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What criteria we should use to prioritise research and action

in occupational health and safety


36° CONGRESO COLOMBIANO DE MEDICINA DEL TRABAJO Y SALUD OCUPACIONAL

Cartagena Mayo 18-20, 2016

Dr Jukka Takala
Workplace Safety and Health Institute, Singapore
International Commission of Occupational Health
Challenges at Work
Priorities and Strategies

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THE CONCEPT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH IN THE
CONTEMPORARY WORKING LIFE

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO): INTERNATIONAL LABOUR


ORGANIZATION (ILO):
OHS can be defined as a multidisciplinary
activity aiming at: OHS is generally defined as the
science of:
• Protection and promotion of the health
of workers • anticipation, recognition,
evaluation and control of hazards
• Enhancement of physical, mental and arising in or from the workplace
social well-being of workers;
• taking into account the possible
• Development and promotion of impact on the surrounding
sustainable work environments and work communities and the general
organizations environment.
Ethical Dimension Economic Dimension
Strategies for Occupational Health and Safety
• Evidence
science, research, knowledge on work life, sustainability
• Ethics
socially sustainable solutions, quality of work life, equal
treatment , defend the vulnerable in the world of work
• Engagement
openly engage in dialogue with policy makers, all
stakeholders, interested parties, all members
• Enforcement, regulatory measures
• Economical aspects, health and safety pays
Priorities

1. Substance priorities
Death, disability and disease, risk management 2.0,
exposure elimination, and better analysis on:
- non-communicable: cancer, CVD, respiratory...
- communicable: tropical and others
- injuries, in particular in low/mid income economies
- musculo-skeletal,
- psychosocial factors and disorders,
2. Collaboration with stakeholders
- regional bodies,
Priorities, cntd.
- their member States and stakeholders, advocate
adopted solutions and strategies,
- establish and collaborate with programmes for
developing occupational health services for all,
total workplace safety and health, compliance,
and protection, prevention, health promotion
action at work, mindset of Zero Harm and Vision Zero,
- Propose/initialize new campaigns and
programmes, such as Eliminating work-related cancer.
3. Dialogue, communication, networking
New and emerging risks

• New risks – e.g. Nanotechnologies


• New industries – e.g. Green jobs
• Old risks – new concerns: combined exposures
Work-related Work-related Accidents Infectious Musculo- Psychosocial
cancer circulatory and skeletal disorders
diseases parasitic disorders
diseases
Asbestos Shift and night Lack of company Poor quality Heavy lifting, Lack of control,
work, overwork policy, drinking water loads, shapes of Effort –reward
management materials imbalance
system,
worker/employer
collaborative
mechanism, poor
safety culture
Carcinogenic Strain by high Lack of Poor sanitation Repetitive Poor work-life
substances, demands, low knowledge, and sewage movements balance
processes, silica decision making solutions and system
and other dusts latitude good practices

Ionizing High injury risk Lack of guidance Poor hygiene, Poor design of Poor
radiation, or poor gvt lack of seats, tables, organisational
radioactive policies, poor knowledge tools, processes culture
materials legislation and
poor enforcement
and tripartite
collaboration
UV-radiation Chemicals Lack of incentive- Protection Low Role ambiguity
based against temperatures, or conflict,
compensation animals, vibration unclear or
system insects, snakes changing
priorities
ETS (passive ETS (passive Lack or or poor Job insecurity
smoking at smoking at OH services
work) work)

Diesel engine Poor recording


exhaust and notification
systems
Conclusion
What is reported
Division and estimates of global occupational injuries and disorders

Work related injuries


and disorders
Fatal: 2.3 million a

Occupational Commuting Health problems


accidents accidents at work
Fatal: 350, 000 a Fatal: 80, 000 b Fatal: 2.0 million a

Injuries at Injuries in Occupational Work-related


workplace traffic at work diseases diseases
Fatal: 270,000b Fatal: 80,000b Fatal: <100,000b Fatal: 1.9 millionb

a = Global annual estimate, ILO/TUT/WSH Institute


b = Global annual estimate, J.Takala/WSH Institute
Standardised incidence rates (per 100 000 workers) of
fatal accidents at work for 2011 (Eurostat)
Note: Figures exclude road traffic accidents on board transport in the course of work

World 15.9/100,000 workers (ILO)

Rate (per 100 000 workers)

Singapore 2.3
1.8 (in 2014)

Note: Singapore and World rates not standardised


A multifaceted approach to prevention

TOOLBOX FOR SAFETY AND HEALTH

Policy,
strategy,
programmes,
.. Systems
approach
management

Laws and Infra-


regulations structures
Knowledge,
Promotion,
information
advocacy

Collaboration
Technical
assistance,
advice, OSH Enforcement,
Services compliance,
inspection

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A Leading Institute for WSH Knowledge and Innovations
Strategic Approach for Strengthening of
Strategic Approach on
National OSH Systems through National Programme
Occupational Safety and Health

NATIONAL TRIPARTITE ADVISORY BODY


National OSH Programme
- Promote Preventative Safety and Health Culture
- Strenghten OSH System
- Targeted action:
Values and principles
Construction, SME’s, Agriculture etc.

OCCUPATIONALStandards and codes


SAFETY & HEALTH SYSTEM
KNOWLEDGE,
PROMOTION
LEGISLATION INSPECTION SUPPORT
ADVOCACY SERVICES

Information Collaboration Enforcement


ILO Conventions/Recommendations/Codes/Guides
should be used as the basis for
15 programme formulation and System improvements
www.ilo.org/safework
12/05/2016
National OSH Programme

• Medium-term Strategic Programme


• Place OSH High at National Agendas
• Endorsed by highest national authority
• With focus and targets and time limits
• Strengthen National OSH System
• Continual Improvements of OSH
Performance
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National OSH Systems
• OSH Legislation
• Ensuring Compliance, including
Inspection
• Tripartite Consultation Mechanism
• OSH Data Collection Mechanism
• OSH Service Network
• OSH Training/Information Network
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National OSH Profile

• Tool for developing National OSH


Programme
• Summary of OSH Situation (accidents
data…)
• Summary of OSH System Status
• Benchmark for Progress Review of
National OSH Systems/Performance

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National profile
National is a review
Profile, selected of existing
indicators
safety and health conditions in a country
Ratification of ILO OSH-standards (100-0%)
100 %
Awareness campaigns, such as April 28 (0-10) Labour inspectors, number (0-10/100,000)

List of Occupational Diseases Coverage of Labour Inspection (0-100%)


and compensation criteria (0-10)

Occupational accident index Coverage of Workers´ Compensation


(based on acc. rate (100-0/1000) (0-100 %)

Fatal accidents index (based


10 0 100 %Coverage of occupational
on fatality 100-0/100,000) health services (100-0%)

Knowledge management and National Policy, Strategy, Programme


information centre, ILO/CIS (0-10) Action Plan, targets, deadlines (0-10)

Recording and notification National Profile made (0-10)


system on acc/dis. (0-10)

Management systems, implementation Asbestos restricted/banned, (0-10 eg.


100 Based on consumption 5-0 kg/capita)
of ILO-OSH 2001 (0-10)
National System on Chemical Safety,
based on Conv. 170, GHS, CSDS, ICSC’s (0-10)
earlier year
later year

benchmark country
19 12/05/2016
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Occupational & Environemental Medicine
Industrial Health
Traditionally: Incidence prevalence and death…
• Incidence is the rate of new cases of a disease
– generally reported as the number of new cases in
a period, e.g. per year
– more meaningful when reported as a fraction of
the population at risk, e.g., per 100,000 or per
million
• Prevalence is the number of cases alive with
the disease during a period of time
(period prevalence) Incidence

• Death (= mortality)… Prevalence


Death
Carcinogens at
work, GBD
Conclusion
Conclusion
Conclusion
Conclusion
DALYs at Work, Females, Global
selected factors

DALY= Disability
Adjusted Life Years

Occupational low back pain

Occupational particulates
Occupational cancer, underestimated
self rated health in the
German population aged 51-65

health good/
poor
very good

working 9.0 Mio

not working 5.9 Mio

9.3 Mio 5.6 Mio


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source: Hasselhorn , Work Wellbeing Wealth 27.08.2013, GEDA09, RKI 2010, weighted data, own calc.
self rated health in the
German population aged 51-65
1. don‘t want 1. can
2. not allowed to 2. want
3. have to
health good/
poor
very good

working 6.3 Mio 2.7 Mio 9.0 Mio

not working 3.0 Mio 2.9 Mio 5.9 Mio

9.3 Mio 5.6 Mio


29 source: Hasselhorn , Work Wellbeing Wealth 27.08.2013, GEDA09, RKI 2010, weighted data, own calc.
Iceland
Japan

Sustainable Work Life

And: Jorma Rantanen, WSH Conference Singapore, 2012, and JT


Conclusion
Challenge, not just for today
but for life

• To achieve a sustainable
working life
• The challenge to
employment
• A holistic approach
• Good Work!

http://www.theworkfoundation.com/DownloadPublication/Report/316_Good%20Work%20High%20Performance%20and%20Productivity.pdf

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http://www.theworkfoundation.com/assets/docs/publications/216_bupa_report.pdf
A Leading Institute for WSH Knowledge and Innovations
The global effort to improve working
conditions…
… to promote “labour rights, decent working conditions and environmental
protection” as key players in global supply chains…

…to support a “Vision Zero Fund”, to be established in cooperation with the


International Labour Organisation (ILO), to help prevent and reduce work-related
deaths and serious injuries by “strengthening public frameworks and establishing
sustainable business practices”….
Conclusion