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of soil-structure interaction

A.H. Al-Defae

Ph.D Student, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK and Wasit University, Iraq.

J.A. Knappett

Senior Lecturer, Division of Civil Engineering, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK

ABSTRACT: In this paper, three dynamic centrifuge tests were conducted on a pile-reinforced cohesionless

slope at 1:50 scale to demonstrate that a recently developed model reinforced concrete (RC) pile can model pro-

totype soil-structure interaction (SSI) correctly. Two different pile models were used, namely: (i) model RC

piles, representative of B = 500 mm square precast piles and (ii) ‘elastic’ piles, fabricated from aluminium-alloy

to match the elastic bending stiffness, EI, of the model RC piles. Two of the models used RC piles and the third

used ‘elastic’ instrumented piles. In each model, the piles were installed in a row, midway between the toe and

crest, at a spacing ratio s/B = 3.5. From the induced bending moments measured in the elastic piles and the

measured slope settlements it is shown that elastic soil-pile interaction is replicated accurately by the model RC

piles, so long as the induced bending moments are below the moment capacity of the model RC section. It is

therefore verified that the elastic behaviour of the model concrete translates to prototype scale.

lise slopes and highway embankments under static

Many soil-structure interaction problems in geotech- loadings and they may also be useful for stabilising

nical engineering involve structural elements made slopes subjected to strong seismic ground motions.

from reinforced concrete (RC). There are significant Expensive steel tubular piles (in some cases filled

difficulties associated with reduced-scale modelling with concrete) have been traditionally been used in

of such material, as would be required within a cen- slope stabilisation, but significant cost savings could

trifuge model. These complexities arise from scale be made if RC piles could be used. The soil-pile in-

and size effects on material strength when a large teraction in such a system represents a soil-structure

scaling factor is used (Knappett et al., 2011). Many interaction problem in which the structural elements

previous studies by structural engineers working at are relatively simple and would be a good ‘test-case’

scales of between 1:4 – 1:15 have investigated such for examining the performance of the model con-

size effects on shear and torsional failure of beams crete developed by Knappett et al. (2011) within a

and punching shear failure of slabs (e.g. Bazant et full centrifuge model under enhanced gravity (previ-

al., 1985; Bazant et al., 1986 and Bazant et al., ous studies of behavior were confined to 1-g testing

1987). of basic model-scale properties).

The capacity and the bending stiffness of rein- This paper will therefore demonstrate that the

forced concrete beams are affected by scaling the new model reinforced concrete can correctly repli-

quasi-brittle fracturing process which affects the ten- cate elastic (dynamic) soil-structure interaction, for

sile strength of the concrete components (Litle and the case of a piled slope in which the behavior of the

Paparoni, 1966). In order to avoid these effects, piles is governed by beam bending.

model materials are required that have representative

tensile and compressive strength of concrete at mod-

el scale, to give the same elastic bending stiffness 2 RC MODEL PILES

(EI) and shear/moment capacity at prototype scale.

Knappett et al. (2011) developed new cementitious Square cross section model piles were cast using an

mortars based on casting and surgical plasters and aluminium-alloy formwork 10 × 10 mm in section

fine sand as a model aggregate to create a micro- and 200 mm length. These dimensions represent a

concrete mix which replicates the properties of con- 0.5 × 0.5 m square cross section, 10 m in length at

ventional concrete at very small scales (e.g. 1:50). prototype scale (at a scale of 1:50). ‘Mix 1’ materi-

als, developed by Knappett et al. (2011) were used to

simulate a reinforced concrete mix which would typ- 275mm at prototype scale. The reinforcement layout

ically be used in the construction of piles. This mi- for the model RC piles is shown in Figure 1(a).

cro-concrete mix consists of a surgical plaster (as a Following casting, all model RC piles were left to

binder instead of cement), HST95 Congleton silica cure in air for 28 days before testing. Some piles

sand (representing the grain size distribution of typi- were testing in four-point bending to determine the

cal coarse aggregate at prototype scale) and water. bending properties of the model RC section. A typi-

These materials were mixed together at the same cal moment-curvature relationship is shown in Fig-

percentage (1:1:1) by mass following the procedure ure 2. The initial gradient of the moment-curvature

of Higgins (2007). To check the compressive relationship gave the bending stiffness (EI). The val-

strength of the model concrete, three sets of 100 × ue of EI expected for a full-scale pile can be estimat-

100 mm cubes were cast, along with a set of 150 × ed using the transformed cracked section:

300 mm cylinders in the geotechnical laboratory at

University of Dundee. Some of these were left for 7 b.( kd )3

days and others for 28 days of air curing (laboratory EI Ec . As .( d kd ) 2 (1)

temperature between 20 – 30 ºC). These results 3

showed that the compressive strength reached 25 where Ec is the concrete Young’s modulus; Es is the

MPa at 28 days whereas it was approximately 19 Young’s Modulus of steel; b is the width of section

MPa at 7 days. Small differences were observed be- (0.5 m); is the modulus ratio =Es/Ec; d is the effec-

tween the values obtained from the cubes and cylin- tive depth of section and is the un-cracked depth

ders, but the two sets of tests were generally in good (size of the compressive zone above the neutral ax-

agreement. is). Tests were also conducted on unreinforced

The pile model contained two lengths of longitu- beams to determine the Young’s Modulus and mod-

dinal reinforcement on the downslope side of the ulus of rupture (tensile strength in bending) of the

pile, and three along the upslope side (tension is ex- model concrete.

pected in the upslope face of the pile due to bending The procedure of Pam et al. (2001) was followed

induced by downslope soil movement). This longi- to determine the ductility of the beam model from

tudinal reinforcement was represented using 0.6 mm the load-deflection curve in the four-point tests. The

steel wires diameter, representing 30 mm diameter properties of the model RC piles are given in Table

steel bar at prototype scale. Shear reinforcement was 1.

incorporated using 0.25mm steel wire in a continu-

ous spiral around the longitudinal wires, representing Table 1: Properties of RC and elastic piles, measured

12.5 mm diameter steel at prototype scale. The ulti- from laboratory tests.

mate tensile stress and yield stress of the wires were Value Value

determined by tensile testing on representative spec- Parameter Symbol

(model scale) (prot. scale)

imens using an Instron 1196 loading frame. Defining

the yield strength at 0.2% permanent strain, the aver- Pile size (square) B 10 mm 0.5 m

age yield strength was 461 MPa for the model longi- Longitudinal bar

Db 0.6 mm 30 mm

tudinal reinforcement and 341 MPa for the model diameter

shear reinforcement. Because of the small size of the Reinforcement

As/Ac 0.93 % 0.93 %

wires, it was not possible to rib them to directly sim- ratio

ulate real reinforceing bars, so a rapid-setting epoxy Steel yield

resin was used to coat the wires with HST95 silica strength (0.2% fy 341 MPa 341 MPa

proof strain)

sand to give a rough surface and achieve a good

Steel Young’s

bond with the model concrete (Knappett et al., Modulus

Es 179 GPa 179 GPa

2011). Concrete com-

The purpose of the two longitudinal reinforce- fcu 24.95 MPa 24.95 MPa

pressive strength

ment wires on the downslope face is to hold the Concrete modu-

shear reinforcement wire and form the reinfoorce- fr 2.34 MPa 2.35 MPa

lus of rupture

ment cage, rather than provide any particular rien- Concrete Elastic

Ec 9.4 GPa 9.4 GPa

forcing effect within the compressive zone of the Modulus

model RC section. As a result, these wires were not Pile bending

EI 7.8 Nm2 49 MNm2

coated with the epoxy resin-sand mixture so that the stiffness

piles approximate a singly-reinforced section. The Displacement

Δ 4.43 4.43

reinforcement ratio was (As/Ac=0.85%) where As ductility

and Ac are the cross sectional for the steel (on the Pile moment ca-

Mult 1.86 Nm 233 kNm

upslope face) and concrete respectively. The shear pacity

reinforcement was distributed along the piles at a Shear load at

Vult 30.5 N 76.25 kN

failure

pitch of 5.5mm, representing a shear spacing of

3 INSTRUMENTED ‘ELASTIC’ PILES

6063-T6 Aluminium-alloy to have the same EI, exte-

rior dimensions and interface properties as the model

RC piles. These elastic piles therefore had E = 68

GPa, and cross-sectional dimensions of 5.1 mm

depth in the plane of bending and 10 mm perpendic-

ular to this. The aluminum model pile was tested in

cantilever bending to verify the bending stiffness and

determine the yield and ultimate bending moment

(3.75 MNm at prototype scale). As the section was

much stronger than the model RC piles (c.f. Table

1), strain gauges could be attached to these piles,

without fear of them being damaged. The strain

gauges were fixed along the long direction of the

pile section, coated with an ‘N-1’ thin neoprene Figure 2. Moment curvature for model RC and elastic pile

coating material and a flexible silicone-based sealant models.

was then added to build-up the overall dimensions of

the pile to 10 × 10 mm without altering the bending The model RC piles have a rough surface (δ ≈ φ),

stiffness (which was purely derived from the central so to simulate this in the instrumented piles they

aluminium-alloy core). Six pairs of strain gauges, were covered by a thin aluminium adhesive tape

wired to measure bending strain (and calibrated to sleeve and then with HST95 sand using epoxy resin.

give bending moment) were attached. These were Only two of the ‘elastic’ piles were instrumented; to

distributed over the pile length so that the first is at provide enough of this type of pile for fully stabilis-

10 mm below the top of the pile, and the remainder ing the model slopes, additional ‘dumb’ elastic piles

are evenly spaced over the pile embedded length at were produced of the same construction as shown in

36 mm separation (centre-to-centre). Figure 1(b) Figure 1(b), but without the strain gauges attached.

shows the instrumented elastic pile model schemati- Figure 2 shows the moment-curvature relationships

cally. for both the model RC and ‘elastic’ pile models from

laboratory tests.

TESTS

for the pile-reinforced slope tests is shown in Figure

3. In all models, the slope profiles were identical,

except for slight variations in relative density (which

was between 55-60%) related to the accuracy with

which the models could be pluviated. Note that all

measurements, time, lengths and other results are

presented hereafter in prototype engineering units

unless otherwise noted. HST95 Congleton silica

sand was used in the centrifuge tests. This sand is

very fine and uniformly rounded, and has been used

by other researchers to study dynamic response of

cohesionless slopes (Al-Defae et al., 2013) and

structural settlement due to liquefaction phenomena

(e.g. Bertalot et al., 2012). Lauder (2011) determined

the minimum and maximum void ratio of this sand

in accordance with (BS1377 Part4, 1990). These

minimum and maximum void ratio values were

0.769 and 0.467 respectively, resulting in minimum

Figure 1. Model RC and ‘elastic’ pile sections.

and maximum dry unit weights of 14.59 and 17.58

kN/m3. For the nominal relative density of 55% con-

sidered in the tests presented herein, e = 0.6 and g =

16.1 kN/m3. The shear strength parameters, (namely

angle of internal friction φ) were determined using a

60 × 60 mm direct shear apparatus according to the

procedure proposed by (ASTM3080-72 Standard,

2000).

The dynamic centrifuge tests were performed on

the beam centrifuge at University of Dundee which

has recently been equipped with a 1-D servo-

hydraulic earthquake simulator, both of which were

designed and constructed by Actidyn Systèmes SA,

France. The earthquake simulator can carry a 400kg

model (including container). A flexible equivalent

shear beam (ESB) container with internal dimen-

sions of 669 mm (length), 279 mm (width) and 338

Figure 4. Input motion at base of container, in time and fre-

mm (height) was used in this work. The design of quency domains.

this container is described by (Bertalot, 2012).

Accelerometers were located within the soil mass In each case, the model piles were installed in a

along the centerline of the ESB to measure the dy- row, midway between the toe and crest, at a spacing

namic soil response as shown in Figure 3. Two line- ratio s/B = 3.5 and were pushed as a row slowly into

ar variable differential transformers (LVDTs) were the slope at 1-g, prior to flying the model. The first

installed at the slope crest (the first one at the crest model tested (AA07) was stabilised by model RC

of the slope along the centerline of the ESB, with the piles and a single earthquake only was applied to this

second located at the middle distance between the model. The second model (AA11) was also stabi-

crest and the container wall). A third LVDT was po- lised by model RC piles, but four successive (identi-

sitioned near the container wall to investigate cal) earthquake motions were applied in this case. In

boundary effects, but this instrument is not discussed the final test reported here (AA15) elastic piles, two

further in this paper. of which instrumented as described in the previous

Three dynamic centrifuge tests (AA07, AA11 and section, were used and four earthquake motions were

AA15) were carried out, in each case having a slope also applied to this model.

angle = 28º. Real ground motion from M7.6 Chi Chi

earthquake in 1999 was used as the input motion in

all three tests, having a peak acceleration of 0.41g. 5 CENTRIFUGE TEST RESULTS

The time history and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)

of the demand motion are shown in Figure 4. The

motion file was downloaded from the TCU072 Sta- The dynamic results presented here consist of the

tion from the PEER NGA Database via the web ap- seismic vertical displacement at the crest of the slope

plication at http://peer.berkeley.edu/. A calibration and the measured bending moments within the in-

was conducted, using the learning capabilities of the strumented piles. All data results were low pass fil-

motion controller in the earthquake simulator until tered with a cut-off frequency of 400 Hz (represent-

an accurate and repeatable replication of the demand ing the highest model-scale frequencies in the input

motion was achieved. This is discussed in further motion) and are plotted at prototype scale.

detail by Bertalot et al. (2012)

5.1 Seismic crest settlements

As shown in Figure 5, the crest settlement for test

AA07 under single quake was 0.31 m which is ex-

tremely close to the measured values after the first

earthquake in tests AA11 and AA15. Comparing the

settlements after four earthquakes in tests AA11 and

AA15 there are slight differences between the model

RC (AA11) and elastic (AA15) cases, with 0.6 m of

settlement occurring in the former and 0.55 m in the

latter. It can be seen that the measured settlements at

the crest of the slope indicate almost identical global

slope behaviour between the model RC and elastic

tests suggesting that the SSI is the same in each case.

This is partially as a result of matching the bending

stiffness between the two models so that the relative

Figure 3. Centrifuge test layout and instrumentation. soil-pile flexibility is the same. This suggests that

the similarity in EI measured in 1-g bending tests

translates well to the full boundary value problem The ultimate bending moment capacity measured

tested at enhanced gravity in the centrifuge. in the four-point bending tests is also shown in Fig-

ure 6 (236 kNm). Following the centrifuge tests,

5.2 Pile performance during earthquakes some of the model RC piles in tests AA07 and

The maximum measured bending moment generated AA11 were exhumed and tested in four-point bend-

along the instrumented piles in model AA15 due to ing to measure the residual moment capacity of the

soil movement during the dynamic loading is shown section, as fatigue theory would suggest that this

in Figure 6. Negligible initial bending moment was would be reduced from the pre-earthquake value due

observed prior to the first earthquake following spin- to cyclic loading. As shown in Figure 6, the ultimate

up of the centrifuge. In Figure 6, positive bending bending capacity following a single earthquake (test

moment means that the upslope (reinforced) face of AA07) under single earthquake was reduced to

the pile is in tension. The maximum bending mo- 211.8 kNm; after more cycles of loading (test AA11)

ment (3.6 m below the slope surface, close to the the residual capacity is reduced further to 182.8

level of the slope toe), in the first earthquake reaches kNm. As the residual moment capacities are always

half of its final value soon after the shaking begins larger than the measured maximum bending mo-

(when the input motion reaches its first peak ampli- ments in the elastic piles of test AA15, it suggests

tude), then remains roughly stable for approximately that the model RC piles behaved elastically through-

6 s, before reaching its final value. This behaviour out the earthquakes. This was confirmed by post-test

correlates strongly with the accumulation of perma- observations which showed no cracking or plastic

nent crest settlement with time in Figure 5, suggest- hinging within the model RC piles.

ing that the induced bending moments are principal-

5.3 Acceleration response spectra at slope crest

ly caused by the permanent downslope soil

movements. Figure 7 shows the normalised acceleration response

spectra (ARS) plotted using the motion recorded at

accelerometer number 5 in Figure 3, for a hypothet-

ical structure situated at the crest with 5% damping.

It can be seen that the ARS are generally very simi-

lar, though the accelerations are slightly larger in the

case of the model RC piles in earthquake 1. In earth-

quake 4, the two lines are almost identical. As the

ARS are normalized, it is likely that the differences

in the first earthquake arise due to slight differences

in density between models AA11 and AA15. By

earthquake 4, sufficient densification has occurred

during to the previous events to equalize the density

of the soil in the slope. As in Section 5.1, these re-

sults suggest that the model RC piles replicate the

elastic SSI well.

input motion at accelerometer 8. 6 CONCLUSIONS

forced cohesionless slope has been investigated us-

ing centrifuge modeling, as an example SSI problem

(involving structural bending) for validation of a

new technique modeling reinforced concrete (RC) at

reduced scale. It has been shown that realistic bend-

ing properties can be achieved in the model RC piles

and that the SSI within the boundary value problem

considered is largely indistinguishable from one us-

ing purely elastic elements. This suggests that the

model RC will be particularly useful in studying

(dynamic) soil structure interaction problems, repli-

cating correct pre-failure behaviour, but also being

able to sustain damage at realistic loads (bending

Figure 6. (a) Maximum measured bending moment during moment capacity) and show representative post-

earthquakes; (b) input motion at accelerometer 8. failure behaviour (ductility).

Pam, H. J., Kwan, A. K. H. & Islam, M. S. 2001 Flexural

Strength and Ductility of Reinforced Normal - and High

Strength Concrete Beam. Conference Proceeding of the In-

stitution of Civil Engineering Structural and Building, ICE,

146 (4) 381-389.

ASTM, D3080-72 Standard 2000. Test Methods for Direct

Shear Test of Soil. American Society of Testing and Mate-

rial, ASTM.

BS1377, Part-4. 1990. Maximum and Minimum Dry Density

for Granular Soil. British Standard Institutions, UK.

Earthquake 4.

REFERENCES

shocks and the whole-life seismic performance of slopes.

Géotechnique (Under review).

Lauder, K. (2011). The Performance of Pipeline Ploughs.

Ph.D. Thesis, University of Dundee, UK.

Bertalot, D. and Brennan, A.J. 2012. Influence of bearing pres-

sure on liquefaction-induced settlement of shallow founda-

tion. Géotechnique (In press).

Bertalot, D., Brennan, A.J., Knappett, J.A., Muir Wood, D. and

Villalobos, F.A. 2012. Use of centrifuge modeling to im-

prove lessons learned from earthquake case histories. Pro-

ceedings of the 2nd European Conference on Physical Mod-

elling in Geoetchnics, Eurofuge 2012, 23-24 April, Delft,

the Netherlands.

Higgins, T. 2007. Small scale Modelling of Reinforced Con-

crete. M.Sc Thesis. Faculty of Civil Engineering, University

of Dundee, UK.

Knappett, J. A., Reid, C., Kinmond, S. & O’Reilly, K. 2011.

Small scale modelling of reinforced concrete structural ele-

ments for use in a geotechnical centrifuge. Journal of struc-

tural engineering, ASCE, 137(11): 1263-1271.

Bazant, Z. P., Zdenek, P. and Kim, Jin-Keun. 1985. Size effect

in shear failure of longitudinally reinforced reams. Journal

American Concrete Institute, ACI, 81(5): 456-468.

Bazant, Z.P., Zdenek, P. and Cao, Z. 1986. Size effect of shear

failure in pre-stressed concrete beams. Journal American

Concrete Institute, ACI, 83(2): 260-268.

Bazant, Z.P., Zdenek, P. and Cao, Z. 1987. Size effect in

punching shear failure of slabs. Journal American Con-

crete Institute, ACI, 84(1): 44-53.

Litle, W. A. & Paparoni, M. (1966). Size effect in small scale

models of reinforced concrete beam. Journal American

Concrete Institute, ACI, 63 (11): 1191-1204.

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