osteogenesis: SOMATOMEDIN Stimulated by somatotropin (GH). 93. Not

91. ATPase binds to: MYOSIN

92. Promote osteogenesis: SOMATOMEDIN

Stimulated by somatotropin (GH).

93.

Not found in dermis: MELANOCYTES, MYELINATED NERVE FIBERS

Dermis:

Meisnner’s corpuscles, collagen, sebaceous

Epidermis:

glands, hair follicles, sweat glands, vessels Merkel’s corpuscles

94. Made of mesenchyme: DERMAL PAPILLA

95. PAH (Paraaminohippurate) clearance determine: RENAL PLASMA FLOW

96. Smallest cusp in the primary MN 1 st molar: DISTOLINGUAL

97. Steepness of the condyle: CROWN HEIGHT, TALLER POSTERIOR CUSPS

The steeper the articular eminence, the longer the posterior cusps.

98. ACTH increase will cause: CORTISOL, CUSHING’S DISEASE

ACTH stimulates secretion of cortisol it is a steroid, glucocorticoid hormone. When used as a medication, it is known as hydrocortisone. It is produced by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex. It is released in response to stress and low blood-glucose concentration. It functions to increase blood sugar through gluconeogenesis, to suppress the immune system, and to aid in the metabolism of fat , protein, and carbohydrates. It also decreases bone formation.

99. Not superficial to hyoglossus: LINGUAL ARTERY

99. Not superficial to hyoglossus: LINGUAL ARTERY 100. From otic ganglion to the parotid gland: SECRETOMOTOR
99. Not superficial to hyoglossus: LINGUAL ARTERY 100. From otic ganglion to the parotid gland: SECRETOMOTOR

100. From otic ganglion to the parotid gland: SECRETOMOTOR POST GANGLIONIC PARASYPATHETIC FIBERS (that travel along the auriculotemporal branch from CN V3 to the parotid gland)

101. Which part of the nephron uses the most ATP: PCT

the auriculotemporal branch from CN V3 to the parotid gland) 101. Which part of the nephron

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102. From splanchnic to celiac trunk: PRESYNAPTIC SYMPATHETIC

From splanchnic to celiac trunk: PRESYNAPTIC SYMPATHETIC 103. Over contouring of the lingual surface of anterior

103. Over contouring of the lingual surface of anterior teeth will? DECREASE OVERJET

104. Pain from teeth to: PARIETAL LOBE, NUCLEUS INTERPOLARIS

105. What separates diencephalon: 3 rd VERNTRICLE

106. How increasing anterior overbite will affect the height of posterior cusps? MAKE THEM TALLER/HIGHER

107. Patient was exhibiting a mutually protected occlusion on her L side, then the MX canine was removed. The patient would exhibit:

GROUP FUNCTION

108. All of the following are the characteristics of a mutually protected occlusion, except: POSTERIOR CONTACT DURING LATERAL MOVEMENT

Found online:

Each of the following is a condition usually found in a mutually protected occlusion, in the normal upright position, except one. Which one is this exception?

A) None of the posterior teeth contact on the non-working side when the mandible moves laterally

B) Anterior teeth disclude all posterior teeth in protrusive movement.

C) Condyles are in their most supero-anterior position in closure.

D) Anterior teeth contact more heavily than the posterior teeth.

E) Axial loading of occlusal forces occurs in closure.

109. Hooks under the hamulus: TENSOR VELI PALATINI

closure. 109. Hooks under the hamulus: TENSOR VELI PALATINI 110. Attach to pteromandibular raphe: SUPERIOR CONSTRICTOR

110. Attach to pteromandibular raphe: SUPERIOR CONSTRICTOR OF PHARYNX AND BUCCINATOR

Spine of sphenoid and lingula: sphenomandibular ligament.

111. Achalasia is most related to: ESOPHAGUS

112. Aflatoxins produced by: ASPERGILLUS

113. Systemic fungal infection: COCCIDIOMYCOSIS, HISTOPLASMOSIS, BLASTOMYCOSIS

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114. Sensory (pain) innervation from the buccal vestibule of the mouth: LONG BUCCAL NERVE (V3)

115. Which triangle is bounded by superior belly of omohyoid, anterior borders of SCM & posterior belly of digastric: CAROTID

borders of SCM & posterior belly of digastric: CAROTID 119. Anterior wrist innervated by: MEDIAN NERVE
borders of SCM & posterior belly of digastric: CAROTID 119. Anterior wrist innervated by: MEDIAN NERVE

119. Anterior wrist innervated by: MEDIAN NERVE

116. Abdominal aorta branches: CELIAC, SUPERIOR & INFERIOR MESENTERIC (compare #13)

117. Portal drainage from: SMALL AND LARGE INTESTINE

118. Vertebral artery enters the skull via: FORAMEN MAGNUM

118. Vertebral artery enters the skull via: FORAMEN MAGNUM 120. Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease, what
118. Vertebral artery enters the skull via: FORAMEN MAGNUM 120. Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease, what

120. Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease, what they have in common: DEMENTIA

121. Calcitonin: INHIBITS BONE RESORPTION

122. Enamel pearl: HERTWIG’S REMNANT

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123. Myasthenia gravis, defect in: MYONEURAL JUNCTION

123. Myasthenia gravis, defect in: MYONEURAL JUNCTION Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a long-term autoimmune neuromuscular

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a long-term autoimmune neuromuscular disease that leads to varying degrees of skeletal muscle weakness

(attacks Ach receptors). The most commonly affected muscles are those of the eyes, face, and swallowing. It can result in double vision, drooping eyelids, trouble talking, and trouble walking. Onset can be sudden. Those affected often have a large thymus gland or develop

a thymoma. Often improves with rest & worsens with activity. IT IS NOT A CNS DEGENERATION.

124. Granular cells in ovaries analogous with which in testes: SERTOLI

A Sertoli cell is a "nurse" cell of the testicles that is part of a seminiferous tubule and helps in the process of spermatogenesis; that is , the production of sperm. It is activated by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) secreted by the adenohypophysis and has FSH receptor on its membranes. It is specifically located in the convoluted seminiferous tubules (since this is the only place in the testes where the

spermatozoa are produced).

A granulosa cell or follicular cell is a somatic cell of the sex cord that is closely associated with the developing female gamete (called an oocyte or egg) in the ovary of mammals.

125. Stratum granulosum contains: KERATOHYALIN

of mammals. 125. Stratum granulosum contains: KERATOHYALIN 126. Inactive chromosome: HETEROCHROMOSOME 127. Sac-like

126. Inactive chromosome: HETEROCHROMOSOME

127. Sac-like with non-keratinized epithelial lining: CYST

128. Trifurcated premolar: MX 1 st PM (2 buccal, 1 palatal)

129. Shorter incisogingivally than mesiodistally: PRIMARY MX CENTRAL

130. Which cusp contribute to oblique and transverse ridges: MESIOLINGUAL

131. How many pulp horns in MD 1 st M: 5

132. Patient has paralysis in facial muscles due to cerebrovascular injury, which artery is involved: MIDDLE CEREBRAL

Epidural hematoma MMA Subdural hematoma bridging vein Subarachnoid hemorrhage anterior communicating artery, ruptured aneurysm

Epic mama Subd.b Suba.aca
Epic mama
Subd.b
Suba.aca

133. Not a function of CD4: ANTIBODY RELEASE

134. Cellular immunity most important to detect: INTRACELLULAR INFECTIONS

135. Il-1 is released by: ACTIVATED MACROPHAGES

Activated macrophages release: Il-1, Il-6, Il-8, Il-12, TNF-a.

136. Pain is transmitted by which nucleus: SPINAL

137. Salivary nucleus location: BRAINSTEM

138. Neurotransmitter in pulp: SUBSTANCE P

139. Pain: SUBSTANCE P

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140. Muscle between superior and middle pharyngeal constrictors: STYLOPHARYNGEUS (also CN IX) 141. Palatal glands:
140. Muscle between superior and middle pharyngeal constrictors: STYLOPHARYNGEUS (also CN IX) 141. Palatal glands:

140. Muscle between superior and middle pharyngeal constrictors: STYLOPHARYNGEUS (also CN IX)

141. Palatal glands: MUCOUS

142. Purely mucous salivary glands: PALATAL GLANDS

143. Demilunes in submandibular glands: SEROUS

144. Chlamydial infection to conjunctiva and pharynx: TRACHOMA

145. Supraclavicular LN metastasis from which cancer: STOMACH

146. Posterior tongue papillae innervated by: CN IX

147. Does not pass through jugular foramen: HYPOGLOSSAL

Jugular foramen: CN IX, X, XI

jugular foramen: HYPOGLOSSAL Jugular foramen: CN IX, X, XI 148. Cilia move cerebral fluid from subarachnoid

148. Cilia move cerebral fluid from subarachnoid space to: VEINS

149. Supinator of the arm: BICEPS BRACHII (#11)

150. Not the effect of sympathetic nervous system: PUPIL CONSTRICTION

151. To reach submandibular gland duct you will have to: CUT THROUGH MUCOUS MEMBRANE ONLY

152. Infection at the corner of the mouth spreads to: SUBMANDIBULAR LYMPH NODES

153. Most superior part of the larynx: EPIGLOTTIS / ARYEPIGLOTTIC FOLD

part of the larynx: EPIGLOTTIS / ARYEPIGLOTTIC FOLD 154. Greater cornu of hyoid and CN IX

154. Greater cornu of hyoid and CN IX (glossopharyngeal) arise from: 3 rd ARCH

155. External auditory meatus: 1 st CLEFT

156. Graft rejection: TYPE IV HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTION

157. All premolars have DMCR longer than MMCR except: MX 1 st PM

158. Morphodifferentiation determines: SHAPE OF THE TOOTH

159. DEJ forms at: BELL STAGE

160. What occurs first: ELONGATION OF IEE

Followed by differentiation of odontoblasts, 1 st layer of dentin, 1 layer of enamel

161. Not found in compact bone: TRABECULAE (found in spongy bone)

162. Direct source of energy for muscular contraction: ATP

163. Not an effect on Viagra: BP / VASOCONSTRICTION (it BP & relaxes muscles)

Viagra (Sildenafil) treats erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. It inhibits cGMP-phosphodiesterase promotes the degradation of cGMP.

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164. Protection against occlusal forces: OBLIQUE FIBERS 165.  acid phosphatase: PROSTATIC CANCER ( 

164. Protection against occlusal forces: OBLIQUE FIBERS

165. acid phosphatase: PROSTATIC CANCER (alkaline phosphatase – Paget’s)

166. Exotoxin with 3 factors: ANTHRAX (lethal factor, edema factor, protective antigen)

167. Ansa cervicalis innervates: INFRAHYOID MUSCLES

The ansa cervicalis is a loop of nerves that are part of the cervical plexus. It lies superficial to the IJV in the carotid triangle. Branches from the ansa cervicalis innervate most of the infrahyoid muscles, including the sternothyroid muscle, sternohyoid muscle, and the omohyoid muscle. Note that the thyrohyoid muscle, which is also an infrahyoid muscle, is innervated by C1 via the hypoglossal nerve. In addition, the ansa cervicalis does not innervate the stylohyoid muscle, which is innervated by the facial nerve.

muscle , which is innervated by the facial nerve . 168. Why antibiotics give relief in

168. Why antibiotics give relief in peptic ulcer disease: ELIMINATE H. PYLORI, ACID SECRETION (PROTON PUMP INHIBITORS)

169. Which nerve to cut to treat peptic ulcer: VAGUS

The vagus nerves play a central role in regulating gastric acid production. Vagotomy performed in conjunction with either pyloroplasty or antrectomy was once the gold standard for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. The following decades saw the development of histamine H2-receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors, along with the discovery of the role Helicobacter pylori plays in peptic ulcer disease. The success of these modern nonsurgical therapies reduced the incidence of ulcer-related complications requiring surgical interventions. When surgical interventions are required, technological advances have allowed vagotomy to be performed with minimally invasive techniques with fewer procedure-related complications.

170. Autosomal dominant, 50%: 25% IN OFFSPRING

171. pH=1, glutamate will be: +1

172. Fungus that cause athlete feet: TRICHOPHYTON

Trichophyton is a genus of fungi, which includes the parasitic varieties that cause tinea, including athlete's foot, ringworm, jock itch, and similar infections of the nail, beard, skin and scalp. Trichophyton fungi are molds characterized by the development of both smooth- walled macro- and microconidia.

173. Lining of the stomach: SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM

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174. Activation of an enzyme include: PHOSPHORYLATION OF SERINE RESIDUE (PROKARYOTES) OR HYDROLYSIS OF A PEPTIDE UNIT (EUKARYOTES)

175. Afferent of Breuer reflex of the lung: STRETCH RECEPTORS, CARRIED BY VAGUS NERVE TO PREVENT OVER-INFLATION

The HeringBreuer inflation reflex is a reflex triggered to prevent over-inflation of the lung. Pulmonary stretch receptors present in the smooth muscle of the airways respond to excessive stretching of the lung during large inspirations. Once activated, they send action potentials through large myelinated fibers of the vagus nerve to the inspiratory area in the medulla and apneustic center of the pons. In response, the inspiratory area is inhibited directly and the apneustic center is inhibited from activating the inspiratory area. This inhibits inspiration, allowing expiration to occur.

The HeringBreuer deflation reflex serves to shorten exhalation proprioceptors activated by lung deflation. Like the inflation reflex, impulses from these receptors when the lung is deflated. It is initiated either by stimulation of stretch receptors or stimulation of travel afferently via the vagus. Unlike the inflation reflex, the afferents terminate on inspiratory centers rather than the pontine apneustic center. These reflexes appear to play a more minor role in humans than in non-human mammals.

176. Sharp pain: A-DELTA

humans than in non-human mammals. 176. Sharp pain: A-DELTA 177. Insulin receptor: TYROSINE KINASE Tyrosine kinase

177. Insulin receptor: TYROSINE KINASE

Tyrosine kinase receptor adds phosphate group to tyrosine in a cell. Phosphorylated proteins have greater affinity for GLUT-4 →  glucose uptake from blood to tissues.

178. Rickettsia and viruses: OBLIGATE INTRACELLULAR (difference: rickettsia has both DNA & RNA)

179. Articulating surfaces in a newborn are covered by: HYALINE CARTILAGE

180. Infection in the posterior wall of maxillary sinus will spread to: ETHMOIDAL SINUS

181. Cytochrome p450: BIOTRANSFORMATION OF DRUG EFFECTS, INNER MEMBRANE OF MITOCHONDRIA, DETOXIFICATION, IN PERICENTRAL VEIN ZONE IN THE LIVER

182. Na + / K + is an example of: ION CHANNEL PRIMARY ACTIVE TRANSPORT

183. Fungal agar: SABOURAUD AGAR (also for bacteria Nocardia)

184. Anti-A and anti-B both agglutinate: AB type

185. Not in liquid necrosis and inflammation: CELL AUTOLYSIS

186. Bonds between DNA units: PHOSPHODIESTER

187. Bonds between GAGs: GLYCOSIDIC

188. Maxillary molar infection will spread to: INFRATEMPORAL FOSSA, MAXILLARY SINUS & BUCCAL SPACE

GLYCOSIDIC 188. Maxillary molar infection will spread to: INFRATEMPORAL FOSSA, MAXILLARY SINUS & BUCCAL SPACE 15

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189. Howship lacunae: OSTEOCLASTS (BONY REMODELING) Osteoclasts occupy small depressions on the bone’s surface, called

189. Howship lacunae: OSTEOCLASTS (BONY REMODELING)

189. Howship lacunae: OSTEOCLASTS (BONY REMODELING) Osteoclasts occupy small depressions on the bone’s surface, called
189. Howship lacunae: OSTEOCLASTS (BONY REMODELING) Osteoclasts occupy small depressions on the bone’s surface, called

Osteoclasts occupy small depressions on the bone’s surface, called Howship lacunae; the lacunae are thought to be caused by erosion of the bone by the osteoclasts’ enzymes. Osteoclasts are formed by the fusion of many cells derived from circulating monocytes in the blood. These in turn are derived from the bone marrow.

190. Oxidative decarboxylation: PYRUVATE, ISOCITRATE, A-KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE

PYRUVATE, ISOCITRATE, A-KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE Once glycolysis takes place in the cells cytoplasm it

Once glycolysis takes place in the cells cytoplasm it produces pyruvate, which continues on and into the matrix of the mitochondria. The Krebs cycle is the next step of cellular respiration, but before the Krebs cycle takes place we need another step called Oxidative Decarboxylation which has to convert pyruvate into acetyl-CoA. The following steps occur:

1. A carboxyl group is removed as CO2. This is the decarboxylation part.

2. Then the remaining 2-carbon part is oxidized by NAD+. The NAD+ gains two hydrogen’s and the remaining two-carbon compound

becomes an acetic acid.

3. Then a coenzyme A (CoA) attaches to the acetic acid part forming acetyl-CoA. This is the molecule that is needed to continue in the

Krebs Cycle.

191. Weil-Felix test: ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER

RMSF is a bacterial disease (RICKETTSIA) spread through an infected tick. Most people who get sick with RMSF will have a fever, headache, and rash. RMSF can be deadly if not treated early with the right antibiotic. Lyme disease = borreliosis (BORRELIA).

192. MD dimension of MX canine pulp canal: WIDEST NEAR THE CERVICAL 1/3

193. Mechanoreceptors in PDL varying in: THRESHOLD

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194. Produces secretin: S CELLS (DUODENUM)

Secretin is a hormone that regulates water homeostasis throughout the body and influences the environment of the duodenum by regulating secretions in the stomach, pancreas, liver. It is a peptide encoded by the SCT gene.

195. All cause atrophy in the muscles except: EXCESSIVE HORMONAL STIMULATION

Atrophy is caused by disuse, pressure, blood supply.

196. Gamma fibers: INTRAFUSAL FIBERS, INNERVATE MUSCLE SPINDLE, MAINTAIN MUSCLE TONE

Gamma motor neuron is a type of LMN that takes part in the process of muscle contraction, and represents about 30% of fibers going to the muscle. Like alpha motor neurons, their cell bodies are located in the anterior grey column of the spinal cord. They receive input from the reticular formation of the pons in the brainstem. Although muscles can be in a relaxed state, muscles have a general resting level of tension. This is termed muscle tone and is maintained by the motor neurons innervating the muscle. Its purpose is to maintain posture and assist in quicker movements, since if muscles were completely loose, then more neuronal firing would need to take place.

197. Warfarin tested by: PT (PROTHROMBIN TIME, EXTRINSIC PATHWAY)

Mnemonic:

EX PresidenT went to WARFARIN

Warfarin is a prescription medication that interferes with normal blood clotting (coagulation). It is an anticoagulant. The clotting test used to measure the effect of warfarin is the prothrombin time. The PT is a laboratory test that measures the time it takes for a clot to form. It is measured in seconds. It is particularly sensitive to the clotting factors affected by warfarin. The PT is also us ed to compute the measure most commonly used to adjust the warfarin dose, known as the INR (or International Normalized Ratio).

198. H2 receptors, increase gastric secretion: HISTAMINE

Histamine is a ubiquitous messenger molecule released from mast cells, enterochromaffin-like cells, and neurons. Its various actions are mediated by histamine receptors H1, H2, H3 and H4. The histamine receptor H2 belongs to the rhodopsin-like family of G protein- coupled receptors. It is an integral membrane protein and stimulates gastric acid secretion. It also regulates gastrointestinal motility and intestinal secretion and is thought to be involved in regulating cell growth and differentiation.

199. Interferon’s anti-viral effect: INHIBITS REPLICATION

Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells. In a typical scenario, a virus-infected cell will release interferons causing nearby cells to heighten their anti-viral defenses. IFNs belong to the large class of proteins known as cytokines, molecules used for communication between cells to trigger the protective defenses of the immune system that help eradicate pathogens. Interferons are named for their ability to "interfere" with viral replication by protecting cells from virus infections.

200. Fumarate links urea cycle to: KREBS CYCLE

201. Nitrogen sources in urea cycle: ASPARTATE & AMMONIA

Pick aspartate & carbamoyl phosphate (it has ammonia built in it: NH 4 + CO 2 carbamoyl phosphate) if the questions says direct sources of ammonia in the urea cycle”.

202. MX central erupt occlusally and: FACIALLY

203. Premolar with cusps closest in size: MX 2 ND PM

204. Y pattern for MN 2 nd PM formed by: LINGUAL & CENTRAL GROOVES

205. Gingival disease: IgG

206. Immunoglobulin in saliva/tears/body fluids: sIgA (different question combinations)

207. Positive PPD indicate all except: LEPROMATOUS LEPROSY

208. PPD: TYPE IV HYPERSENSITIVITY

209. Not in plaque: STREP. PYOGENES

210. Important in clots formation: Ca 2+

211. Most genetic information is transported via: CONJUGATION

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PYOGENES 210. Important in clots formation: Ca 2 + 211. Most genetic information is transported via:

212. What regulates glycolysis: PFK

213. Transduction include all of the following except: CELL TO CELL CONTACT

Transduction is DNAase resistant, transformation is susceptible to DNAase.

214. Last step of gluconeogenesis in the liver: GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATASE

215. Dextran: GLUCOSE UNITS ON HYDROLYSIS YIELD FRUCTANS (LEVANS) BY GLUCOSYLTRANSFERASE (???)

216. Substrate of dextran formation: SUCROSE

217. Inhibits prostaglandins: ASPIRIN

218. Penicillin resistance: B-LACTAMASE

219. Differences between dystrophic calcification and metastatic calcification: DYSTROPHIC OCCURS IN NECROTIZING TISSUES

Dystrophic calcification is the calcification occurring in degenerated or necrotic tissue. This occurs as a reaction to tissue damage,

including as a consequence of medical device implantation. Dystrophic calcification can occur even if the amount of calcium i n the blood is not elevated. Metastatic calcification is deposition of calcium salts in otherwise normal tissue, because of elevated serum levels of calcium, as seen

in hyperparathyroidism.

These differences in pathology also mean that metastatic calcification is often found in many tissues, whereas dystrophic calcification

is localized. Metastatic calcification can occur widely throughout the body but principally affects the interstitial tissues of the vasculature, kidneys, lungs, and gastric mucosa. For the latter three, acid secretions or rapid changes in pH levels contribu te to the formation of salts.

220. Respiratory acidosis is caused by: HYPOVENTILATION, T, BPG

Asthma, COPD, emphysema, cardiac arrest, acute pulmonary edema are some of the causes. In acidosis: Extra H + goes into the cell and potassium leaves the cell which causes transient hyperkalemia.

In alkalosis: H + leaves the cell and potassium enters the cell leading to transient hypokalemia.

221. Hyperventilation causes: RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS (CO 2 & PH)

222. Suicide inhibitor: SUBLACTAM

Suicide inhibition (suicide inactivation or mechanism-based inhibition) is an irreversible form of enzyme inhibition that occurs when an enzyme binds a substrate analogue and forms an irreversible complex with it through a covalent bond. The inhibitor binds to the active site where it is modified by the enzyme to produce a reactive group that reacts irreversibly to form a stable inhibitor-enzyme complex. Examples: aspirin, clavulanic acid, fluorouracil, penicillin, sublactam, allopurinol, AZT, exemestane Thymydylate synthatase is an important enzyme, which inhibition is used in cancer treatment.

Augmentin = amoxicillin + clavulanic acid

223. Example of suicide inhibitor: ANTI-CANCER DRUG, FLUOROURACIL

224. Not a step in PCR

There are 3 major steps involved in the PCR technique: Denaturation, Annealing, and Extension (in sequence).

225. Actin filaments in cilia are similar to: MICROTUBULES

226. Nissl bodies: RER

A Nissl body (Nissl substance) is a large granular body found in neurons. These granules are of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) with rosettes of free ribosomes and are the site of protein synthesis. Polio attacks Nissl bodies.

227. Urticaria (rash, hives) in penicillin allergy, which type of hypersensitivity: TYPE I

228. Clindamycin: BINDS TO 50S RIBOSOMAL SUBUNIT

229. Aminoglycoside: BINDS TO 30S RIBOSOMAL SUBUNIT

230. Long onset long effect: estrogen, oxytocin, ADH, PTH, GH (???)

231. Slow onset long effect: ESTROGEN (???; long acting effect = estrogen, GH not in option)

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232. Buccinator: PENETRATED IN INFERIOR MANDIBULAR NERVE BLOCK

233. The relation between lingual nerve and inferior mandibular nerve: ANTERIOR & MEDIAL, ANTERIOR, POSTERIOR & LATERAL, POSTERIOR

234. Aciduric bacteria: LACTOBACILLUS

235. Streptococcus lacks: LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE

236. Frequent virulence factor: CAPSULE

237. Gram negative bacteria have: LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE

238. Glucagon phosphorylase: RATE-LIMITING ENZYME IN GLYCONEOGENESIS

239. Form collagen, elastin and reticular fibers: FIBROBLAST

240. Bone and cartilage share all of the following, except: HIGHLY VASCULARIZED

241. Primary teeth have: LIGHTER COLOR

242. Lingual HOC of MX canine: CERVICAL 1/3

243. Cervical lines: ADJACENT CERVICAL LINES ARE THE SAME

Cervical lines on adjacent proximal surfaces of adjacent teeth have approximately the same depth of curvature.

244. Contact area: STABILIZE DENTAL ARCH, FORM EMBREASURES, PREVENT FOOD IMPACTION

Don’t distribute occlusal forces or protect mucosal tissues.

245. What tooth does MX lateral incisor contact in an edge to edge position: NO TOOTH

When protrusive movement first occurs, they contact MN lateral & canine.

246. Mesial contact point on MX canine: JUNCTION OF INCISAL & MIDDLE THIRD

247. Caries on MX lateral: LINGUAL PIT

248. Left MX 2 nd premolar replaces which tooth: PRIMARY 2 ND MOLAR

249. Cingulum of the MX central incisor offsets to: DISTAL

250. Occlusal view of MX 1 st molar: M-D WIDTH IS WIDER ON LINGUAL THAN FACIAL

This is why the facial embrasure is larger than the lingual one, which is unique to the 1 st MX molars.

251. Tooth frequently found with 2 canals: MX 1 st PM, MN LATERAL INCISOR (28%)

252. Root with 2 canals: MB OF MX 1 ST MOLAR, M OF MN 1 ST MOLAR, MN LATERAL INCISOR (28%)

253. MX 2 nd molar: 3 ROOTS, 3 OR 4 CANALS; STENSON’S DUCT OPENS NEAR IT

254. MX 1 st molar: 3 ROOTS, 3 OR 4 CANALS (2 MB, 1 P, 1 DB)

255. Straight mesial surface (looking from labial): MN CANINE

256. How many fossae does MX canine have: 2 LINGUAL FOSSAE

257. Which of the following is bordered by incisal edge and marginal ridges: OCCLUSAL TABLE

258. Which tooth exhibits most deformities: MX LATERAL INCISOR

259. Each of the following is a histologic feature of malignant growth, except: APLASIA & METAPLASIA

Aplasia - defective development or congenital absence of an organ or tissue.

260. Benign tumor: WELL DIFFERENTIATED CELLS

261. Precancerous: NON-MALIGNANT

262. Leukoplakia: HYPERPLASIA & KERATINIZED EPITHELIUM

263. Squamous cells in the lungs: METAPLASIA

264. Patient has lung infraction and dies within 24h. What will you find in the pathology slide: RED INFRACT/HEMORRHAGIC INFRACT, PULMONARY EMBOLISM

In light microscopy (LM): necrosis of alveolar walls - loss of nuclei, alveolar hemorrhage, +/- evidence of underlying cause. Red infract: lung, brain, liver, intestine; white infract: kidney, retina, brain, heart, spleen

265. Postural position: RESTING POSITION

Centric relation: muscles, condyle in the back position. Central occlusion: teeth.

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266. Protrusion: BOTH LATERAL PTERYGOIDS

267. Stabilize the disc of TMJ: SUPERIOR HEAD OF LATERAL PTERYGOID

268. Left movement: RIGHT LATERAL PTERYGOID CONTRACTION

269. Translation: SUPERIOR COMPARTMENT

270. Articular surfaces of the condyle: SUPERIOR & ANTERIOR

271. Leukocytes leaves vessels at: POSTCAPILLARY VENULES

272. Secrete HCl: OXYNTIC / PARIETAL CELLS

VENULES 272. Secrete HCl: OXYNTIC / PARIETAL CELLS That causes an activation of pepsinogen by converting

That causes an activation of pepsinogen by converting it to pepsin. Parietal cells (oxyntic), are the epithelial cells that secrete HCl and intrinsic factor. These cells are located in the gastric glands found in the lining of the fundus and in the body of the stomach. They contain an extensive secretory network (called canaliculi) from which the HCl is secreted by active transport into the stomach. The enzyme hydrogen potassium ATPase (H+/K+ ATPase) is unique to the parietal cells and transports the H+ against a concentration gradient of about 3 million to 1, which is the steepest ion gradient form ed in the human body. Parietal cells are primarily regulated via histamine, acetylcholine and gastrin signaling from both central and local modulators.

273. Which of the following is incorrect: ALCOHOLISM CAUSES GUMMATOUS NECROSIS (it is rescricted to necrosis involving spirochaetal infections that cause syphilis)

Apoptosis and necrosis: two types of cell death in alcoholic liver disease. Heavy alcohol consumption over long periods of time c an result in severe liver damage, including death of liver cells (hepatocytes). Two mechanisms, apoptosis and necrosis, can contribute to hepatocyte death.

274. Not essential in Lys hydroxylation: VIT. K

275. Extracellular phase of collagen synthesis: CROSS-LINKING

276. Tooth that inclines MD the most: MX MOLAR

277. Irreversible change: KARYOLYSIS

278. Protein tertiary structure: CYSTEIN

279. Megaloblastic anemia: FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCY

280. Group A Streptococcus can cause: SCARLET FEVER

281. Bone after 1 month of injury: LAMELLAR BONE

Bone injuries:

(imagine you’ve been dancing so much that you broke your leg)

Wham’s “Last Christmas” Rocks!

- woven

1-3 weeks

- lamellar

1-3 months

- compact

2-3 years

- remodeling

4-5 years

282. Between atria: FOSSA OVALIS

283. Pain of upper lip, which nerve: INFRAORBITAL

284. Inactive vaccine: SALK

lip, which nerve: INFRAORBITAL 284. Inactive vaccine: SALK Oral, weakened (OPV) Injection, inactivated (killed, IPV)

Oral, weakened (OPV) Injection, inactivated (killed, IPV)

SABIN SALK
SABIN
SALK

Sabina gives blow-jobs

K killed

(so you know the other one is intravenous, not oral)

(so you know the other one is alive, not killed)

285. Phagocytes in TMJ: SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE

Morphologically, the synovial membrane consists of two layers: an inner cell layer (intima) and a support layer (vascular subintima), which mixes with the fibrous capsule. The intima consists of cells embedded in an amorphous, fiber-free matrix with an approximate thickness of one to four cells. It contains macrophage-like type A cells with phagocytic ability, and fibroblast-like type B cells that synthesize proteins, glycoproteins, and proteoglycans. The subintima consists of loose CT with blood vessels, fibroblasts, macrophages, mastocytes, adipose cells, and some elastic fibers that prevent membrane folding.

286. Mottled teeth: FLUOROSIS

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287. 288. 289. 290. 291. 292. Calcification begins at: INCISAL EDGE (if DEJ is not

287.

288.

289.

290.

291.

292.

Calcification begins at: INCISAL EDGE (if DEJ is not an option)

Inferior borders of TMJ are formed by: CONDYLES

Temporomandibular ligament attaches to: CONDYLE

Most anterior & superior position of TMJ: CR

Fractured neck of the condyle: MOUTH OPENING IS RESTRICTED, 30 mm (normal: 40-55 mm)

Deformed teeth: SYPHILLIS

Hutchinson's teeth (Hutchinson's incisors) are a sign of congenital syphilis. Babies have teeth that are smaller and more widely spaced than normal and which have notches on their biting surfaces.

293. Primary teeth that resemble permanent dentition:

1. Primary MX 1 st M permanent MX 1 st PM

2. Primary MX 2 nd M permanent MX 1 st M

3. Primary MN 1 st M resembles nothing

4. Primary MN 2 nd M permanent MN 1 st M

294. Worsen periodontal disease: AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS

Amelogenesis imperfecta is characterized by defective or missing tooth enamel. Secondary effects of this disorder may be early tooth loss, heightened susceptibility to disease of the tissues surrounding the teeth (periodontal) such as gums, cement, ligaments , and the bone in which the tooth root rests (alveolar).

295. Not found in PDL? OSTEOCYTE

Contents of PDL: fibroblasts (MC), cementoblasts, cementoclasts, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, macrophages, mast cells, eosinophils, undifferentiated mesenchymal cells. Ground substance: proteoglycans, GAGs, glycoproteins, water.

296. Pulp decreases in size due to: THERMAL SHOCK, NORMAL PHYSIOLOGIC & MASTICATORY FUNCTIONS, EXCESSIVE ATTRITION & ABRASION, AGE, INJURY

297. Why MX molars have a bulbous shape? PRESENCE THE CUSP OF CARABELLI, CONSTRUCTION AT CERVICAL THIRD IN PRIMARY TEETH, TO AID IN LATERAL MOVEMENT OF MN MOLARS

298. MX canine: DICTATES THE MORPHOLOGY OF THE BONE

Permanent maxillary canines have roots that, although under bone, dictate overlying cortical bone morphology. The bulge created by the maxillary canine's roots is known as the canine eminence. This bulge is easily palpable. Initiation of calcification: 4 5 Months Completion of enamel: 6 7 Years Eruption: 11 12 Years Root completion: 13 15 Years

299. Crepitus of the TMJ: OSTEOARTHRITIS

Crepitus (grinding sound) is usually an indication of advanced TMJ damage (degenerative changes). Crepitus is usually due to a tear in the disc or the posterior attachment which produces bone to bone contact of the mandibular condyle with the joint socket in the base of the skull (glenoid fossa).

300. Why capillaries have the slowest flow: GREATER CROSS SECTION AREA

The reason of the slower flow of the capillaries is that their united area is considerably greater than that of the arteries supplying them, so that the same quantity of blood flowing through them in a given time has a wider channel to flow in and therefore moves mo re slowly. Substances pass through the capillary wall by diffusion, filtration, and osmosis. Oxygen and carbon dioxide move across the capillary wall by diffusion. Fluid movement across a capillary wall is determined by a combination of hydrostatic and osmotic pressure. The net result of the capillary microcirculation created by hydrostatic and osmotic pressure is that substances leave the blood at one end of the capillary and return at the other end.

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301. Pitch of sound: FREQUENCY 302. What does not cause edema: SHOCK (this is not

301. Pitch of sound: FREQUENCY

302. What does not cause edema: SHOCK (this is not a correct answer)

303. NADPH is not necessary for: GLYCOLYSIS

304. After dental prophylaxis: BACTERIEMIA

305. Lateral bone of the face: ZYGOMATIC

306. Sensory to lower lip: MENTAL NERVE

307. Diuretic medication for hypertension: INHIBIT ADH

ADH (vasopressin) causes reduced urine volume & concentrated urine.

308. TG are imported to liver by: CHYLOMICRONS - ALBUMIN

309. Vital capacity: INSPIRED RESERVE + TIDAL + EXPIRED RESERVE VOLUMES

310. Important for bone integrity, taken as a medication: VIT. D

311. Masseter muscle reflex when it is: STRETCHED

The jaw jerk reflex (masseter reflex) is a stretch reflex used to test the status of CN V and to help distinguish an upper cervical cord compression from lesions that are above the foramen magnum. The mandible is tapped at a downward angle just below the lips at the chin while the mouth is held slightly open. In response, the masseter muscles will jerk the mandible upwards. Normally this reflex is absent or very slight. However, in individuals with UMN lesions the jaw jerk reflex can be quite pronounced. The jaw jerk reflex can be classified as a dynamic stretch reflex. The response to the stimulus is monosynaptic, with sensory neurons of the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus sending axons to the trigeminal motor nucleus, which in turn innervates the masseter. This reflex is used to judge the integrity of the upper motor neurons projecting to the trigeminal motor nucleus. Both the sensory and mo tor aspects of this reflex are through CN V.

312. Regulatory enzyme in cholesterol synthesis: HMG CoA REDUCTASE

313. Patient is pale & not responding: SYNCOPE

Syncope is a temporary loss of consciousness usually related to insufficient blood flow to the brain. It’s also called fainting or "passing out”. It most often occurs when blood pressure is too low (hypotension) and the heart doesn't pump enough oxygen to the brain. It can be benign or a symptom of an underlying medical condition.

314. All of the following are a part of normal flora except: BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS

Normal inhabitant of gingival crevice & tonsillar crypts: Actinomyces naeslundi Normal flora: Neisseria, Bordetella, Corynebacterium, Streptococcus

315. RBC in hypotonic solution, what happens: SWELL & BURST (HEMOLYSIS)

316. Replacement of dog aorta with rigid tube: SYSTOLIC PRESSURE, DIASTOLIC PRESSURE, WIDE PULSE PRESSURE, CONTINUOUS FLOW IN THE CAPILLARIES WOULD CHANGE INTO PULSATILE FLOW

317. Atmospheric pressure is given, how much O 2 tension should be: 20% OF GIVEN ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE OF OXYGEN = PARTIAL PRESSURE OF OXYGEN

318. Phenylketonuria, which enzyme is defected: PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE

which enzyme is defected: PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE Clinical findings: developmental retardation, seizures,

Clinical findings: developmental retardation, seizures, behavioral problems. Tyrosine supplements.

319. Myoglobin: GREATER AFFINITY FOR BINDING OXYGEN (4x)

320. What is needed for prostaglandins synthesis: POLYUNSATURATED FAT

321. Not innervated by hypoglossal nerve: PALATOGLOSSUS (CN X)

322. Sensory fibers from anterior 2/3 of the tongue: CHORDA TYMPANI (VII) VIA LINGUAL NERVE (V3)

323. What doesn’t cause elevation of BP: BARORECEPTOR CAUSES VAGAL STIMULATION & REDUCES BP

324. Hydrolysis of which of the following will not yield glucose: MANNOSE

325. Heat sensitive object, best sterilization: 2% ETHYLENE OXIDE

326. Object, that contacts mucous membranes: SEMI-CRITICAL

327. Semi-critical object: SHOULD BE STERILIZED

328. Semi-critical items infection control: AUTOCLAVING IF NOT HEAT SENSITIVE

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329. Bacillary dysentery: SHIGELLA SPP.

330. Metastatic calcifications: HYPERPARATHYRODISM

Metastatic calcification is the deposition of calcium salts in otherwise normal tissue, because of serum levels of calcium, which can occur because of deranged metabolism as well as increased absorption or decreased excretion of calcium and related minerals, as seen in hyperparathyroidism. This occurs either from the parathyroid glands in appropriately making too much PTH (primary hyperparathyroidism) or other events triggering increased production by the parathyroid glands (secondary hyperparathyroidism). Most people with primary disease have no symptoms at the time of diagnosis. In those with symptoms the most common is kidney stones with other potential symptoms including weakness, depression, bone pains, confusion, and increased urination. Both typ es increase the risk of weak bones. Primary hyperparathyroidism in 80% of cases is due to a single benign tumor known as a parathyroid adenoma with most of the rest of the cases due to a multiple benign tumors. Rarely it may be due to parathyroid cancer. Secondary hyperparathyroidism typically occurs due to vitamin D deficiency, chronic kidney disease, or other causes of low blood calcium. Diagnosis of primary diseas e is by finding a high blood calcium and high PTH levels.

331. Which of the following scenarios would cause the greatest decrease in resistance in a single artery (2 mm long, radius: 1,2 mm): INCREASING THE RADIUS OF THE ARTERY BY A FACTOR OF 2

332. Abnormal relation between the crown and the root: DILACERATION

333. Where can you find Raschkow plexus: ADJACENT TO THE CELL FREE ZONE

334. Organisms that cause athlete’s foot: TRICHOPHYTON

335. Disease caused by prions: TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY (TSE): CREUTZFELD-JACOB DISEASE IN HUMANS / MAD COW DISEASE IN COWS

Prions do not elicit inflammatory or antibody responses.

336. What is always found within a protein structure: ALANINE

Hydrophobic AA, like ALA, VAL, LEU, ISO, GLY.

337. AA inside the protein: HYDROPHOBIC AA

338. Which is not found in collagen: TROPOELASTIN

339. Sensory innervation for TMJ: AURICULOTEMPORAL NERVE

340. What muscle adducts (pulls together) the scapula: RHOMBOID MINOR, RHOMBOID MAJOR, TRAPEZIUS

341. After an infraction the result will be: ORGANIZATION

342. What structure is affected in case of a cancer of the root of the lung: PULMONARY AORTA, BRONCHI, PULMONARY VEIN

Superior to inferior:

Right lung

eparietal bronchus, pulmonary artery, hyparietal bronchus, vein

Left lung

pulmonary artery, bronchus, vein

343. Innervation of biceps brachii: MUSCULOCUTANEUS (C5 & C6)

344. Secretin is released from: S CELLS OF THE DUODENUM

S cells: release secretin, found in the jejunum and duodenum. They are stimulated by a drop of the secretion of bicarbonate (HCO3 ) into the lumen, via the pancreas. This is primarily accomplished by an increase in cyclic AMP that activates CFTR to releas e chloride anions into the lumen.

345. ADH & aldosterone: ADH WORKS ON THE COLLECTING DUCT, ALDOSTERONE ON THE DISTAL CONVOLUTED TUBULE & COLLECTING DUCT

346. Aldosterone action: Na + AND WATER ABSORPTION

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Aldosterone primary effect is on the kidney tubules, where it stimulates Na + retention and K + excretion; collecting tubule: reabsorbs water (controlled by ADH = vasopressin).

347. ADH action: WATER ABSORPTION

348. Which Is not found in the greater wing of the sphenoid bone: CAROTID CANAL

in the greater wing of the sphenoid bone: CAROTID CANAL 349. Structures in the sphenoid bone:

349. Structures in the sphenoid bone: SUPERIOR ORBITAL FISSURE & OPTIC CANAL

350. Structures passing by foramen rotundum: V2

351. Which muscle is not affected by a patient that had stroke on the motor lesion on the left side of below eye muscles: UPPER THIRD MUSCLES OF FACIAL EXPRESSION & GENIOGLOSSUS

All cranial nerve motor nuclei have unilateral corticonuclear connections except:

1. CN VII: upper third mm. of facial expression have bilateral innervation

2. CN XII: genioglossus muscles have bilateral muscle innervaton.

352. Microangiopathy from diabetes mellitus is due to: HYPERGLYCEMIA

Also: glycosuria, hyperlipidemia & ketonuria. One cause of microangiopathy is long-term diabetes mellitus. In this case, high blood glucose levels cause the endothelial cells lining the blood vessels to take in more glucose than normal (these cells do not depend on insulin). They then form more glycoproteins on their surface than normal, and also cause the basement membrane in the vessel wall to grow abnormally thicker and weaker. They bleed, leak protein, and slow the flow of blood through the body. As a result, some organs and tissues do not get enough blood (carrying oxygen & nutrients) and are damaged, for example, the retina (diabetic retinopathy) or kidney (diabetic nephropathy). Nerves and neurons, if not sufficiently supplied with blood, are also damaged, which leads to loss of function (diabetic neuropathy, esp ecially peripheral neuropathy). Massive microangiopathy may cause microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA).

353. Which branch of carotid artery is not in the carotid triangle: SUPERFICIAL TEMPORAL

354. MOA of rifampin: INHIBITS RNA SYNTHESIS (& PROTEIN SYNTHESIS) BY INHIBITING THE DNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE

Rifampicin inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by inhibiting bacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase. It binds away from the active site. The inhibitor prevents RNA synthesis by physically blocking elongation, and thus preventing synthesis of host bacterial proteins. By this "steric-occlusion" mechanism, rifampicin blocks synthesis of the second or third phosphodiester bond between the nucleotides in the RNA backbone, preventing elongation of the 5' end of the RNA transcript past more than 2 or 3 nucleotides.

355. MOA of fluorouracil: SUICIDE INHIBITOR OF THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE

Fluorouracil (Adrucil) is a medication used to treat cancer by injection into a vein it is used for colon cancer, esophageal cancer, stomach cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, and cervical cancer. As a cream it is used for actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma. Common side effects include inflammation of the mouth, loss of appetite, low blood cell counts, hair loss, and inflammation of the skin. When used as a cream irritation at the site of application may occur. Use of either form in pregnancy may harm the baby. Fluorouracil is in the antimetabolite and pyrimidine analog families of medications. How it works is not entirely clear but believed to involve blocking the action of thymidylate synthase and thus stopping the production of DNA.

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356. MOA of sulfonamides: COMPETE WITH PABA TO INHIBIT FOLIC ACID SYNTHESIS

COMPETE WITH PABA TO INHIBIT FOLIC ACID SYNTHESIS 357. MOA of aminoglycosides: BIND TO 30S RIBOSOMAL

357. MOA of aminoglycosides: BIND TO 30S RIBOSOMAL SUBUNITS & INHIBIT TRANSLATION

358. MOA of digoxin: BLOCKS VOLTAGE GATED CHANNELS, CARDIAC GLYCOSIDE

MOA: mechanism of action It regulates the heart contraction by the heart rate and the heart contractility. Digoxin inhibits the Na-K-ATPase membrane pump.

359. What nerve innervates the parotid gland: CN IX

Preganglionic: lesser petrosal nerve (IX) Synapse: otic ganglion Postganglionic: travel with auriculotemporal nerve (V3)

360. Where will you find acinar ducts: PANCREAS

361. Demilunes are seen in: SUBLINGUAL GLAND

Majority in the sublingual, but also present in the submandibular.

in the sublingual, but also present in the submandibular. 362. Origin of PDL: DENTAL FOLLICLE 363.

362. Origin of PDL: DENTAL FOLLICLE

363. Glucagon signals through: cAMP

364. Glucose is sequestered by: HEXOKINASE & GLUCOKINASE

365. What do glucagon & epinephrine have in common: GLYCOGENOLYSIS & GLUCONEOGENESIS

366. Epithelium of the respiratory tract: PSEUDOSTRATIFIED CILIATED COLUMNAR

367. Where can you see squamous metaplasia: BRONCHI (columnar to squamous)

368. After metabolic/respiratory acidosis, which abnormality occurs: HYPERKALEMIA

Associate acidosis & hyperkalemia when there is an excess of H + in the blood, K + leaves the cell in exchange for H + .

369. What would not cause metabolic acidosis: HYPERVENTILATION

Kussmaul breathing is a deep and labored breathing pattern often associated with severe metabolic acidosis, particularly diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) but also kidney failure. It is a form of hyperventilation, which is any breathing pattern that reduces carbon dioxide in the blood due to increased rate or depth of respiration.

370. What is the virulence factor of Neisseria meningitidis: CAPSULE

Neisseria meningitidis, often referred to as meningococcus, is a Gram-negative bacterium that can cause meningitis. Lipopolysaccharide is a component of the outer membrane of N. meningitidis. This acts as an endotoxin and is responsible for septic shock and hemorrhage due to the destruction of red blood cells. Other virulence factors include a polysaccharide capsule which prevents host phagocytosis and aids in evasion of the host immune response; fimbriae mediate attachment of the bacterium to the epithelial cells of the nasopharynx.

371. Antibiotic resistance in bacteria: CAN BE TRANSFERRED BETWEEN BACTERIA BY CONJUGATION

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372. Kidney end of a proximal tubule osmotic pressure: ISOOSMOTIC PRESSURE

373. How does the osmotic pressure change in the distal part of the proximal convoluted tubule: NO CHANGE

374. Where can you find the highest osmolarity in the renal system: THE ASCENDING LOOP OF HENLE

osmolarity in the renal system: THE ASCENDING LOOP OF HENLE 375. Anterior cerebral artery supplies which

375. Anterior cerebral artery supplies which lobes: FRONTAL AND PARIETAL

cerebral artery supplies which lobes: FRONTAL AND PARIETAL 376. Scarlet fever is caused by: GROUP A
cerebral artery supplies which lobes: FRONTAL AND PARIETAL 376. Scarlet fever is caused by: GROUP A

376. Scarlet fever is caused by: GROUP A STREPTOCOCCUS

377. The cause of rash in Scarlet fever: ERYTHROGENIC TOXIN (EXOTOXIN)

378. What can you find in spores: DIPICOLINIC ACID (responsible for heat resistance)

379. Which fungal infection leads to superficial skin infection: TRICHOPYTON

380. Systemic fungi: HISTOPLASMOSIS

Histoplasmosis (“Cave disease”, "Darling's disease”, "Ohio valley disease”, "reticuloendotheliosis”) is a disease caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. The disease affects primarily the lungs. Occasionally, other organs are affected; this is called disseminated histoplasmosis, and it can be fatal if left untreated. Histoplasmosis is common among AIDS patients because of their suppressed immunity. In immunocompetent individuals, past infection results in partial protection against ill effects if reinfected. Histoplasma capsulatum is found in soil, often associated with decaying bat guano or bird droppings. Disruption of soil from excavation or construction can release infectious elements that are inhaled and settle into the lung.

381. In the dental plaque (other than bacterial acidic enzyme): DEXTRAN

382. Major component of PDL: COLLAGEN

383. Where does Sharpey’s fiber insert: ACELLULAR EXTRINSIC FIBER CEMENTUM

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384. Alveolar crest: 1-2 mm BELOW CEJ

385. Location of CEJ: 1-2 mm OVER THE ALVEOLAR BONE

386. Patient with cirrhosis: MALLORY BODIES IN CYTOPLASM OF HEPATOCYTES

Mallory bodies are classically found in the livers of people suffering from alcoholic liver disease and were once thought to be specific for that. They are MC in alcoholic hepatitis (65%) and alcoholic cirrhosis (51%). They are a recognized feature of Wilson's disease (25%), primary biliary cirrhosis (24%), non- alcoholic cirrhosis (24%), hepatocellular carcinoma (23%) and morbid obesity (8%), among other conditions.

387. What does Streptococcus mutans produce: DEXTRAN

388. What is the substrate for dextran: SUCROSE (E: glucosyltransferase)

389. Embryonic origin of the body of the hyoid bone: 2 nd ARCH

390. Acid-fast stain/bacillus: MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS

391. What does N. meningitidis and H. influenza have in common: THE CAPSULE

Meningitis

1. Neonates

E. coli

2. Infants and children

H. influenzae

3. Young adults

N. meningitis

4. Older adults

S. pneumoniae

392. Which factor plays an important role in detecting the initiation factor for RNA transcription? SIGMA

393. Gas gangrene has what kind of enzymatic activity: GANGRENOUS NECROSIS

394. MOA of tetanus toxin: INHIBITION OF NT RELEASE

395. What protozoa are spread in cat feces: TOXOPLASMOSA GONDII

396. Which of the following is carried by a vector: RICKETSSIA

Which of the following is carried by a vector: RICKETSSIA Rickettsia is a nonmotile, gram-negative, nonspore-forming,

Rickettsia is a nonmotile, gram-negative, nonspore-forming, highly pleomorphic bacteria that can be present as cocci, rods, or thread-like. Being obligate intracellular parasites, the Rickettsia survival depends on entry, growth, and replication within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic host cells (typically endothelial cells). Rickettsia cannot live in artificial nutrient environments and is grown either in tissue or embryo cultures; typically, chicken embryos are used.

397. Antigenicity that changes from season to season: ANTIGENIC CAPSULE SPIKES CONTAINING NURAMINIDASE AND HEMAGGLUTININ (H. influenzae)

398. Influenza antigenicity due to: GLYCOPROTEINS / ANTIGENIC DRIFT

399. Iron in serum plasma is carried by: TRANSFERRIN

400. All are organelles except: FAT DROPLETS

401. What is the final electron receptor in ETC: OXYGEN

402. What measures partial pressure of oxygen: CAROTID BODY

The carotid body is a small cluster of chemoreceptors and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the carotid artery. It detects changes in the composition of arterial blood flowing through it, mainly the partial pressure of oxygen, but also of carbon dioxide. Furthermore, it is also sensitive to changes in pH and temperature.

403. Hyperventillation alters the acid balance of arteries by: CO 2 & pH

404. Which layer of epidermis does not have tonofilaments: BASALE

1. Stratum Basale: the deepest layer, has keratinocytes, the keratinocytes are attached to the basement membrane by

hemidemosomes.

2. Stratum Spinosum: high molecular weight keratin with a lot of tonofilaments

3. Stratum Granulosum: disulfide bonds begin to cross-link with tonofilaments.

4. Stratum Lucidum: the cytoplasm consists almost entirely of tonofilaments.

5. Stratum Corneum: the most superficial layer, the cells are called squames, filled with cross linked of tonofilaments.

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405. What will you find in stratum granulosum: KERATOHYALIN GRANULES

406. Which organ has activated PCK: BRAIN

Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase While PCK1 is mainly expressed in the liver and kidney, PCK2 is ubiquitously expressed in various cell types, including leukocytes and neurons, as well as in non-gluconeogenic tissues like pancreas, brain, heart. Moreover, while PCK1 expression is regulated by hormones or nutrients involved in gluconeogenesis, PCK2 is constitutively expressed. These d ifferences indicate that PCK2 may also perform non-gluconeogenic functions.

407. What are the steps of DNA amplification: DENATURATION, ANNEALING, ELONGATION

All the PCR components are mixed together and are taken through series of 3 major cyclic reactions conducted in an automated, self- contained thermocycler machine.

1. Denaturation:

Heating the reaction mixture to 94°C for 15-30 seconds DNA is denatured to single strands due to breakage in weak hydrogen bonds.

2. Annealing:

Temperature is rapidly lowered to 54-60°C for 20-40 seconds the primers bind (anneal) to their complementary sequence in the

template DNA.

3. Elongation (extension):

Occurs at 72-80°C (most commonly 72°C) the polymerase adds bases to the 3′ each primer, extending the DNA sequence in the 5′ to 3′ direction. Under optimal conditions, DNA polymerase will add about 1,000 bp/minute. With one cycle, a single segment of double-stranded DNA template is amplified into two separate pieces of double-stranded DNA. These two pieces are then available for amplification in the next cycle. As the cycles are repeated, more and more copies are generated

and the number of copies of the template is increased exponentially.

408. Innervation of the carotid body/sinus: CN IX (GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL)

409. Lowers blood pressure: PS NS

410. Patient is on nitrous, what is the best way to measure efficiency: RESERVE MINUTE VOLUME (TV * RR)

411. Which or the following will not happen in a diabetic patient: SPLENOMEGALY

412. The mandible grows by endochondral ossification, while the cartilage is formed interstitially: BOTH STATEMETS ARE FALSE

Condyles of the mandible grow by endochondral ossification, whereas the rest of the mandible grow by intramembranous ossification.

413.

414.

415.

416.

417.

418.

419.

420.

421.

422.

Patient with DM type 1 (insulin: 2 x a day), hypertensive, but taking medication for it, during dental visit he passes out & is pale. What is not the reason: HYPERGLYCEMIA

What is needed for coagulation: Ca 2+

Where does N-glycosylation occur: RER; BETWEEN SUGARS & AA

Hormone dependent physiologic/pathologic involution: APOPTOSIS

Predominant cell in an acute inflammation: NEUTROPHIL

1 st cells to appear in an acute inflammation: NEUTROPHILS

While draining an abscess from a lower molar, what kind of cell will predominate: NEUTROPHIL

Bacteria most likely to be found in a foul-smell, purulent abscess (abscess on the lower mandible): ACTINOMYCES

Circumduction of the arm: DELTOID MUSCLE (axillary nerve )

Which one does not contribute to the posterior wall of axilla: SERRATUS ANTERIOR

to the posterior wall of axilla: SERRATUS ANTERIOR Posterior wall is formed by: latissimus dorsi, teres

Posterior wall is formed by: latissimus dorsi, teres major, subscapularis.

423. Where does the esophagus begin: LOWER BORDER OF CIRCOID CARTILAGE (C6-T10)

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424. What surrounds a myelin sheath: ENDONEURIUM

425. What vitamin is needed for the hydroxylation of proline: VITAMIN C

426. What is not in periosteum: OSTEOCYTES

VITAMIN C 426. What is not in periosteum: OSTEOCYTES 427. What is posterior to the abdominal

427. What is posterior to the abdominal aorta: VERTEBRAE

427. What is posterior to the abdominal aorta: VERTEBRAE 428. Thoracic duct lies: POSTERIOR TO THE
427. What is posterior to the abdominal aorta: VERTEBRAE 428. Thoracic duct lies: POSTERIOR TO THE

428. Thoracic duct lies: POSTERIOR TO THE ESOPHAGUS IN POSTERIOR MEDIASTINUM

429. Where does thoracic duct empty: INTO THE LEFT VENOUS ANGLE BETWEEN THE LEFT INTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN AND THE LEFT SUBCLAVIAN VEIN

THE LEFT INTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN AND THE LEFT SUBCLAVIAN VEIN 430. Small vessels affected in diabetic

430. Small vessels affected in diabetic patient: MICROANGIOPATHY

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Retinopathy is any damage to the retina of the eyes, which may cause vision impairment. Retinopathy often refers to retinal vascular disease, or damage to the retina caused by abnormal blood flow. Age-related macular degeneration is technically included under the umbrella term retinopathy but is often discussed as a separate entity. Retinopathy, or retinal vascular disease, can be broadly categorized into proliferative and non- proliferative types. Frequently, retinopathy is an ocular manifestation of systemic disease as seen in diabetes or hypertension. Diabetes is the most common cause of retinopathy in the USA. Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in working-aged people. It accounts for about 5% of blindness worldwide and is designated a priority eye disease by the WHO.

431. Typhoid fever cause: SALMONELLA TYPHI

432. Embryonic origin of hepatocytes: ENDODERM

433. Lining of visceral cavities: MESODERM (SIMPLE SQUAMOUS)

434. Origin of ligamentum teres: UMBILICAL VEIN

435. How do haptens work: THEY NEED A CARRIER PROTEIN

436. Burkitt’s lymphoma is caused by: EBV

437. EBV is related to: BURKITT’S LYMPHOMA

Burkitt’s lymphoma is a cancer of the lymphatic system, particularly B lymphocytes (B cells cause bone marrow replacement), found in the germinal center. The endemic African variant MC occurs in children living in malaria endemic regions of the world, it involves jaw and facial bones. In America, the abdomen is MC affected.

438. Diabetic patient, using insulin. What cells are destroyed: BETA CELLS

439. Patient with Grave’s disease, in lab findings you will see: TSH & T3, T4

Graves’ disease is an autoimmune disease that leads to a generalized over activity of the entire thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism, thyrotoxicosis, diffuse toxic goiter). It is the MC cause of hyperthyroidism in the USA. It is 7-8 x MC in women than men (20-40 years old). TSH is produced when the hypothalamus releases a substance called thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). TRH then triggers the pituitary gland to release TSH. TSH causes the thyroid gland to make two hormones: triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). T3 and T4 help control your body's metabolism. Characterized by exophthalmos, tachycardia, heat intolerance, and fine tremor, warm, moist skin, and fine hair. Range from anxiety & restlessness to insomnia & weight loss, eyeballs may begin to protrude (exophthalmos) causing irritation & tearing.

440. Above case, larynx enlargement is due to: HYPERPLASIA

441. After surgery patient suffers from hypocalcemia, how will you explain it: PARATHYROID ACCIDENTAL RECESSION OR DAMAGE

442. MOA of hyperthyroidism and TSH receptor: ANTIBODIES AGAINST TSH RECEPTORS (INTRACELLULAR RECEPTORS)

443. Above case, the receptor is similar to: FAB

TSH receptor: upon binding circulating thyrotropin, a G-protein signal cascade activates adenylyl cyclase and intracellular levels of cAMP rise. cAMP activates all functional aspects of the thyroid cell, including iodine pumping; thyroglobulin synthesis, iodination, endocytosis and proteolysis; thyroid peroxidase activity; and hormone release.

The TSH receptor binding and thyroid stimulating properties of (Fab)2 and Fab fragments of Graves' IgG have been investigated. (Fab)2 fragments were prepared by pepsin digestion of IgG and Fab fragments by reduction of (Fab)2 or papain digestion of IgG. (Fab)2 and Fab were effective in inhibiting TSH binding to its receptor with all five patients' sera studied and both preparations stimulated cyclic AMP release from isolated thyroid cells. However Fab fragments were less active thyroid stimulators than their parent (Fab)2 in all five cases. These studies indicate that antibody divalency is not essential for thyroid stimulation by TSH receptor antibodies.” – I checked multiple articles and they were mentioning only FAB as a binding site.

444. T-cell receptor binding: FAB

445. Pituitary deficiency causes: HYPOGONADISM, ADDISON’S DISEASE, MYXEDEMA

446. Defect of external meatus: 1ST PHARYNGEAL CLEFT

447. What kind of disease will cause lack of vitamin B12: PERNICIOUS ANEMIA

448. When infundibulum is dissected, which hormone is stopped: VASOPRESSIN (ADH) & OXYTOCIN

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449. Cutting infundibulum without cutting hypophyseal portal system, all of the following will except: PROLACTIN

Answers from the group & web:

1. Prolactin is the only hormone that is suppressed by the hypothalamus via the stalk (infundibulum) whereas the rest are functioning normally under the influence of the stimulators released from the hypothalamus via same stalk. So, it is logical to say, that once that stalk is cut, the inhibition on prolactin is lifted so its secretion will increase whereas the rest of the hormones will decrease.

2. Prolactin Inhibiting Factor (dopamine) is released from hypothalamus to act on anterior pituitary. When hypophyseal portal system is cut, this inhibitory signal is banned prolactin release will increase. By dissecting the infundibulum, the portal system is going to remain intact, so there will be no effect in anterior pituitary hormones action.

Wikipedia: damage to the pituitary stalk blocks the release of antidiuretic hormone, resulting in polydypsia (abusive water intake) and polyuria (excessive urination).

(abusive water intake) and polyuria (excessive urination). 450. Motion found in the small intestine: SEGMENTATION

450. Motion found in the small intestine: SEGMENTATION

Unlike peristalsis, which predominates in the esophagus, segmentation contractions occur in the large intestine and small intestine, while predominating in the latter. While peristalsis involves one-way motion in the caudal direction, segmentation contractions move chyme in both directions, which allows greater mixing with the secretions of the intestines. Segmentation involves contractio ns of the circular muscles in the digestive tract, while peristalsis involves rhythmic contractions of the longitudinal muscles in the gastrointestinal tract. Unlike peristalsis, segmentation actually can slow progression of chyme through the system.

451. What is not absorbed in the duodenum: WATER

452. What is not absorbed in jejunum: WATER, IRON, BILE SALTS, B12

453. Which is the MC deficiency: IRON (MC nutritional deficiency in the world)

454. Lateral shift of the spine: SCOLIOSIS

455. What is dimorphism in fungi: MYCELIUM (MOLD) OR YEAST

456. H filaments found in: ACTINOMICOSIS

457. What is the function of pilli: ADHERENCE / ATTACHMENT TO HOST CELLS or CONJUGATION

458. Decreased size of nuclei & condensed chromatin: PYKNOSIS

459. Nucleus shrinks & becomes basophilic: PYKNOSIS

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Decreased size of nuclei & condensed chromatin: PYKNOSIS 459. Nucleus shrinks & becomes basophilic: PYKNOSIS 31
Decreased size of nuclei & condensed chromatin: PYKNOSIS 459. Nucleus shrinks & becomes basophilic: PYKNOSIS 31

460. Pyknosis: IRREVERSIBLE DAMAGE OF CHROMATIN

461. Cystic fibrosis, what will you find in the sodium chloride test: INCREASED Na + & Cl -

462. What is the neurotransmitter for umami: GLUTAMATE

463. Substrate for thrombin: FIBRINOGEN

464. Substrate of thromboplastin: PROTHROMBIN

Thromboplastin (TPL) is a plasma protein aiding blood coagulation through catalyzing the conversion of prothrombin to thrombi n. It is

a complex enzyme that is found in brain, lung, and other tissues and especially in blood platelets and that functions in the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in the clotting of bloodcalled also thrombokinase.

465. What cells are involved with type IV hypersensitivity: T CELLS & MACROPHAGES

466. Measles and rubeola, what virus: PARAMYXOVIRUS

467. Varicella and chickenpox, what virus: VARICELLA-ZOSTER VIRUS

468. Articular disc is made out of: FIBROCARTILAGE

469. Articular surfaces of a baby are made out of: HYALINE CARTILAGE

470. Tissue covering articular surfaces of TMJ: FIBROCARTILAGE

471. HOC on mesial of MAX canine: CERVICAL 1/3

472. Number of pulp horns in a newly erupted MN molar: 5

473. How many canals in MX 1 st molar: 2MB, 1P, 1DB

474. Where is the accessory canal in MX 1 st molar: MB ROOT

475. Mesial is straight in: MANDIBULAR CANINE

476. Broken cusp, what kind of movement: MEDIOTRUSIVE, NON-WORKING

477. Largest sinus infection (largest paranasal sinus) in the skull: MAXILLARY

478. Preganglionic nerve for otic ganglion: LESSER PETROSAL NERVE

479. What substance is used to measure GFR: INULIN

Inulin and it’s analog sinistrin are used to help measure kidney function by determining the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which is

the volume of fluid filtered from the renal glomerular capillaries into the Bowman's capsule per unit time. Inulin is of particular use as

it is not secreted or reabsorbed in any appreciable amount at the nephron, allowing GFR to be calculated. However, due to clinical

limitations, inulin and sinistrin, although characterized by better handling features, are rarely used for this purpose and creatinine values are the standard for determining an approximate GFR.

480. Which cells secrete IF: PARIETAL CELLS

481. Which one is not an autoimmune disease: ERYTHROBLASTOSIS FETALIS

Hemolytic disease of the newborn (hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn, HDN, HDFN, or erythroblastosis fetalis) is an alloimmune condition that develops in a fetus, when the IgG molecules (one of the five main types of antibodies) produced by the mother pass through the placenta. Among these antibodies are some which attack antigens on the RBC in the fetal circulation, breaking down and destroying the cells (hemolysis). Alloimmunity (sometimes called isoimmunity) is an immune response to nonself antig ens from members of the same species, which are called alloantigens or isoantigens. Two major types of alloantigens are blood gro up antigens and histocompatibility antigens. In alloimmunity, the body creates antibodies against the alloantigens, attacking transfused blood, allotransplanted tissue, and even the fetus in some cases. Alloimmune (isoimmune) response results in graft rejection, which is manifested as deterioration or complete loss of graft function.

482. Patient with lower denture complaining of burning sensation of buccal gingiva & side of lower lip, which nerve: MENTAL NERVE

483. What protrudes the hyoid bone: GENIOHYOID

484. Most abundant papillae: FILIFORM

485. Mandibular sling muscles: MEDIAL PTERYGOID & MASSETER

486. Which muscle retrudes the mandible: POSTERIOR FIBERS OF TEMPORALIS

487. What is the template & product of reverse transcriptase: TEMPLATE RNA, PRODUCT DNA

488. Increased condylar guidance: TALLER POSTERIOR CUSPS

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489. Where are found crypts of Lieberkühn: LAMINA PROPRIA OF THE SMALL INTESTINE

In histology, an intestinal gland (also crypt of Lieberkhn and intestinal crypt) is a gland found in the intestinal epithelium lining of the small intestine and large intestine (colon). The glands and intestinal villi are covered by epithelium, which contains multiple types of cells: enterocytes (absorbing water and electrolytes), goblet cells (secreting mucus), enteroendocrine cells (secreting hormones), cup cells, tuft cells and, at the base of the gland, Paneth cells (secreting anti-microbial peptides) and stem cells. These cells are not all present in the colon.

490. What is least likely to be reproduced in an articulator: LATEROTRUSIVE MOVEMENT

Depends on the articulator! Most stable and most easily reproduced position is centric relation (used to make dentures using just a mean articulator). Centric relation and protrusive can be reproduced using a semi-adjustable articulator. Centric relation + protrusive + lateral movement can be reproduced using ONLY a FULLY adjustable articulator.

491. What is the least likely to be reproducible on semi-adjustable articulator: LATEROTRUSIVE MOVEMENT

492. Parasympathetic stimulation to salivary glands will cause: THIN SALIVA

Sympathetic saliva production more mucous Parasympathetic saliva production more serous

mucous Parasympathetic saliva production → more serous 493. Severe asthmatic patient will develop: EMPHYSEMA

493. Severe asthmatic patient will develop: EMPHYSEMA

Emphysema damages the inner walls of the lungs' air sacs (alveoli), causing them to eventually rupture. This creates one larger air space instead of many small ones and reduces the surface area available for gas exchange.

494. Taller posterior cusps: INCREASED OVERBITE & STEEPER CONDYLAR GUIDANCE

495. TMJ disc is made from which embryonic cartilage: MECKEL’S CARTILAGE

496. Pregnant woman (6 th week), what is present in the fetus that the mother doesn’t have: DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS

In the developing fetus, the ductus arteriosus (ductus Botalli) is a blood vessel connecting the pulmonary artery to the proximal descending aorta. It allows most of the blood from the right ventricle to bypass the fetus's fluid-filled non-functioning lungs. Upon closure at birth, it becomes the ligamentum arteriosum. There are two other fetal shunts, the ductus venosus and the foramen ovale.

497. Which organ is a sympathetic receptor: ADRENAL MEDULLA

498. Bone sutures in the head of a newborn: HYALINE CARTILAGE

499. Inferior parathyroid origin: 3 rd POUCH

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500. Root frequently found with two canals: MN 1 st MOLAR (MESIAL ROOT)

501. Distal concavity: ON MX CANINE & MX 1 st MOLAR (more pronounced)

Distal concavity: MAX canine Mesial concavity: MN canine

502. Dead, old lady with signs of liver cirrhosis and change on the epithelium of the uterus: LEIOMYOMAS (FIBROIDS)

503. Crescent shaped central developmental groove: 2 nd MN PREMOLAR (“U” shaped)

504. Very prominent triangular ridge: MN 1 st PREMOLAR

505. Largest crown compared to MX central: MN CANINE

506. Where is crista terminalis: RIGHT ATRIUM

MN CANINE 506. Where is crista terminalis: RIGHT ATRIUM 507. Ligament that is attached to the

507. Ligament that is attached to the lingula: SPHENOMANDIBULAR

508. Ligament that is attached to the inferior border of mylohyoid line in the mandible: STYLOMANDIBULAR

509. What occurs during disc displacement of TMJ: COLLATERAL LIGAMENTS BECOME ELONGATED

510. Centric occlusion: TOOTH GUIDED POSITION

511. 8M urea breaks which types of bonds: IT IS A DISULFIDE BOND WHICH BREAKS HYDROPHOBIC BONDS

512. Which one is autosomal dominant: GARDNER’S SYNDROME

Gardner syndrome, a variant of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by GI polyps, multiple osteomas, and skin and soft tissue tumors. Cutaneous findings of Gardner syndrome include epidermoid cysts, desmoid tumors, and other benign tumors. Polyps have a 100% risk of undergoing malignant transformation; consequently, early identification of Gardner syndrome is critical.

early identification of Gardner syndrome is critical. 513. Parasympathetic to which part of the colon: TRANSVERSE

513. Parasympathetic to which part of the colon: TRANSVERSE

514. Innervation of the lungs: T2-T4 & VAGUS NERVE

515. Terminal branch of ECA: MAXILLARY & SUPERFICIAL TEMPORAL

516. Blood in one of the nasal cavity (of a dead body) due to: EPITAXIS (NOSEBLEED)

517. Right condyle fracture, the mandible deviates to: THE RIGHT SIDE

518. High school student, 17 years old, feels pressure on his chest, have had episodes like that before, wheezing sound. What condition: ASTHMA (medication: B2 agonist)

519. Oral examination, yellowish liquid on buccal glands: ECTOPIC SEBACEOUS GLANDS (FORDYCE SPOTS)

520. White plaques that can be removed with light abrasion, cause: FUNGAL INFECTION

521. Evidence of mamelons on teeth #8 & #9 indicate: ANTERIOR OPENBTE

522. Patient is sensitive to hot stimulus on #3, what fibers: C FIBERS

523. Extraction of MX 1 st PM, anaesthesia: MIDDLE SUPERIOR ALVEOLAR + GREATER PALATINE NERVES

524. When swallowing, the teeth should be in: INTERCUSPAL POSITION

525. How to measure basal metabolic rate: TEMPERATURE

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526. Where can we perform spinal tap (lumbar puncture): L3-L4

Where can we perform spinal tap (lumbar puncture): L3-L4 527. Which hormone is not a glycoprotein:

527. Which hormone is not a glycoprotein: GH (SOMATOTROPIN)

Glycoprotein: FSH, LH, TSH

528. Patient with myasthenia gravis is most likely to have what kind of neoplasia: THYMOMA

A thymoma is a tumor originating from the epithelial cells of the thymus that may be benign or malignant. Thymomas are frequently associated with the neuromuscular disorder myasthenia gravis; thymoma is found in 20% of patients with myasthenia gravis. Onc e diagnosed, thymomas may be removed surgically. In the rare case of a malignant tumor, chemotherapy may be used. A third of all people with a thymoma have symptoms caused by compression of the surrounding organs by an expansive mass. These problems may take the form of superior vena cava syndrome, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), cough, or chest pain. One-third to one-half of all persons with thymoma have no symptoms at all, and the mass is identified on a chest X-ray or CT/CAT scan performed for an unrelated problem.

529. Thymoma: THYMUS GLAND TUMOR ASSOCIATED WITH MYASTHENIA GRAVIS

530. What makes cerebellum and pons: METENCEPHALON

Rhombencephalon:

- myelencephalon: medulla oblongata

- metencephalon: pons + cerebellum

531. Anticodon is found on: tRNA

532. Basal metabolic rate is for: AMOUNT OF ENERGY USED, BODY SURFACE AREA, AMOUNT OF CARBOHYDRATES METABOLISED, AMOUT OF WATER EXCRETED (OR REABSORBED?)

Basal metabolic rate is a direct measure of temperature and indirectly by oxygen consumption. The most appropriate answer is the amount of energy used.

533. At what age do premolars begin to calcifiy: 1,5-2 YEARS

534. Primary teeth when compared to permanent teeth are: MORE BULBOUS & CONSTRICTED

535. Which primary tooth has a crown similar to a premolar and roots resembling a molar: PRIMARY MX 1 st MOLAR

536. Which tooth doesn’t resemble any other tooth: PRIMARY MN 1 st MOLAR

537. How do you differentiate a MN central incisor from lateral incisor: THE CROWN OF MN LATERAL TILTS DISTALLY IN RELATION TO LONG AXIS OF THE TOOTH

35

538. All muscles elevate larynx except: INFRAHYOID MUSCLES

538. All muscles elevate larynx except: INFRAHYOID MUSCLES Depress the larynx (infrahyoid): Sternothyroid muscles

Depress the larynx (infrahyoid):

Sternothyroid muscles Omohyoid muscles Sternohyoid Thyrohyoid (elevates larynx)!

muscles Sternohyoid Thyrohyoid (elevates larynx)! Elevate the larynx (suprahyoids underlined) :

Elevate the larynx (suprahyoids underlined):

Stylopharyngeus

Digastric

Stylohyoid

Mylohyoid

Geniohyoid

539. Which muscle does not elevate larynx: STERNOTHYROID

540. Cells found in visceral layer of Bowman’s capsule/kidney: PODOCYTES

541. Where does atherosclerosis occur: TUNICA INTIMA (LARGER AA.)

542. Testlet about a pregnant woman (6 weeks). What happens to her hormones: LH, FSH, hCG

543. How long do you wait to treat her: 6 WEEKS

The lady needs to be in her 2 nd trimester.

544. Why do you need to tell her to take an extra care of her oral health: PREGNANCY-RELATED GINGIVITIS

545. Women secrete endometrium in which phase: LUTEAL PHASE

545. Women secrete endometrium in which phase: LUTEAL PHASE 546. Rattle snake bite on a baby’s

546. Rattle snake bite on a baby’s lateral forearm, what nerve injured: RADIAL NERVE

547. Proto/oncogene (?): CHROMOSOME 9 (c_abl)

Chronic Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homologue 1, located on chromosome 9 Oncogene ass. with neuroblastoma scr Human breast cancer HER/2 Ras, myc, etc.

548. Adenosine deaminase deficiency causes: SCID

Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency is an inherited disorder that damages the immune system and causes severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). People with SCID lack virtually all immune protection from bacteria, viruses, and fungi. They are prone to repeated and persistent infections that can be very serious or life-threatening. These infections are often caused by "opportunistic" organisms that ordinarily do not cause illness in people with a normal immune system.

36

549. An 8-month-old male infant is admitted to the hospital because of a bacterial respiratory infection. The infant responds to appropriate antibiotic therapy, but is readmitted several weeks later because of severe otitis media. Over the next several months, the infant is admitted to the hospital multiple times for recurrent bacterial infections. Blood work reveals extremely low serum antibody levels. The infant has no previous history of viral or fungal infection. The most likely diagnosis is: X-linked agammaglobulinemia of Bruton

X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a condition that affects the immune system and occurs almost exclusively in males. People with XLA have very few B cells, which are specialized white blood cells that produce antibodies (immunoglobulins). Individuals with XLA are more susceptible to infections because their body makes very few antibodies. Children with XLA are usually healthy for the first 1 or 2 months of life because they are protected by antibodies acquired before birth from their mother. After this time, the maternal antibodies are cleared from the body, and the affected child begins to develop recurrent infections. In children with XLA, in fections generally take longer and then they come back again. The most common bacterial infections that occur in people with XLA are lung infections (pneumonia and bronchitis), ear infections (otitis), pink eye (conjunctivitis), and sinus infections (sinusitis). Infections that cause chronic diarrhea are also common. Recurrent infections can lead to organ damage. People with XLA can develop severe, life- threatening bacterial infections; however, affected individuals are not particularly vulnerable to infections caused by virus es. With treatment to replace antibodies, infections can usually be prevented, improving the quality of life for people with XLA.

550. A woman is suffering from ulcerative gingivitis, labs show: 1200 ct of leukocytes, 98% of which are lymphocytes. Red blood cells & thrombocytes counts are normal. What can be the diagnosis: AGRALUNOLYTOSIS, MULTIPLE MYELOMA, ACUTE MYELOGENOUS LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC LYPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA.

Agranulocytosis (agranulosis / granulopenia) is an acute condition involving a severe and dangerous leukopenia (lowered white blood cell count), MC of neutrophils causing a neutropenia in the circulating blood. It is a severe lack of one major class of infection -fighting white blood cells. People with this condition are at very high risk of serious infections due to their suppressed immune system. In agranulocytosis, the concentration of granulocytes (a major class of white blood cells that includes neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils) drops below 500 cells/mm³ of blood.

551. Adenosine nucleoside crosses mitochondria by: TRANSLOCATION

ADP/ATP translocases, also known as adenine nucleotide translocases (ANT) and ADP/ATP carrier proteins (AAC), are transporter proteins that enable the exchange of cytosolic adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Free ADP is transported from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial matrix, while ATP produced from oxidative phosphorylation is transported from the mitochondrial matrix to the cytoplasm, thus providing the cells with its main energy currency. Under normal conditions, ATP and ADP cannot cross the inner mitochondrial membrane due to their high negative charges, but ADP/ATP translocase, an antiporter, couples the transport of the two molecules. The depression in ADP/ATP translocase alternatively faces the matrix and the cytoplasmic sides of the membrane. ADP in the intermembrane space, coming from the cytoplasm, binds the translocase and induces its eversion, resulting in the release of ADP into the matrix. Binding of ATP from the matrix induces eversion and results in the release of ATP into the intermembrane space, subsequently diffusing to the cytoplasm, and concomitantly brings the translocase back to its original conformation. ATP and ADP are the only natural nucleotides recognized by the translocase.

552. Disease of destruction of bronchi and bronchiole with mucus: ASTHMA, BRONCHOPNEUMONIA, EMPHYSEMA

Asthma is the result of chronic inflammation of the conducting zone of the airways (most especially the bronchi and bronchioles), which subsequently results in increased contractability of the surrounding smooth muscles and mucous production. Pneumonia is a category of lung infections. It occurs when viruses, bacteria, or fungi cause inflammation and infection in the alveoli (tiny air sacs) in the lung. Bronchopneumonia, or lobular pneumonia, is a type of pneumonia that also causes inflammation in the bronchi. These are the air passages that feed air into the lungs. Also excessive mucous production occurs. If there will be no hints about asthma (shortness of breath, wheezing, genetic & enviromental factors, drugs taken) we should go with bronchopneumonia.

37

553. Muscles of the sound: LATERAL AND TRANSVERSE CRICOARTYNOIDS 554. Centroacinar cells: PANCREAS 555. Tetrodoxin:

553. Muscles of the sound: LATERAL AND TRANSVERSE CRICOARTYNOIDS

554. Centroacinar cells: PANCREAS

TRANSVERSE CRICOARTYNOIDS 554. Centroacinar cells: PANCREAS 555. Tetrodoxin: INHIBITS SODIUM GATED CHANNELS

555. Tetrodoxin: INHIBITS SODIUM GATED CHANNELS

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin. It is produced by Pseudomonas and Vibrio.

potent neurotoxin. It is produced by Pseudomonas and Vibrio. 556. Anterior cerebral artery supply: MEDIAL SURFACE

556. Anterior cerebral artery supply: MEDIAL SURFACE OF FRONTAL & PARIETAL LOBES

557. Middle cerebral artery supplies: PORTION OF THE FRONTAL LOBE, LATERAL SURFACE OF THE TEMPORAL & PARIETAL LOBES (including the primary motor & sensory areas of the face, throat, hand and arm and, in the dominant hemisphere, the areas of speech)

558. Covers articular surfaces: FIBROCARTILAGE (disc is made out of dense fibrous CT and on the outside there is fibrocartilage)

559. Meckel’s cartilage: FORMS AT 4 th WEEK IN UTERO

560. Cystic fibrosis is diagnosed by: SWEAT TEST → Cl - + Na +

561. Patient has dysphonia, dysphagia, weight loss. He is a long-time heavy smoker: CARCINOMA OF THE LARYNX

562. Synthesis of histones for DNA, which phase: THE BEGINNING OF THE S PHASE

563. Found on mutation and cause improper metabolism: ONCOGENE

Oncogenes are key drivers of tumor growth. Although several cancer-driving mechanisms have been identified, the role of oncogenes in shaping metabolic patterns in cancer cells is only beginning to be appreciated. Recent studies show that oncogenes directly regulate critical metabolic enzymes and metabolic signaling pathways.

564. Diagnostic features of a breast cancer: PEAU DE ORANGE, FIXITY TO UNDERLYING TISSUES, BRCA1 & BRCA2

565. Thoracic duct position: POSTERIOR TO ESOPHAGUS

566. When you make a cut at recess of larynx, which nerve is least affected: RECURRENT LARYNGEAL

TO ESOPHAGUS 566. When you make a cut at recess of larynx, which nerve is least

38

567. Intracellular fungus: HISTOPLASMA CAPSULATUM

568. On your articulator, altering horizontal condylar guidance will affect all of the following except: LATEROTRUSIVE MOVEMENT

affect all of the following except: LATEROTRUSIVE MOVEMENT I f you take a look at the

If you take a look at the picture above you will find, that condylar path is making an angle with the horizontal plane and that angle is called 'horizontal condylar path angle', which determines the steepness of the articular eminence, which will affect the anterior guidance and cusp heights as well. To my knowledge the horizontal condylar guidance is related to an anteroposterior plane. Its alteration does not affect laterotrusive or mediotrusive movements.

569. Blood flow relation in arteries and veins: BLOOD FLOW IS THE SAME AS IN ARTERIES (the amount of blood, not velocity)

Type of blood vessels

Total cross-section area

Blood velocity in cm/s

Aorta

35 cm 2

40

cm/s

Capillaries

45006000 cm 2

0.03 cm/s [15]

Vena cavae inferior and superior

14 cm 2

15

cm/s

570. Blood flow in capillaries: THE SAME AS IN ARTERIES (read: the same amount of blood goes through the capillaries and arteries in a unit of time; the velocity is slower, but the amount of blood transported is the same).

571. Heart congestion leads to: PULMONARY EDEMA

Pulmonary edema is an acute left ventricle failure when the left ventricle can’t push the blood to the aorta, so the blood remains in the lungs and cause pulmonary hypertension. Cor pulmonale: due to failure in right ventricle, which is due to pulmonary hypertension.

572. What does skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, cardiac muscle all have in common: TROPOMYOSIN, LITTLE REGENERATIVE CAPACITY, SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM, NUCLEUS

573. Inferior thyroid develops from: 3 rd ARCH

574. Hyoid bone develops mainly from: 2 nd & 3 rd ARCH

39

575. Regeneration of pyruvate by: LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE

In the second half of Cori Cycle, lactate is converted to pyruvate by LDH in the liver.

576. Obstruction of ext. auditory meatus due to defect in: 1 st PHARYNGEAL CLEFT

A pharyngeal groove (branchial groove or pharyngeal cleft) is made up of ectoderm unlike its counterpart the pharyngeal pouch on the endodermal side. The 1 st pharyngeal groove produces the external auditory meatus (ear canal). The rest (2 nd , 3 rd and 4 th ) are overlapped by the growing 2nd pharyngeal arch and form the floor of the depression termed the cervical sinus, which opens ventrally, and is finally obliterated.

577. Cranial base of a newborn is made of: HYALINE CARTILAGE BY ENDOCHONDRAL OSSIFICATION

578. Epithelial lining from ventral to dorsal surface: SURGERY

579. How to measure nitrous oxide inhalation: RESPIRATORY MINUTE VOLUME (RMV)

580. Metabolic acidosis is associated with: HYPERKALEMIA

580. Metabolic acidosis is associated with: HYPERKALEMIA 581. What is an allosteric inhibitor in glycolysis: ATP,

581. What is an allosteric inhibitor in glycolysis: ATP, CITRATE, H +

582. Which enzyme is specific for the liver: GLUCOKINASE

583. Difference about Shigella & Salmonella: SALMONELLA HAS FLAGELLA

Salmonella:

flagella, capsule, H 2 S production

Typhoid fever

Shigella:

non motile, no capsule, doesn’t produce H 2 S

Bacillary dysentery

584. At the isoelectric point, the pH of a tetrapeptide is: ZERO CHARGE

Isoelectric point is the pH at which the substance has no charge, so the question & answer make sense and are correct.

585. Brain abscess: LIQUEFACTIVE NECROSIS (enzymatic digestion, suppuration, loss of tissue attachment)

586. All cause brain abscess except: TINEA PEDIS

Tinea pedis (fungi) is thought to be the world's MC dermatophytosis. Reportedly, 70% of the population will be infected with tinea pedis at some time. Tinea pedis is the term used for a dermatophyte infection of the soles of the feet and the interdigital spaces. Tinea pedis is MC caused by Trichophyton rubrum, a dermatophyte initially endemic only to a small region of Southeast Asia and in parts of Africa and Australia. Using enzymes called keratinases, dermatophyte fungi invade the superficial keratin of the skin, and the infection remains limited to this layer. Dermatophyte cell walls also contain mannans, which can inhibit the body's immune response.

40

587. Ligament active during yawning: OBLIQUE FIBERS OF THE TMJ LIGAMENT (if not an option pick spheno/stylomandibular)

588. All can cause painless hematuria except: NEPHROLITHIASIS

Painless

glomerulonephritis, and renal cell carcinoma.

as

hematuria

a

common

early

clinical

sign

589. All in respiratory except: PERTUSSIS (???)

in

acute

diffuse

glomerulonephritis,

carcinoma

of

the

bladder,

focal

Pertussis (whooping cough, a 100-day cough) is a highly contagious bacterial disease. Initially, symptoms are usually similar to those of the common cold with a runny nose, fever, and mild cough. This is then followed by weeks of severe coughing fits. Following a fit of coughing, a high-pitched whoop sound or gasp may occur as the person breathes in. The coughing may last for 10 or more weeks, hence the phrase "100-day cough". A person may cough so hard that they vomit, break ribs, or become very tired from the effort. Children less than one year old may have little or no cough and instead have periods where they do not breathe.

590. Filaments, sulfur granules: ACTINOMYCES ISRAELII (lumpy jaw)

591. Bacteria in an abscess: STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

592. Proline in saliva: BINDS TO CALCIUM & HELPS MAITAINING [Ca 2+ ] IN SALIVA

Proline-rich proteins are major components of parotid and submandibular saliva. They can be divided into acidic, basic and glycosylated proteins. The primary structure of the acidic proline-rich proteins is unique and shows that the proteins do not belong to any known family of proteins. The proline-rich proteins are apparently synthesized the acinar cells of the salivary glands and their phenotypic expression is under complex genetic control. The acidic proline-rich proteins will bind calcium with a strength which indicates that they may be important in maintaining the concentration of ionic calcium in saliva.

593. K sp solubility constant of ions (they were asking how do ions precipitate): PRODUCT CONCENTRATION OF IONS

how do ions precipitate): PRODUCT CONCENTRATION OF IONS 594. Rheumatoid arthritis affects first: SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE

594. Rheumatoid arthritis affects first: SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE

594. Rheumatoid arthritis affects first: SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE 595. Submandibular gland: SECRETES MORE VOLUME OF SALIVA

595. Submandibular gland: SECRETES MORE VOLUME OF SALIVA (the next is parotid)

596. More saliva is secreted: BETWEEN MEALS

597. Cause of a massive hematemesis in alcoholics: ESOPHAGEAL VARICES

Cirrhosis portal hypertension esophageal varices bleeding (hematemesis: vomiting of blood)

41

598. The biggest amount of saliva is produced by: SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND

amount of saliva is produced by: SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND I was taught at school that sublingual is

I was taught at school that sublingual is a mixed gland, just like submandibular. Sublingual was mostly mucous and submandibular mostly serous.

599. What lines visceral side of the kidney: PODOCYTES

599. What lines visceral side of the kidney: PODOCYTES 600. Changes in aorta with age: BECOMES
599. What lines visceral side of the kidney: PODOCYTES 600. Changes in aorta with age: BECOMES

600. Changes in aorta with age: BECOMES STIFF, LESS ELASTIC;SYSTOLE + NO CHANGE/DIASTOLE WIDE PULSE PRESSURE

601. Dissection after emerge from stylomastoid foramen, what happens: IPSILATERAL PARALYSIS OF MM. OF FACIAL EXPRESSION = LOWER MOTOR NEURON OF VII

OF MM. OF FACIAL EXPRESSION = LOWER MOTOR NEURON OF VII 602. Edinger nucleus: CN III

602. Edinger nucleus: CN III

= LOWER MOTOR NEURON OF VII 602. Edinger nucleus: CN III The Edinger – Westphal nucleus

The EdingerWestphal nucleus (accessory oculomotor nucleus) is the parasympathetic, pre-ganglionic nucleus that innervates the iris sphincter muscle and the ciliary muscle.

603. Nucleus for sphincter of the pupil: EDINGER-WESTPHAL NUCLEUS

604. C5a: CHEMOTACTIC

605. C3a: VASODILATATION, HYPOTENSION & EDEMA, ANAPHYLAXIS

pupil: EDINGER-WESTPHAL NUCLEUS 604. C5a: CHEMOTACTIC 605. C3a: VASODILATATION, HYPOTENSION & EDEMA, ANAPHYLAXIS 42

42

pupil: EDINGER-WESTPHAL NUCLEUS 604. C5a: CHEMOTACTIC 605. C3a: VASODILATATION, HYPOTENSION & EDEMA, ANAPHYLAXIS 42

606. Virus attached to MHC I responds to: VIRAL PEPTIDE

As viruses induce cellular expression of viral proteins, some of these products are tagged for degradation, with the resulting peptide fragments binding to MHC I molecules. It is in this way, the MCH I dependent pathway of antigen presentation, that the virus infected cells signal T cells that abnormal proteins.

607. How does the space between teeth change with age: IT GETS LARGER

608. Allosteric activator: AMP, Pi, FRUCTOSE-2,6-BISPHOSPHATE

609. In allergy, IgE binds to: MAST CELLS

610. Soft tissue and bone in a fracture: METAPLASIA

611. Pterygomandibular raphe, origin & insertion: SUPERIORLY TO THE HAMULUS OF MEDIAL PTERYGOID PLATE (SPHENOID BONE) & INFERIORLY TO THE POSTERIOR END OF THE MYLOHYOID LINE OF THE MANDIBLE

TO THE POSTERIOR END OF THE MYLOHYOID LINE OF THE MANDIBLE 612. TB reaction: DELAYED HYPERSENSITIVITY

612. TB reaction: DELAYED HYPERSENSITIVITY (TYPE IV)

613. Alpha-1-antitripsine: LIVER (CIRRHOSIS) & LUNGS (EMPHYSEMA)

Disorders of this protein include alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, an autosomal codominant

hereditary disorder in which a deficiency of

alpha-1 antitrypsin leads to a chronic uninhibited tissue breakdown. This causes the degradation especially of lung tissue and eventually leads to characteristic manifestations of pulmonary emphysema. Evidence has shown that cigarette smoke can result in oxidation of methionine of α 1 -antitrypsin, a residue essential for binding elastase; this is thought to be one of the primary mechanisms by which cigarette smoking (or second-hand smoke) can lead to emphysema. Because A1AT is expressed in the liver, certain mutations in

the gene encoding the protein can cause misfolding and impaired secretion, which can lead to liver cirrhosis.

614. White rami: CENTRAL IN THE BRAIN, PERIPHERAL IN THE SPINAL CORD; MYELINATED AXONS

615. Myocardial infraction after 24h: COAGULATIVE NECROSIS

616. Infract healing: BY ORGANIZATION

• 0-24 hours - early coagulative necrosis, edema, hemorrhage, neutrophils appear, hyper contraction of myofibrils

• 1-3 days - extensive coagulative necrosis

• 3-14 days - macrophages, then granulation tissue at margins

• 2 weeks-several months - contracted scar complete

617. All in the sphenoid bone except: CAROTID CANAL (temporal bone)

618. Smallest cusp in MN 1 st molar: DISTAL

619. Vesicles on the skin at nerve distribution, either small, recurrent chicken pox: HERPES ZOSTER

620. Ergosterol synthesis is blocked by: NYSTATIN

621. Nystatin: MOST COMMON ANTIFUNGAL

622. Cirrhosis commonly is caused by: ALCOHOLISM

623. Which enzyme is associated with phosphorylation of ADP at a substrate level: PYRUVATE KINASE

624. Toxoid vaccine, inactivated: EXOTOXIN

625. Small cell carcinoma: BRONCHIAR

626. HPV infection, not prevented by a vaccine: CONDYLOMATA ACUMINATUM (GENITAL WART)

43

627. Myasthenia gravis: ACH

Parkinson disease →  dopamine Alzheimer’s disease →  serotonin Myasthenia gravis Ach receptors are affected (it involves nicotinic receptors) Eton-Lambert Ach release is affected

628. The effect of Ach on neuromuscular junction, it opens what: VOLTAGE GATED ION CHANNELS, CHEMICAL GATED CATION CHANNELS

629. ACE inhibitors cause: XEROSTOMIA

630. What dilates pupils: EPINEPHRINE

631. Ganglion with nerves that dilate the pupil: SUPERIOR CERVICAL GANGLION (picture on page 41)

632. Mucormycosis infects: BLOOD VESSELS

Mucormycosis is any fungal infection caused by fungi in the order Mucorales (species: Mucor, Rhizopus). The disease is often characterized by hyphae growing in and around blood vessels and can be potentially life-threatening in diabetic or severely immunocompromised individuals.

633. Fungus found around blood vessels: MUCORMYCOSIS

634. Tuberculate chlamydospore: HISTOPLASMA

Histoplasmosis is thermally dimorphic. The mold form produces tuberculate chlamydospores (asexual spores, like arthrospores).

635. Not in a cell membrane: TRIGLYCERIDES (cholesterol & phospholipids are present)

636. If the anticodon on tRNA is 5’ ACG 3’, then which of the following is it’s corresponding codon on mRNA: 5’ CGU 3’

637. mRNA by which blot: NORTH

Southern blot: specific DNA sequences Western blot: specific proteins in complex samples Eastern: posttranslational modifications of proteins

Mneumonic:

SNoW DRoP

 

Southern

Northern

o

Western

DNA

RNA

o

Protein

N orthern o W estern D NA R NA o P rotein 638. Central groove of

638. Central groove of MX molar: FROM MESIAL FOSSA TO CENTRAL FOSSA

639. A lot of SER and tubular cisternae in: STEROID PRODUCING CELLS

44

640. Tyrosine kinase, receptor: INSULIN RECEPTOR

The insulin receptor is a transmembrane receptor that is activated by insulin, IGF-I, IGF-II and belongs to the large class of tyrosine kinase receptors. Metabolically, the insulin receptor plays a key role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis, a functional process that under degenerate conditions may result in a range of clinical manifestations including diabetes and cancer.

641. Mechanism of action of glucagon: PHOSPHORYLATION OF PROTEIN KINASE

of action of glucagon: PHOSPHORYLATION OF PROTEIN KINASE 642. Problem in root planning common with all

642. Problem in root planning common with all posterior teeth: FACIAL CERVICAL BULGE

643. Rickettssia infection not transmitted by ticks: Q FEVER

Q fever is a disease caused by infection with a bacterium Coxiella burnetti. This organism is uncommon, but may be found in cattle, sheep, goats, and other domestic mammals, including cats and dogs. The infection results from inhalation of a spore-like small-cell variant, and from contact with the milk, urine, feces, vaginal mucus, or semen of infected animals. Rarely, the disease is tick-borne.

644. Inanimate infection source: FOMITES

645. Not a normal pathogen of the oral cavity: BORDATELLA PERTUSSIS

646. Antigenic drift due to: GLYCOPROTEIN SPIKES ON THE ENVELOPE, HEMAGLUTTININ & NEURAMINIDASE

Drift: minor changes, random mutations influenza, RSV Shift: major changes, reassortment of the genome

647. Liver embryology: ENDODERM

648. Reticular epithelial cells are seen in: THYMUS

649. Diaphragm innervation: PHRENIC NERVE

The diaphragm is primarily innervated by the phrenic nerve (C3, C4, C5). While the central portion of the diaphragm sends sensory afferents via the phrenic nerve, the peripheral portions of the diaphragm send sensory afferents via the intercostal (T5T11) and subcostal nerves (T12).

650.

(T5 – T11) and subcostal nerves (T12). 
 650. Deep lingual artery ends on: THE TIP

Deep lingual artery ends on: THE TIP OF THE TONGUE

651. Mechanism of action of albuterol: BETA 2 AGONIST (BRONCHODILATATOR)

652. Most vertical: MX 1 st PREMOLAR

653. Not involved in thoracic cage: CLAVICLE

654. Location of the nucleus that opens the pupil in the dark: EDINGER WESTPHAL NUCLEUS please do more research on that one!

45

655. 3 rd order pain neurons in: THALAMUS

655. 3 r d order pain neurons in: THALAMUS 656. Transects pyramids: LOSS OF FINE MOTOR

656. Transects pyramids: LOSS OF FINE MOTOR

657. Affected in Parkinson disease: SUBSTANTIA NIGRA

The substantia nigra is a basal ganglia structure located in the midbrain that plays an important role in reward and movement.

658. Dynamic of blood in the pulp is similar to: THE CRANIUM

659. What we don’t need to correct in myasthenia gravis: INFREQUENT BLINKING

660. Injection of TB in previously infected will elicit: HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTION

661. Most abundant cells present in granulomas: MACROPHAGES

662. Ulcer on the palate: ORTHOKERATINIZED (First Aid)

663. 1 st step in correcting thiamine dimmers: PHOTO REACTIVATION BY PHOTOLYASE ENZYME

Thymine dimer is an example of frameshift mutation. It can be corrected by photoreactivation. 2nd step is nucleotide excision .

664. AA in the interior of proteoglycans: SERINE, THREONINE

665. AA in the interior of proteins: VALINE AND LEUCINE

Valine and leucine can be found in globular proteins. Generally speaking, interior AA are hydrophobic. Hydrophobic AA: phenylalanine, proline, tryptophan, tyrosine, valine, leucine, isoleucine Hydrophilic AA:

- positive: arginine, histidine, lysine

- negative: aspartate, glutamate

- neutral: serine, threonine, cysteine, methionine, asparagine, glutamine

666. Decrease in plasma osmotic pressure will cause diluted urine: FALSE

Edema:

1. in hydrostatic pressure

2. in colloid osmotic pressure (oncotic pressure)

Decrease in colloid osmotic pressure leads to increase in edema, which leads to decrease in urine output, so the urine will b e more concentrated.

46

667. Asthma: TYPE 1 HYPERSENSITIVITY

667. Asthma: TYPE 1 HYPERSENSITIVITY 668. Liver’s function, all except: PRODUCTION/STORAGE/SECRETING OF DIGESTIVE

668. Liver’s function, all except: PRODUCTION/STORAGE/SECRETING OF DIGESTIVE ENZYMES (different questions with different answer choices, I combined all three here)

669. Normal flora of nasopharynx: S. EPIDERMIS

670. Right lateral excrusion, mesiofacial cusp of the MX R 1 st molar passes through which of the following grooves of MN R 1 st molar:

DISTO BUCCAL GROOVE

671. RSV infection can be prevented by vaccination: FALSE

672. Penicillin hypersensitivity: TYPE 1

673. Infection from #19 goes into which nodes: SUBMANDIBULAR

674. Teeth position during swallowing: MAXIMAL INTERCUSPITATION

675. A patient with a peg tooth in MX arch, which tooth is it: LATERAL INCISOR

676. A patient is missing a tooth in MN among posterior teeth, which tooth is most likely to be missing: 3 rd MOLAR

677. Cells seen in acute inflammation: NEUTROPHILS

678. Mandible formation: INTERMEMBRANOUS (BODY), ENDOCHONDRAL (CONDYLE) BICE

679. Postganglionic sympathetic neurotransmitter for sweat glands: ACH

680. Which organ is a sympathetic receptor: ADRENAL MEDULLA

681. Location of the thoracic duct: POSTERIOR TO ESOPHAGUS, MEDIAL TO KIDNEYS, LATERAL & POSTERIOR TO TRACHEA

682. Dimorphism: YEAST & HYPHAE (MOLD)

683. Which cerebral lobe is located in the middle cranial fossa: TEMPORAL LOBE

684. Drop in O 2 pressure is detected by: CAROTID BODY

685. Stimulation of carotid sinus leads to: DROP IN BLOOD PRESSURE

686. Which one is not an organelle: LIPID DROPLETS

687. Innervation of the upper lip: BUCCAL BRANCH OF FACIAL N., INFRAORBITAL N.

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688. Voluntary movements in muscles, which tract: CORTICOSPINAL

The pyramidal tracts = the corticospinal + corticobulbar tracts These are aggregations of efferent nerve fibers from the UMN that travel from the cerebral cortex and terminate either in the brainstem (corticobulbar) or spinal cord (corticospinal) and are involved in the control of motor functions of the body. The corticobulbar tract conducts impulses from the brain to the cranial nerves. These nerves control the muscles of the face and neck and are involved in facial expression, mastication, swallowing, and other functions. The corticospinal tract conducts impulses from the brain to the spinal cord. It is made up of a lateral and anterior tract. The corticospinal tract is involved in voluntary movement. The majority of fib res of the corticospinal tract cross over in the medulla, resulting in muscles being controlled by the opposite side of the brain. The corticospinal tract also contains Betz cells (the largest pyramidal cells), which are not found in any other region of the body. The pyramidal tracts are named because they pass through the pyramids of the medulla. The corticospinal fibers when descending from the internal capsule to the brain stem, converge to a point from multiple directions giving the impression of inverted pyramid. The myelination of the pyramidal fibres is incomplete at birth and gradually progresses in caudo- cranial direction and thereby progressively gaining functionality. Most of the myelination is complete by two years of age and thereafter it progresses very slowly in cranio-caudal direction up to twelve years of age.

689. Submandibular gland innervation: LINGUAL NERVE

Preganglionic: chorda tympani (of VII) via lingual nerve Synapse: submandibular ganglion Postganglionic: leaves ganglion and passes to gland

690. Which interaction keeps the cell membrane intact: HYDROPHOBIC BONDS

691. Why a diabetic patient (type 1) was able to reduce the amount of injected insulin after he decided to work out more: INCREASED INSULIN SENSITIVITY

692. Which one is not in the posterior wall of axilla: SERRATUS ANTERIOR

693. Troponin changes the position of: TROPOMYOSIN

694. Connective tissue that covers only one muscle fiber: ENDOMYSIUM

695. Most abundant papilla of the tongue: FILIFORM

696. Which one is not derived from ectoderm: ALVEOLAR BONE

697. Body of the hyoid is derived from which embryonic cartilage: SECOND CARTILAGE

698. What is the nerve in pericardium: PHRENIC NERVE

698. What is the nerve in pericardium: PHRENIC NERVE 699. What are Fordyce granules: ECTOPIC SEBACEOUS

699. What are Fordyce granules: ECTOPIC SEBACEOUS GLANDS IN THE MUCOSA OF THE CHEEK

700. The cause of diabetes mellitus: AUTOIMMUNE / DECREASED SENSITIVITY TO INSULIN RECEPTORS

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701. Dull pain in the pulp: C FIBERS

702. Anterior pituitary deficiency will cause: HYPOGONADISM, ADDISON’S DISEASE, MYXEDEMA

703. Deeply stained granules in the oral mucosa are: KERATOHYALIN GRANULES

Keratohyalin is a protein structure found in granules in the stratum granulosum of the epidermis, which may be involved in keratinization, and in Hassall's corpuscles in the thymus. In H&E stained sections, they are large deeply stained granules fo und in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells in keratinized oral mucosa.

704. In fluorosis, where can excessive fluoride be seen: BONES, TEETH, CARTILAGE, NAILS

705. Junctional epithelium is made out of: REDUCED ENAMEL EPITHELIUM

706. Apical 1/3 in the root, few, more than one, communication between PDL & pulp: ACCESSORY CANALS

707. Ligamentum teres is a remnant of: UMBILICAL VEIN

707. Ligamentum teres is a remnant of: UMBILICAL VEIN 708. Hematoma after injection in the area

708. Hematoma after injection in the area of MX 1 st molar is due to: INSERTION OF THE NEEDLE INTO PTERYGOID PLEXUS

709. Immunity from the mother to the fetus: NATURAL PASSIVE

Natural

- active

being sick

- passive

breastfeeding

Artificial

- vaccination with attenuated virus or toxoid

active

- antitoxin

passive

710. Process of scar formation: THIRD INTENTION & SECOND INTENTION

Types of wound healing:

1. First intention: healing occurs directly, without formation of the granulation tissue; minimal scar formation.

2. Second intention: healing occurs with granulation tissue; scar formation is excessive.

3. Third intention: a deeper and wider scar usually result.

711. Disorganized atypical cells, not invasive: DISPLASIA

712. Erythroblastosis fetalis is what type of hypersensitivity: TYPE 2

713. Patient with elevated level of PSA & serum acid phosphatase is in risk for: PROSTATIC ADENOCARCINOMA

714. Liquefaction necrosis: IN THE BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD

715. Initiation codon is translated into which amino acid: METHIONINE

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716. Guiding cusps: NON-FUNCTIONAL CUSPS

716. Guiding cusps: NON-FUNCTIONAL CUSPS 717. Roseacea: BIG, RED NOSE Rosacea is a long-term skin condition

717. Roseacea: BIG, RED NOSE

Rosacea is a long-term skin condition that typically affects the face. It results in redness, pimples, swelling, and small and superficial dilated blood vessels. Often the nose, cheeks, forehead, and chin are most involved. A red enlarged nose may occur in severe disease, a condition known as rhinophyma. The cause of rosacea is unknown. Risk factors include a family history of the condition. Factors that may potentially worsen the condition include heat, exercise, sunlight, cold, spicy food, alcohol, menopause, psychological stress, or steroid cream on the face. Diagnosis is based on symptoms. While not curable, treatment usually improves symptoms. Treatment is typically with metronidazole, doxycycline, or tetracycline. When the eyes are affected azithromycin eye drops may help. Dermabrasion or laser surgery may also be used. The use of sunscreen is typically recommended. Rosacea affects somewhere between 1-10% of people. Those affected are most often 30-50 years old and female. Caucasians are more frequently affected.

718. Pitting edema: INDICATES ACUTE DISEASE

Pitting edema: observable swelling of body tissues due to fluid accumulation that may be demonstrated by applying pressure to the swollen area (such as by depressing the skin with a finger). Low protein levels in the blood caused by malnutrition, kidney and liver disease can also cause edema. The proteins help to hold water inside the blood vessels so fluid does not leak out into the tissues. If a blood protein, called albumin, gets too low, fluid leaks out the blood vessels and edema occurs, especially in the feet, ankles and lower legs.

719. Pitting edema: PROTEIN

720. Non-microbial part of the dental plaque is mostly made out of: DEXTRAN

This is an ASDA question, E series Streptococcus mutans produce a polysaccharide - dextran - from sucrose. It’s produced outside the cell by an enzyme called dextran sucrase (glycosyl transferase). This enzyme splits the disaccharide into glucose and fructose, and then takes the glucose molecules and links them together to form a dextran polysaccharide. Dextran is made out of glucose molecules linked together by a-1,6 and some a-1,3 branches. It is a sticky polymer that forms a thick glycocalyx around the cell. This is the main reason why bacteria with the dextran sucrase enzyme are cariogenic. Just like dextran is a polymer of glucose, levan (also called fructan) is a polymer of fructose. Levan is formed by the enzym e levan sucrase. It is a reserve food source for bacteria and they damage the teeth by increasing bacterial adhesion and promoting plaque formation.

721. The difference between facilitated transport and active transport: USE OF ATP

722. What is the ration of the blood circulating in capillaries and aorta: THE SAME

723. What is the second messenger for glycogen: cAMP

724. Proximal view of MN 1 st molar: RHOMBOID

725. Which enzyme converts glucose to glucose-6-phosphate: HEXOKINASE

726. What is the pace setting enzyme for glycolysis: PHOSPHOFRUKTOKINASE

727. Asthma medication: B2-ADRENERGIC AGONISTS

728. Urinary tract cancer: SMOKING CIGARETTES (carcinogens from cigarettes get excreted through the urine)

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729. A patient with hypertension is not willing to take his premedication, he is insisting on having the dental procedure done, what should you do: CANCEL THE APPOINTMENT, PRIORITIZING THE OVERALL HEALTH OF THE PATIENT TO HIS DENTAL HEALTH

730. You recommended a pregnant patient to have her teeth cleaning done, why: SHE IS AT RISK FOR PREGNANCY GINGIVITIS / BLEEDING GUMS

731. She is 6 weeks pregnant, how long will you wait to do a procedure: 6 MORE WEEKS (TILL THE 12 th WEEK)

732. Junction of proximal ridge and cusp ridge makes: OCCLUSAL TABLE

733. Cervical cross-section of MN lateral incisor: OVAL, FLATTENED M-D

734. Cervical cross-section of MX central incisor: TRIANGULAR

735. Middle cross-section of the root of MX central incisor: TRIANGULAR