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ALTERNATE ENERGY SOLUTIONS

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING U.V.PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, GANPAT UNIVERSITY, KHERVA
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING
U.V.PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, GANPAT UNIVERSITY, KHERVA
BACHELOR TECHNOLOGY 8TH SEMESTER (MECHANICAL ENGINEERING)
2 ME 801 ALTERNATE ENERGY SOLUTION
Experiment No.1
Date:
-
-
Aim: To Study of Different Type of Solar Collector and Measure of the
Performance of the Parabolic Concentratic Collector.
Introduction
A solar collector is device for collecting solar radiation and transfer the energy to fluid passing in
contact with it utilization of solar collector.
There are many type of solar collector:
Non Concentrating type
Flat Plate collector
Concentrating type
 Focusing Type
(a)
Point Focus Collector
Parabloidal dish collector
Hemispherical Bowl Mirror Concentrator
Circular Fresnel lens Collector
Central Tower Receiver
(b)
Line Focus Collector
Parabolic Trough Collector
Fixed Mirror Collector
Linear Fresnel lens Collector
Compound Parabolic Collector
 Non Focusing Type
Evacuated Tube Solar collector
Modified Flat Plate collector
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ALTERNATE ENERGY SOLUTIONS MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Flate Plate collector Fig.: Flate plate collector Fig.: Cross section of

Flate Plate collector

SOLUTIONS MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Flate Plate collector Fig.: Flate plate collector Fig.: Cross section of flat

Fig.: Flate plate collector

ENGINEERING Flate Plate collector Fig.: Flate plate collector Fig.: Cross section of flat plate collector Page

Fig.: Cross section of flat plate collector

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The construction of a flat-plate collector is shown in Figure. The basic parts noted are a full- aperture absorber, transparent or translucent cover sheets, and an insulated box. The absorber is usually a sheet of high-thermal-conductivity metal with tubes or ducts either integral or attached. Its surface is painted or coated to maximize radiant energy absorption and in some cases to minimize radiant emission. The cover sheets, called glazing, let sunlight pass through to the absorber but insulate the space above the absorber to prohibit cool air from flowing into this space. The insulated box provides structure and sealing and reduces heat loss from the back or sides of the collector.

Glazing: One or more sheets of glass or other diathermanous (radiation-transmitting) material. Tubes, fins, or passages: To conduct or direct the heat transfer fluid from the inlet to the outlet. Absorber plates: Flat, corrugated, or grooved plates, to which the tubes, fins, or passages are attached. The plate may be integral with the tubes. Headers or manifolds: To admit and discharge the fluid Insulation. To minimise the heat loss from the back and sides of the collector. Container or casing: To surround the fore mentioned components and keep them free from dust, moisture, etc.

Evacuated Tube collector

them free from dust, moisture, etc. Evacuated Tube collector Fig.: Schematic diagram of Evacuated Tube collector
them free from dust, moisture, etc. Evacuated Tube collector Fig.: Schematic diagram of Evacuated Tube collector

Fig.: Schematic diagram of Evacuated Tube collector

Conventional simple flat-plate solar collectors were developed for use in sunny and warm climates. Their benefits however are greatly reduced when conditions become unfavourable during cold, cloudy and windy days. Furthermore, weathering influences such as condensation and moisture

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will cause early deterioration of internal materials resulting in reduced performance and system failure. Evacuated heat pipe solar collectors (tubes) operate differently than the other collectors available on the market. These solar collectors consist of a heat pipe inside a vacuum-sealed tube as shown in figure.

Parabolic trough collector (Line Focus)

as shown in figure. Parabolic trough collector (Line Focus) Fig.: Parabolic Trough collector PTCs are made
as shown in figure. Parabolic trough collector (Line Focus) Fig.: Parabolic Trough collector PTCs are made

Fig.: Parabolic Trough collector

PTCs are made by bending a sheet of reflective material into a parabolic shape. A metal black tube, covered with a glass tube to reduce heat losses, is placed along the focal line of the receiver when the parabola is pointed towards the sun, parallel rays incident on the reflector are reflected onto the receiver tube. It is sufficient to use a single axis tracking of the sun and thus long collector modules are produced. The collector can be orientated in an eastwest direction, tracking the sun from north to south, or orientated in a northsouth direction and tracking the sun from east to west.

Fresnel collector

and tracking the sun from east to west. Fresnel collector Fig.: Fresnel collector Long, only slightly

Fig.: Fresnel collector

Long, only slightly curved, flat mirrors concentrate the solar radiation onto a fixed absorber tube, thus directly heating and vaporising water. In comparison with the parabolic trough, the

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investment outlay in terms of the reflecting surface is lower due to the simpler basic concept; on the other hand, the comparative annual efficiency is lower. Two Fresnel power plants with a total capacity of 31 MW have been put into operation in the province of Murcia.

Compound Parabolic Collector

in the province of Murcia. Compound Parabolic Collector Fig.: Compound Parabolic Collector The name, compound

Fig.: Compound Parabolic Collector

The name, compound parabolic concentrator, derives from the fact that the CPC is comprised of two parabolic mirror segments with different focal points as indicated. The focal point for parabola A (F A ) lies on parabola B, whereas the focal point of parabola B (FB) lies on parabola A. The two parabolic surfaces are symmetrical with respect to reflection through the axis of the CPC. Since the rays are no longer concentrated to a single point, this design is called a non-imaging concentrator. A receiver is now placed in the region below the focus and we have a concentrator that will ´trap´ sun rays coming from any angle between the focal lines of the two parabola segments. Receivers can be flat plates at the base of the intersection of the two parabolas, or a cylindrical tube passing through the region below the focus.

Parabolic Dish collector

A parabolic dish reflector, shown schematically in is a point-focus collector that tracks the sun in two axes, concentrating solar energy onto a receiver located at the focal point of the dish. The dish structure must track fully the sun to reflect the beam into the thermal receiver. For this purpose tracking mechanisms similar to the ones described in previous section are employed in double so as the collector is tracked in two axes. The receiver absorbs the radiant solar energy, converting it into thermal energy in a circulating fluid. The thermal energy can then either be converted into electricity using an engine-generator coupled directly to the receiver, or it can be transported through pipes to a central power-conversion system. Parabolic-dish systems can achieve temperatures in excess of 1500 °C.

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ALTERNATE ENERGY SOLUTIONS MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Fig.: Parabolic Dish System Central Receiver System/ Heliostat Field
ALTERNATE ENERGY SOLUTIONS MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Fig.: Parabolic Dish System Central Receiver System/ Heliostat Field

Fig.: Parabolic Dish System

Central Receiver System/ Heliostat Field collector

System Central Receiver System/ Heliostat Field collector Fig.: Central receiver System In central receiver solar

Fig.: Central receiver System

In central receiver solar power plants, the solar radiation from hundreds of automatically positioned dishes is concentrated on a central absorber at the top of the receiver. The significantly higher concentration of sunlight than in parabolic trough collectors, for example, also allows for higher temperatures of up to about 1,000 °C. This allows for greater efficiency, particularly when using gas turbines, and is therefore likely to lead to lower electricity costs.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING U.V.PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, GANPAT UNIVERSITY, KHERVA
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING
U.V.PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, GANPAT UNIVERSITY, KHERVA
BACHELOR TECHNOLOGY 8TH SEMESTER (MECHANICAL ENGINEERING)
2 ME 801 ALTERNATE ENERGY SOLUTION
Experiment No.2
Date:
-
-
Aim: to study of solar air heater, solar pond and solar still.
Solar Air Heater
As the name suggests, Solar Air Heating is the conversion of solar radiation to thermal heat.
The thermal heat is absorbed and carried by air which is delivered to a living or workingspace.The
transparent property of air means that it does not directly absorb effective amounts of solar radiation,
so an intermediate process is required to make this energy transfer possible and deliver the heated air
into a living space. The technologies designed to facilitate this process are known as Solar Air
Heaters.
Solar Air Heaters operate on some of the most fundamental and simple thermodynamic principles:
Fig: Basic of Solar Air Heater
Absorption of the solar radiation by a solid body results in the body heating up. In broad
terms this solid body is known as the “collector”. Some bodies are better at absorption than others,
such as those with black non-reflective surfaces.
Convection of heat from the heated solid body to the air as it passes over the surface.
Typically a fan is used to force the air across the heated body, the fan can be solar powered or mains
powered.
Different types of Solar Air Heater Technology achieve this process using the same basic
principles but through the use of different solid bodies acting as the collector. The fan that transfers
the air across the heated surface is also used as part of a ducting system to direct the heated air into
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the dwelling space. In addition to heating the air within that space, the heat can further be absorbed by thermal mass such as walls, flooring, furniture and other contents. Such heat is effectively 'stored' and slowly dissipates beyond sunlight hours.

Applications

The benefits of Solar Thermal Air are often more than just heating.

of Solar Thermal Air are often more than just heating. Fig.: Application of solar air heater

Fig.: Application of solar air heater

Heating

The primary function of a solar air heating system is to provide home heating. The heat generated is extremely energy efficient and as a result there are several significant benefits:

a higher level of comfort

lower power bills

lower carbon emissions

Space heating accounts for 38% of residential energy usage in Australia, with some states such as Victoria as high as 55% (hot water accounts for 23%). Although results vary, case studies have shown some homes to reduce the heating component of their annual energy bills by around 50%, resulting in a total household reduction of around 20% per annum. The amount of savings achieved depends on several factors:

The size and type of Solar Air Heating System installed.

The size and type of existing conventional heater.

The habits of the occupants (e.g. thermostat setting).

The thermal properties of the dwelling (e.g. insulation, draft sealing, size).

The local climate.

Cooling

Many solar air heating systems can also be used to help cool homes by:

Transferring cool outside air into the home, especially after sunrise during summer; and/or

Expelling hot air out of the roof cavity to reduce the transfer of heat from ceiling to inside air.

 

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The cooling effect is often likened to an evening breeze bringing in cool air after sunset. The same fan that is used to transfer warm air into the home for heating can be used to transfer air via one of the methods above. The same ducting and thermostat control used to control the heating system can also be utilized, often with no or very little additional hardware.

Ventilation & Moisture Control

Modern Australian homes are designed and built to seal tight to minimize the amount of heat loss (or heat gain in summer) for the purpose of energy efficiency. While this helps with heating and cooling bills, it can also introduce humidity related problems as it restricts the amount of fresh air entering the dwelling. Moisture from showers, cooking and even breathing can become trapped and lead to condensation on internal surfaces and mound.

Filtration

Many Solar Thermal Air systems incorporate a high grade air filter to ensure that not only is the incoming air fresh, but well filtered from dust, pollen and larger particles from wood fires and transport emissions. The majority of the air enters the house in this controlled manner, rather than entering randomly through windows and doors.

Saving With Solar Air Heater

Case studies and university investigations have shown installations to reduce the reliance on conventional heating & cooling systems by over 50%. Naturally results do vary depending on the local climate, size & type of system installed, size & type of existing heating/cooling, size of dwelling and the thermal properties of the house (insulation, draft protection).

Advantages

As Solar Air Heating System is coupled with the existing roof conditions, there is no need of extra additional space and also bottom of the solar roof could be used as a processing area and drying area

It has a flexibility to combine with the existing conventional drying system

It is possible to control the required temperature to improve the product quality

As the Solar Panel is being constructed by the non- corrosive materials it has a longer system life cycle

As It has no moving parts except blower and damper controllers, it has no major wear and tear

Because of the lowest cost, pay-back period is shorter some products less than 2 years

System life is more than 20 years without any additional maintenance

Operation

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A conventional solar air heater is essentially a flat plate collector with an absorber plate. It is a transparent cover system at the top and insulation at the bottom and on the sides. The whole assembly is enclosed in a sheet metal container.

As shown in figure cold air of inside home is drawn by fan in to duct which is covered by solar collector. The heat absorbing by solar collector is transfer to the air in duct and so air become warm. Warm air has low density as compare to cold air so it flow to upward and thus natural convection current is being set. Air has low co-efficient of heat convection so for increasing velocity blower is used. Basically air heater can classified in two categories

(1)Active System (2)Passive System

in two categories (1)Active System (2)Passive System Fig.: Typical Solar Air collector (1) Active System Active

Fig.: Typical Solar Air collector

(1) Active System

Active solar heating systems use solar energy to heat a fluid -- either liquid or air -- and then transfer the solar heat directly to the interior space or to a storage system for later use. If the solar system cannot provide adequate space heating, an auxiliary or back-up system provides the additional heat. Liquid systems are more often used when storage is included, and are well suited for radiant heating systems, boilers with hot water radiators, and even absorption heat pumps and coolers. Both liquid and air systems can supplement forced air systems. Active solar energy technologies reduce a building’s fossil fuel energy requirements and associated fuel costs. Energy from active solar sources has two major applications or uses for homes

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and buildings. One is as a source of electricity, electricity and two is as source of heat for heat household hot water and space heating. Simple collectors, usually placed on the roof of a house or building, absorb the sun’s energy and then transfer the heat to a media that moves it to points of usage. In many climates, a solar heating system can provide a high percentage (50 to 75%) of domestic hot water energy. Since, on average, water heating accounts for around 15% to 25%, or more, of the energy use of a home and 30% of its CO2 emissions, a solar water heater can reduce residential total emissions by more than 20%. The US National Renewable Energy Laboratory calculates the current technical potential of solar water heating in the U.S. at 1 Quad (a Quad is a unit of energy equal to 1015 BTU) of primary energy savings per year, equivalent to an annual CO2 emission reduction of about 50 to 75 million metric tons. Solar energy is therefore an obvious choice for a carbon-smart, reliable energy future.

(2) Passive System

 

“Passive solar design refers to the use of the sun's energy for the heating and cooling of living spaces. In this approach, the building itself or some element of it takes advantage of natural energy characteristics in materials and air created by exposure to the sun. Passive systems are simple, have few moving parts, and require minimal maintenance and require no mechanical systems.”

Direct gain

 

Solar energy enters a building through windows, is absorbed by thermal mass of building, and redistributed. Can utilize 60-75% of sun’s energy

and redistributed. Can utilize 60- 75% of sun’s energy Fig.: Direct Heat Gain   Indirect gain
and redistributed. Can utilize 60- 75% of sun’s energy Fig.: Direct Heat Gain   Indirect gain

Fig.: Direct Heat Gain

 

Indirect gain

 

Solar energy is absorbed by thermal mass located in-between sun and building and heat energy is transferred to building through conduction. Can utilize 30 - 45% of the sun's energy.

 

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Fig.: Indirect Gain

Fig.: Isolated Gain

Isolated gain:

Solar energy is absorbed by a structure that is attached but separate from main building. Heat energy is partially transferred through conduction and partially remains in separate structure. Can utilize 15 - 30% of sun’s energy

Solar Ponds

 

Different approach to solar thermal heating production it uses a large salty lake, as a flat plate collector, where the proper gradient of salt concentrations and water clarity allow for solar energy to be absorbed from the bottom of the pond. (Initially developed in Israel, nowadays experiments are carried out in the U.S and Saudi Arabia).They is large shallow bodies of water that are arranged so that the temperature gradients are reversed from the normal. This allows the use for collection and storage of solar energy which may, under ideal conditions, be delivered at temperature 40-50 `C above normal.

A salt-gradient non-convecting solar pond consists of three zones:

1)

UCZ ( Upper Convecting Zone) NCZ ( Non Convecting Zone) LCZ (Lower Convecting Zone)

: top layer : middle layer : bottom layer

2)

3)

Applications

 

Electric power generation

Desalination process

Domestic hot water production

For space heating & cooling of buildings

Salt production (for enhanced evaporation or purification of salt, that is production of ‘vacuum quality’ salt)

 

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ALTERNATE ENERGY SOLUTIONS MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Fig.: Solar Pond  Aquaculture, using saline or fresh water (to
ALTERNATE ENERGY SOLUTIONS MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Fig.: Solar Pond  Aquaculture, using saline or fresh water (to

Fig.: Solar Pond

Aquaculture, using saline or fresh water (to grow, for example, fish or brine shrimp)

Dairy industry (for example, to preheat feed water to boilers)

Fruit and vegetable canning industry

Fruit and vegetable drying (for example, vine fruit drying)

Grain industry (for grain drying)

Water supply (for desalination)

Advantages

Low investment costs per installed collection area.

Thermal storage is incorporated into the collector and is of very low cost.

Diffuse radiation (cloudy days) is fully used.

Very large surfaces can be built thus large scale energy generation is possible.

Expensive cleaning of large collector surfaces in dusty areas is avoided

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Solar Still

Distillation is one of many processes available for water purification, and sunlight is one of several forms of heat energy that can be used to power that process. To dispel a common belief, it is not necessary to boil water to distill it. Simply elevating its temperature, short of boiling, will adequately increase the evaporation rate. In fact, although vigorous boiling hastens the distillation process it also can force unwanted residue into the distillate, defeating purification. Solar Distillation is by far the most reliable, least costly method of 99.9% true purification of most types of contaminated water especially in developing nations where fuel is scarce or too expensive. Solar distillation is used to produce drinking water or to produce pure water for lead acid batteries, laboratories, hospitals and in producing commercial products such as rose water. Conventional boiling distillation consumes three kilowatts of energy for every gallon of water, while solar distillation uses only the free pure power of the sun. Expensive filtration and deionizing systems are even more expensive to purchase and use and will not totally purify the water by removing all contaminants. No additional heat or electrical energy is required in our still and even after the sun sets, distillation continues at a slower pace into the night. Recently, we’ve been experimenting with a unique optional solar energy booster using our top quality “Sola Reflex reflector” to increase the water vaporization by increasing the temperature on the internal fluid heat absorber. This will add efficiency and increases the amount of daily pure water production.

and increases the amount of daily pure water production. Advantages Fig.:Solar Water Still  Free of

Advantages

Fig.:Solar Water Still

Free of charge sun energy (during sunlight it eliminates 500 Watt electric consumption per one hour of sunlight)

There are no moving parts; it is therefore reliable and almost maintenance free (cleaning is required though)

Water taste is claimed to be better since the device act as a Solar Water Vaporizer and it doesn’t boil the water (resembling rain water)

Neutral pH is claimed (like rainwater), not like the not neutral pH of steamed distilled water.

Can be made any size and shape.

Has low environmental impact.

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ALTERNATE ENERGY SOLUTIONS MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Disadvantages Fig.:Solar still  Solar distillers don’t kill

Disadvantages

Fig.:Solar still

Solar distillers don’t kill bacteria and they don’t break down harmful chemicals because they don’t boil the water.

The large area tilted glass cover might be an attraction to bugs and insects.

Low production capacity, not enough for the drinking water needs of the average family.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING U.V.PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, GANPAT UNIVERSITY, KHERVA
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING
U.V.PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, GANPAT UNIVERSITY, KHERVA
BACHELOR TECHNOLOGY 8TH SEMESTER (MECHANICAL ENGINEERING)
2 ME 801 ALTERNATE ENERGY SOLUTION
Experiment No.3
Date:
-
-
Aim: To study construction and working of windmill.
Introduction
Wind turbines are energy converters. They convert kinetic energy of the flowing air mass into
mechanical energy of rotation.
Fig.: Broad classification
The design is influenced by the specific application:
1. Direct mechanical operation: driving millstones, saws, hammers, etc …
2. Water pumping.
3. Heating and cooling.
4. Conversion to electrical energy.
Classification
1. Horizontal windmills
2. Vertical windmills
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Horizontal windmills

The first practical windmills had sails that rotated in a horizontal plane, around a vertical axis. According to Ahmad Y. al-Hassan, these panemone windmills were invented in eastern Persia as recorded by the Persian geographer Estakhri in the ninth century. The authenticity of an earlier anecdote of a windmill involving the second caliph Umar (AD 634644) is questioned on the grounds that it appears in a tenth-century document.

Made of six to 12 sails covered in reed matting or cloth material, these windmills were used to grind grain up water, and were quite different from the later European vertical windmills. Windmills were in widespread use across the Middle East and Central Asia, and later spread to China and India from there. A similar type of horizontal windmill with rectangular blades, used for irrigation, can also be found in thirteenth-century China. Introduced by the travels of Yelü Chucai to Turkestan in 1219. Horizontal windmills were built, in small numbers, in Europe during the 18th and nineteenth centuries, for example Fowler’s Mill at Battersea in London, and Hooper’s Mill at Margate in Kent. These early modern examples seem not to have been directly influenced by the horizontal windmills of the Middle, have been independent inventions by engineers influenced by the Industrial Revolution.

inventions by engineers influenced by the Industrial Revolution. Fig.: working of horizontal windmill Page 25 of

Fig.: working of horizontal windmill

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Typical applications

ENERGY SOLUTIONS MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Typical applications Table: typical application of horizontal windmill Vertical

Table: typical application of horizontal windmill

Vertical windmills

Due to a lack of evidence, debate occurs among historians as to whether or not Middle Eastern horizontal Windmills triggered the original development of European windmills. In

northwestern Europe, the horizontal-axis or vertical windmill (so called due to the plane of the movement of its sails) is believed to date from the last quarter of the twelfth century in the triangle of northern France, eastern England and Flanders. The earliest certain reference to a windmill in Europe (assumed to have been of the vertical type) dates from 1185, in the former village of Weedley in Yorkshire which was located at the

southern tip of the would overlook the Humber

dated, twelfth-century European sources referring to windmills have also been found. These earliest

A number of earlier, but less certainly

mills were used to grind cereals.

A number of earlier, but less certainly mills were used to grind cereals. Fig.: Vertical windmill

Fig.: Vertical windmill

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Typical application Table: typical application of vertical windmill Components of windmills 1. Rotor  Rotor
Typical application
Table: typical application of vertical windmill
Components of windmills
1.
Rotor
 Rotor blade
 Aerodynamic brake
 Hub
2.
Drive train
 Rotor shaft
 Bearings
 Brake
 Gearbox
 Generator
3.
Yaw system
 Yaw bearing
 Yaw drive
4.
Support structure
 Tower
 Foundation
Rotor Controls
Micro Turbines
1)
2)
May not have any controls
Suffer from blade flutter
Figure: furled turbine for better control
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 Medium Turbines 1) 2) 3) Aerodynamic stall Mechanical brakes Aerodynamic brakes  Small Turbines
 Medium Turbines
1)
2)
3)
Aerodynamic stall
Mechanical brakes
Aerodynamic brakes
 Small Turbines
1)
2)
3)
Furling (upwind) – rotor moves to reduce frontal area facing wind
Coning (downwind) – rotor blades come to a sharper cone
Passive pitch governors – blades pitch out of wind
Rotor
 Wind turbines with a high design tip speed ratio require a small number of blades
 Require assistance at start up either by powering motor or pitching blades
 Maximum tip speed is maintained between 80-90 m/s for noise concerns (noise = v5)
 Mostly three blades are used, with high quality aerodynamic profiles.
Figure: Types of rotors
Yaw Control
 To keep the swept area perpendicular to the predominant wind direction
 A tail vane can be used to determine the flow direction.
Hubs
 The hub holds the rotor together and transmits motion to nacelle
 Three important aspects:
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How blades are attached. Most have cantilever connections

Fixed or variable pitch?

have cantilever connections  Fixed or variable pitch? Figure: The picture of hub Flexible or rigid

Figure: The picture of hubFlexible or rigid attachment

Most are rigid

Some two bladed designs use teetering hubs

Drive Trains

Drive trains transfer power from rotor to the generator

Direct drive (no transmission)

Quieter & more reliable

Most small turbines

 Quieter & more reliable  Most small turbines Figure: Gear drive mechanism  Mechanical transmission

Figure: Gear drive mechanism

Mechanical transmission

Can have parallel or planetary shafts

Prone to failure due to very high stresses

Most large turbines (except in Germany)

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Towers

 
 
 

Fig.: The picture of windmill tower

 

Monopole (nearly all large turbines)

 

o

Tubular steel or concrete

Lattice (many medium turbines)

 

o

20 ft. sections

Guyed

o

Lattice or monopole

o

Tilt-up

Tilt-up monopole

 

Choice of Generators

Synchronous Generators:

Have their own DC excitation system and can work with or without grid supply

 

The magnet in the Centre will rotate at a constant speed

Permanent magnet synchronous generators are not common

Wind turbines which use synchronous generators normally use electromagnets in the

rotor which are fed by direct current from the electrical grid.

 

Asynchronous (Induction) Generators

 

Require excitation power from the grid and cannot work without grid supply

 

Most wind turbines in the world use a so-called three phase asynchronous (cage wound)

generator

More suitable for the highly fluctuating power input.

 

Simple and rugged in construction (no excitation)

Less in weight and cost

 

Reliable in operation

 

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Very little maintenance

Working principle of wind mill

 

A

wind turbine works the opposite of a fan. Instead of using electricity to make wind, like a

fan, wind turbines use wind to make electricity. The wind turns the blades, which spin a shaft, which

connects to a generator and makes electricity. Wind turbines, like windmills, are usually mounted on

a tower to capture the most energy. Wind turbines operate on a simple principle. The energy in the

wind turns two or three propeller-like blades around a rotor. The rotor is connected to the main shaft,

which spins a generator to create electricity. Wind turbines are mounted on a tower to capture the

most energy. At 100 feet (30 meters) or more above ground, they can take advantage of faster and

less turbulent wind.

 

A blade acts much like an airplane wing. When the wind blows, a pocket of low-pressure air

forms on the downwind side of the blade. The low-pressure air pocket then pulls the blade toward it,

causing the rotor to turn. This is called lift. The force of the lift is actually much stronger than the

wind's force against the front side of the blade, which is called drag. The combination of lift and drag

causes the rotor to spin like a propeller, and the turning shaft spins a generator to make electricity.

Wind turbines can be used to produce electricity for a single home or building, or they can be

connected to an electricity grid (see illustration to the right) for more widespread electricity

distribution. Wind speed and the height of the blades both contribute to the amount of energy

generated.

 
 

Wind mills or turbines works on the principle of converting kinetic energy of the wind in to

mechanical energy.

Power available from wind mill = ½ A V³

Where,

 

- Air density = 1.225 Kg. / m³ at sea level (changes by 10-15% due to temperature and

pressure variations)

A

Area swept by windmill rotor = πD² sq.-m. (D Diameter)

V

Wind speed m/sec.

Conclusion

A comparison with existing scheme shows, that for a machine of similar rating energy capture can be enhanced by using wound rotor induction generator. In this case rated torque is maintained at super synchronous speed leading to the reduction in torque.

The use of HVDC link for large wind farm is the best for choice in terms of advantages of grid interaction and long distance power transmission.

 

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING U.V.PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, GANPAT UNIVERSITY, KHERVA
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING
U.V.PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, GANPAT UNIVERSITY, KHERVA
BACHELOR TECHNOLOGY 8TH SEMESTER (MECHANICAL ENGINEERING)
2 ME 801 ALTERNATE ENERGY SOLUTION
Experiment No.4
Date:
-
-
Aim: to measure energy obtains from wind with the help of anemometer.
THEORY
What is an anemometer?
Hand-held digital anemometer instrument in part by the protection of sheath circle wind cup
supported by vane, wind direction and wind axial components, dial of installed in the wind degrees
plate iron and wind degrees plate consisting of magnetic compasses is to determine the direction
positioning. When rotating disk in the wind degrees carapace tray nut, pallet dimensions dish sun of
or leave artful, make the rudiment bearings and shaft pointed away or contact. Hand-held digital
anemometer instrument by the wind pointer indicating value in wind degrees offer stable position to
determine.
Fig.: Hand-Held Digital Anemometer
Hand-held digital anemometer speed sensor adopts instrument of traditional three cups of
spinning frame structure. It will wind speed linear transform into the rotary frame speed. In order to
reduce wind, using the start light wind cup, cone-shaped bearing support, in rotating frame axis fixed
a dentate leaves, when rotating frame in the wind when rotating shaft drives blade rotation, dentate
leaves in photoelectric switch of optical path in continuous beam, thus cutting speed linear transform
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into a photoelectric switch output pulse frequency handheld digital anemometer of wind instrument inside the SCM outputs frequency of the sensor sampling, the calculation. Finally, a wind instrument output instantaneous speed, instantaneous average minute, one minute, average corresponding waves.

Measurement of the parameters in the instrument on the LCD timestamps is displayed. In order to reduce instrument power consumption, handheld digital anemometer and the sensor and MCU instrument adopted decreasing power special measures. In order to guarantee the reliability of data, handheld digital anemometer and instrument with supply voltage detection circuit. When the power supply voltage bottom in 3.3 V about instrument display shows "under voltage" that prompts the user to supply voltage too bottom already unreliable data shall promptly replace batteries. Hand- held wind speed meter inside also sets up the power control circuit, with circuit to replace a mechanical switch to control instrument cast off. Anemometers can also make use of ultrasound sonic waves rather than cups. Handheld anemometers that have a built-in impeller to measure wind speed.

The purpose of the anemometer is to measure average, minimum and maximum wind speed as well as how much turbulence there is at the site. If two anemometers are put at different heights on the same mast this provides useful additional information about the wind shear - the difference in wind speed at different heights. They can also provide useful information about the intensity of any wind turbulence at the site. You will also need to measure wind direction. You can do this by using a separate weathervane (also called a wind vane or direction indicator) although some anemometers include a direction indicator, such as the Power Predictor and Pro Anemometer referred to below. Ultrasonic devices can also have built-in wind direction monitors, although these are more expensive. The pole, anemometer and wind vane equipment are often referred to as a meteorological mast or met mast for short. Information on wind speed and direction is collected by a data logger and can be analyzed using computer software.

The wind data collected also needs to be cross-checked for accuracy against data from a nearby Met Office weather station. More professional data loggers not only measure wind speeds but also do real-time calculations with that data over regular intervals, usually set at 10 minutes. These calculations include the average and maximum wind speeds over the interval selected. The ideal scenario is to have anemometer sited at the same site and height as the hub of the proposed wind turbine, so you can leave it in situ while the wind speed is being monitored. An anemometer is an instrument that measures wind speed and wind pressure.

Anemometers are important tools for meteorologists, who study weather patterns. They are also important to the work of physicists, who study the way air moves. The most common type of anemometer has three or four cups attached to horizontal arms. The arms are attached to a vertical rod. As the wind blows, the cups rotate, making the rod spin. The stronger the wind blows, the faster the rod spins. The anemometer counts the number of rotations, or turns, which is used to calculate wind speed. Because wind speeds are not consistentthere are gusts and lullswind speed is usually averaged over a short period of time. A similar type of anemometer counts the revolutions made by windmill-style blades. The rod of wind mill anemometers rotates horizontally. Other anemometers calculate wind speed in different ways. A hot-wire anemometer takes advantage of the

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fact that air cools a heated object when it flows over it. (That is why a breeze feels refreshing on a hot day.)

In a hot-wire anemometer, an electrically heated, thin wire is placed in the wind. The amount of power needed to keep the wire hot is used to calculate the wind speed. The higher the wind speed, the more power is required to keep the wire at a constant temperature. Wind speed can also be determined by measuring air pressure. (Air pressure itself is measured by an instrument called a barometer.)

A tube anemometer uses air pressure to determine the wind pressure, or speed. A tube anemometer measures the air pressure inside a glass tube that is closed at one end. By comparing the air pressure inside the tube to the air pressure outside the tube, wind speed can be calculated. Other anemometers work by measuring the speed of sound waves or by shining laser beams on tiny particles in the wind and measuring their effect.

Wind Velocity:

It is important to know how fast the wind is blowing. Wind speed is important because the amount of electricity that wind turbines can generate is determined in large part by wind speed, or velocity. A doubling of wind velocity from the low range to optimal range of a turbine can result in eight times the amount of power produced. This is a huge difference and helps wind companies decide where to site wind turbines. Wind speed can be measured with wind gauges and anemometers. One type of anemometer is a device with three arms that spin on top of a shaft. Each arm has a cup on its end. The cups catch the wind and spin the shaft. The harder the wind blows, the faster the shaft spins. A device inside counts the number of rotations per minute and converts that figure into miles per hour (mph). A display on the anemometer shows the speed of the wind.

Why is measuring wind speed so important?

The amount of electricity a wind turbine can generate depends on the local wind speed. The wind speed itself depends on a number of factors such as:

wind speed. The wind speed itself depends on a number of factors such as: Fig.: Power

Fig.: Power Vs Wind Speed

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Where you are in the world

 

Whether there are any obstructions such as trees and buildings nearby (which slow the wind down and cause turbulence)

The height above ground level: wind speeds increase with height so that the higher a turbine is the more electricity it is likely to produce.

The location of a wind turbine is therefore crucial for maximizing its overall performance. Although the power carried by the wind is proportional to the cube of the wind speed, the actual power output delivered by a wind turbine is more complex. Power output is zero up to the 'cut in' wind speed - the speed at which power is generated - and flat above the 'rated' wind speed. However, between the 'cut in' and 'rated' wind speeds, the power output is roughly proportional to the cube of the wind speed. The diagram below illustrates this (wind speeds vary for each turbine). Therefore it is crucial to measure the wind speed before installing a turbine to make sure it will be financially worthwhile.

How can I measure the wind speed?

 

As a first step we recommend that you use our Wind Speed Prediction Tool. This tool (which is. very easy to use) provides an estimated wind speed when you put in your postcode and the type of area you live in. The tool enables you to find out quickly whether the wind at the site you are Interested in is strong enough to warrant further investigation.

We do not recommend installing a domestic small scale wind turbine in areas with wind speeds of less than 5 meters per second (5m/s) as speeds less than this are unlikely to provide a cost- effective way of producing electricity with current technologies.

If the Wind Speed Prediction Tool predicts that the wind speed at the location selected is 5mIs or above, we recommend that as a next step you should cross-check the result by registering with the Carbon Trust and using the Wind Yield Estimation Tool at the Carbon Trust website. This tool lets you choose the hub height and the height of the surrounding canopy, and if you select a particular wind turbine and enter power curve data (available from the turbine manufacturer) you should get not only the predicted wind speed but an estimate for electricity generation and carbon savings too.

The estimates are based on a simplified model of wind speeds and local physical conditions which may be more complex in reality and have a significant impact on the performance of the turbine. So if the project still looks viable the next step is to check the wind speed predictions using an anemometer or wind gauge. You should do this for at least three months and ideally for twelve months or more. If you measure wind speeds for less than six months, you will need to apply a seasonal adjustment factor as wind speed varies by season.

How do I go about measuring the wind speed with an anemometer?

 

If you want to measure the wind speed you call:

buy an anemometer and a data logger and interpret the data yourself, or

 

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Instruct a consultant or installer to do this for you - the bigger the potential investment the more likely it is to be worth your while employing an experienced third party to do this work for you.

If you are already in contact with an MCS-certified installer this is something that you could discuss with them. MCS-certified installers are required by the Micro generation Installation Standard (find out about MIS 3003 at the MCS website) on small wind turbine systems to undertake a three-step calculation to assess the likely performance of a wind turbine. The installation of an anemometer is not a requirement of MCS although it does state that 'accurate measurement over a period of one year is the preferred method for determining the actual wind speed in a given location and should always be considered.'

You know those spinney things you sometimes see on top of weather vanes? They're called anemometers and they are measuring wind speed. Wind speed is by far the most important factor in determining if a small wind turbine will work on your property. Just because you see flags billowing every now and then doesn't mean you have enough wind to output a fair amount of power. As I covered in the short slide-show on Wind Power Analysis, the most important formula to know when considering a wind turbine is the theoretical power in the area swept by the wind turbine rotor (the blades):

 

P= .5 • p • A • V^3

P = Power in Watts

p (rho) = Air density = 1.225 kg/m3 at sea level

A = rotor area exposed to wind in m3

V = wind velocity in meters/sec^2

But don't worry about knowing the equation in the preliminary stages of deciding whether you should buy a wind turbine. The only thing you need to know at this point is "V" or the wind.

Calculation:

 

You know those spinney things you sometimes see on top of weather vanes? They're called anemometers and they are measuring wind speed. Wind speed is by far the most important factor in determining if a small wind turbine will work on your property. Just because you see flags billowing every now and then doesn't mean you have enough wind to output a fair amount of power. As I covered in the short slide-show on Wind Power Analysis, the most important formula to know when considering a wind turbine is the theoretical power in the area swept by the wind turbine rotor (the blades):

P= .5 • p • A • V^3

P = Power in Watts

• p (rho) = Air density = 1.225 kg/m3 at sea level

A = rotor area exposed to wind in m3

 

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• V = wind velocity in meters/sec^2

But don't worry about knowing the equation in the preliminary stages of deciding whether you should buy a wind turbine. The only thing you need to know at this point is "V" or the wind speed on your property. And not just the instantaneous wind speed, but a range of values over the course of a few months.

You see, wind speed is so important because it is cubed in the equation above. If you double your wind speed you don't double your power output, you increase it by a cubic factor! For instance, increasing wind speed from 4 mph to 8 mph is not double the power output, but increases it 8 times

(83/43=512/64=8)!

While researching data from local airports or looking at national wind maps will be helpful, it really won't give you an idea of what the wind speed is at your house. For instance, maybe you have trees in the way, or your house blocks the wind. The only way to get a good idea of how much power a wind turbine on your property can produce is to get an Anemometer and preferably pair it with a data logger. An anemometer will give you an instantaneous measure of wind speed and the take those instantaneous values and display them over time.

An example of a data logging anemometer can be see here from in speed. While couple hundred dollar investment just to see if a wind turbine makes sense might sound like a lot, it is a much better investment than a multi-thousand dollar investment for a wind turbine that doesn’t turn! If your wind turbine installer is a good one, they might even have a data-logging anemometer you can rent. Whether you use a data logging anemometer or not, make sure you have a good idea of the wind speed in the immediate vicinity of where you are planning on installing a wind turbine.

Wind Speed Measurement: Anemometers

The measurement of wind speeds is usually done using a cup anemometer, such as the one in the picture to the left. The cup anemometer has a vertical axis and three cups which capture the wind. The number of revolutions per minute is registered electronically.

Normally, the anemometer is fitted with a wind vane to detect the wind direction. Instead of cups, anemometers may be fitted with propellers, although this is not common.

Other anemometer types include ultrasonic or laser anemometers which detect the phase shifting of sound or coherent light reflected from the air molecules. Hot wire anemometers detect the wind speed through minute temperature differences between wires placed in the wind and in the wind shade (the lee side).

The advantage of non-mechanical anemometers may be that they are less sensitive to icing. In practice, however, cup anemometers tend to be used everywhere, and special models with electrically heated shafts and cups may be used in arctic areas.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING U.V.PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, GANPAT UNIVERSITY, KHERVA
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING
U.V.PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, GANPAT UNIVERSITY, KHERVA
BACHELOR TECHNOLOGY 8TH SEMESTER (MECHANICAL ENGINEERING)
2 ME 801 ALTERNATE ENERGY SOLUTION
Experiment No.5
Date:
-
-
Aim: to study about biomass and biogas plant.
Introduction
Biomass
Biomass is biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms. It most often
refers to plants or plant-based materials which are specifically called lignocelluloses biomass. As an
energy source, biomass can either be used directly via combustion to produce heat, or indirectly after
converting it to various forms of biofuel. Conversion of biomass to biofuel can be achieved by
different methods which are broadly classified into: thermal, chemical, and biochemical methods.
Wood remains the largest biomass energy source to date; examples include forest residues
(such as dead trees, branches and tree stumps), yard clippings, wood chips and even municipal solid
waste. In the second sense, biomass includes plant or animal matter that can be converted into fibers
or other industrial chemicals, including biofuel. Industrial biomass can be grown from numerous
types of plants, including miscanthus, switch grass, hemp, corn, poplar, willow, sorghum, sugarcane,
bamboo and a variety of tree species, ranging from eucalyptus to oil palm (palm oil).
Fig.: Sources of Biomass
Plant energy is produced by crops specifically grown for use as fuel that offer high biomass
output per hectare with low input energy. Some examples of these plants are wheat, which typically
yield 7.5–8 tons of grain per hectare, and straw, which typically yield 3.5–5 tons per hectare in the
UK. The grain can be used for liquid transportation fuels while the straw can be burned to produce
heat or electricity. Plant biomass can also be degraded from cellulose to glucose through a series of
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chemical treatments, and the resulting sugar can then be used as a first generation biofuel.

Biomass can be converted to other usable forms of energy like methane gas or transportation fuels like ethanol and biodiesel. Rotting garbage, and agricultural and human waste, all release methane gas also called "landfill gas" or "biogas." Crops, such as corn and sugar cane, can be fermented to produce the transportation fuel, ethanol. Biodiesel, another transportation fuel, can be produced from left-over food products like vegetable oils and animal fats. Also, biomass to liquids (BTLs) and cellulosic ethanol are still under research.

There is a great deal of research involving algal, or algae-derived, biomass due to the fact that it’s a non-food resource and can be produced at rates 5 to 10 times faster than other types of land- based agriculture, such as corn and soy. Once harvested, it can be fermented to produce biofuels such as ethanol, butanol, and methane, as well as biodiesel and hydrogen.

The biomass used for electricity generation varies by region. Forest by-products, such as wood residues, are common in the United States. Agricultural waste is common in Mauritius (sugar cane residue) and Southeast Asia (rice husks). Animal husbandry residues, such as poultry litter, are common in the UK.

Biomass Sources

Historically, humans have harnessed biomass-derived energy since the time when people began burning wood to make fire. Even in today's modern era, biomass is the only source of fuel for domestic use in many developing countries. Biomass is all biologically-produced matter based in carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The estimated biomass production in the world is 104.9 pentagrams (104.9 * 101g) of carbon per year, about half in the ocean and half on land.

Wood remains the largest biomass energy source today; examples include forest residues (such as dead trees, branches and tree stumps), yard clippings, wood chips and even municipal solid waste. Wood energy is derived by using lignocelluloses biomass (second generation biofuels) as fuel. This is either using harvested wood directly as a fuel, or collecting from wood waste streams. The largest source of energy from wood is pulping liquor or "black liquor," a waste product from processes of the pulp, paper and paperboard industry. In the second sense, biomass includes plant or animal matter that can be converted into fibers or other industrial chemicals, including biofuels. Industrial biomass can be grown from numerous types of plants, including miscanthus, switch grass, hemp, corn, poplar, willow, sorghum, sugarcane, bamboo, and a variety of tree species, ranging from eucalyptus to oil palm (palm oil).

Based on the source of biomass, biofuels are classified broadly into two major categories. First generation biofuels are derived from sources such as sugarcane and corn starch etc. Sugars present in this biomass are fermented to produce bioethanol, an alcohol fuel which furthermore can be used directly in a fuel cell to produce electricity or serve as an additive to gasoline. However, utilizing food based resource for fuel production only aggravates the food shortage problem further. Second generation biofuels on the other hand utilize non-food based biomass sources such as agriculture and municipal waste. It mostly consists of lignocelluloses biomass which is not edible and is a low value waste for many industries. Despite being the favored alternative, economical

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production of second generation biofuel is not yet achieved due to technological issues. These issues arise mainly due to chemical inertness and structural rigidity of lignocelluloses biomass.

Biomass conversion into useful energy

Thermal conversion

Thermal conversion processes use heat as the dominant mechanism to convert biomass into another chemical form. The basic alternatives of combustion ( torrefaction, pyrolysis, and gasification) are separated principally by the extent to which the chemical reactions involved are allowed to proceed (mainly controlled by the availability of oxygen and conversion temperature).

Energy created by burning biomass (fuel wood) is particularly suited for countries where the fuel wood grows more rapidly, e.g. tropical countries. There is a number of other less common, more experimental or proprietary thermal processes that may offer benefits such as hydrothermal upgrading (HTU) and hydro processing. Some have been developed for use on high moisture content biomass, including aqueous slurries, and allow them to be converted into more convenient forms. Some of the applications of thermal conversion are combined heat and power (CHP) and co-firing. In a typical dedicated biomass power plant, efficiencies range from 727% (HHV basis) Biomass co firing with coal, by contrast, typically occurs at efficiencies near those of the coal combustor (3040%, HHV basis).

Chemical conversion:

A range of chemical processes may be used to convert biomass into other forms, such as to produce a fuel that is more conveniently used, transported or stored, or to exploit some property of the process itself. Many of these processes are based in large part on similar coal-based processes, such as Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, methanol production, olefins (ethylene and propylene), and similar chemical or fuel feed stocks. In most cases, the first step involves gasification, which step generally is the most expensive and involves the greatest technical risk. Biomass is more difficult to feed into a pressure vessel than coal or any liquid. Therefore, biomass gasification is frequently done at atmospheric pressure and causes combustion of biomass to produce a combustible gas consisting of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and traces of methane. This gas mixture, called a producer gas, can provide fuel for various vital processes, such as internal combustion engines, as well as substitute for furnace oil in direct heat applications. Because any biomass material can undergo gasification, this process is far more attractive than ethanol or biomass production, where only particular biomass materials can be used to produce a fuel.

Biochemical conversion:

As biomass is a natural material, many highly efficient biochemical processes have developed in nature to break down the molecules of which biomass is composed, and many of these biochemical conversion processes can be harnessed.

Biochemical conversion makes use of the enzymes of bacteria and other microorganisms to

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break down biomass. In most cases, microorganisms are used to perform the conversion process:

anaerobic digestion, fermentation, and composting.

Electrochemical conversion:

In addition to combustion, bio-mass or bio-fuels can be directly converted to electrical energy via electrochemical oxidation of the material. This can be performed directly in a direct carbon fuel cell, direct ethanol fuel cell or a microbial fuel cell. The fuel can also be consumed indirectly via a fuel cell system containing a reformer which converts the bio-mass into a mixture of CO and H2 before it is consumed in the fuel cell.

BIOGAS

Biogas typically refers to a mixture of different gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas can be produced from raw materials such as agricultural waste, manure, municipal waste, plant material, sewage, green waste or food waste. It is a renewable energy source and in many cases exerts a very small carbon footprint.

Biogas can be produced by anaerobic digestion with anaerobic bacteria, which digest material inside a closed system, or fermentation of biodegradable materials.

Biogas is primarily methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) and may have small amounts of hydrogen sulphide (H2S), moisture and siloxanes. The gases methane, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide (CO) can be combusted or oxidized with oxygen. This energy release allows biogas to be used as a fuel; it can be used for any heating purpose, such as cooking. It can also be used in a gas engine to convert the energy in the gas into electricity and heat.

Biogas can be compressed, the same way natural gas is compressed to CNG, and used to power motor vehicles. In the UK, for example, biogas is estimated to have the potential to replace around 17% of vehicle fuel. It qualifies for renewable energy subsidies in some parts of the world. Biogas can be cleaned and upgraded to natural gas standards, when it becomes bio methane.

Composition:

Compound

Formula

%

Methane

CH 4

50-75

Carbon dioxide

CO 2

25-50

Nitrogen

N

2

0-10

Hydrogen

H

2

0-1

Hydrogen Sulphide

 

H 2 S

0-3

Oxygen

o

2

0-0

The composition of biogas varies depending upon the origin of the anaerobic digestion process. Landfill gas typically has methane concentrations around 50%. Advanced waste treatment technologies can produce biogas with 55%75% methane, which for reactors with free liquids can be

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technologies can produce biogas with 55% – 75% methane, which for reactors with free liquids can
technologies can produce biogas with 55% – 75% methane, which for reactors with free liquids can

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increased to 80%-90% methane using in-situ gas purification techniques. As produced, biogas contains water vapour. The fractional volume of water vapour is a function of biogas temperature; correction of measured gas volume for water vapour content and thermal expansion is easily done via simple mathematics which yields the standardized volume of dry biogas.

In some cases, biogas contains siloxanes. They are formed from the anaerobic decomposition of materials commonly found in soaps and detergents. During combustion of biogas containing siloxanes, silicon is released and can combine with free oxygen or other elements in the combustion gas. Deposits are formed containing mostly silica (SiO2) or silicates (SixOy) and can contain calcium, sulphur, zinc, phosphorus. Such white mineral deposits accumulate to a surface thickness of several millimetres and must be removed by chemical or mechanical means. Practical and cost- effective technologies to remove siloxanes and other biogas contaminants are available.

For 1000 kg (wet weight) of input to a typical bio digester, total solids may be 30% of the wet weight while volatile suspended solids may be 90% of the total solids. Protein would be 20% of the volatile solids, carbohydrates would be 70% of the volatile solids, and finally fats would be 10% of the volatile solids.

 

Benefits:

Biogas could potentially help reduce global climate change. High levels of methane are produced when manure is stored under anaerobic conditions. During storage and when manure has been applied to the land, nitrous oxide is also produced as a by product of the denitrification process. Nitrous oxide (N2O) is 320 times more aggressive than carbon dioxide and methane 21 times more than carbon dioxide.

 

By converting cow manure into methane biogas via anaerobic digestion, the millions of cattle

in

the United States would be able to produce 100 billion kilowatt hours of electricity, enough to

power millions of homes across the United States. In fact, one cow can produce enough manure in one day to generate 3 kilowatt hours of electricity; only 2.4 kilowatt hours of electricity are needed to power a single 100-watt light bulb for one day. Furthermore, by converting cattle manure into methane biogas instead of letting it decompose, global warming gases could be reduced by 99 million metric tons or 4%.

Biogas plants

Feed methods:

A

distinction is made between batch and continuous plants.

Batch plants are filled completely and then emptied completely after a fixed retention time. Each design and each fermentation material is suitable for batch filling.

 

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Large gasholders or a number of digesters are required for uniform gas supply from batch plants. Continuous plants are filled and emptied regularly -normally daily. Each design is suitable for continuous operation, but the feed material must be flow able and uniform.

Continuous plants empty automatically through the overflow

Continuous plants are more suitable for rural households. The necessary work fits better into the daily round. Gas production is constant, and somewhat higher than in batch plants.

If straw and dung are to be digested together, a biogas plant can be operated on a semi batch basis. The slowly digested straw-type material is fed in about twice a year as a batch load. The dung is added and removed regularly.

Plant types:

Three main types of simple biogas plants can be distinguished:

- Balloon plants,

- Fixed-dome plants,

- Floating-drum plants.

1. Balloon Plants

A balloon plant consists of a plastic or rubber digester bag, in the upper part of which the gas is stored. The inlet and outlet are attached direct to the skin of the balloon. When the gas space is full, the plant works like a fixed-dome plant - i.e., the balloon is not inflated; it is not very elastic.

The fermentation slurry is agitated slightly by the movement of the balloon skin. This is favourable to the digestion process. Even difficult feed materials, such as water hyacinths, can be used in a balloon plant. The balloon material must be UV-resistant. Materials which have been used successfully include RMP (red mud plastic), Trevira and butyl.

Advantages:

Low cost

Ease of transportation

Low construction (important if the water table is high)

High digester temperatures

Uncomplicated cleaning, emptying and maintenance

Disadvantages:

Short life (about five years)

Easily damaged

Does not create employment locally

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Little scope for self-help

Balloon plants can be recommended wherever the balloon skin is not likely to be damaged and where the temperature is even and high. One variant of the balloon plant is the channel-type digester with folia and sunshade.

2. Fixed-Dome Plants

A fixed-dome plant consists of an enclosed digester with a fixed, non-movable gas space. The gas is

stored in the upper part of the digester. When gas production commences, the slurry is displaced into the compensating tank. Gas pressure increases with the volume of gas stored; therefore the volume of the digester should not exceed 20 m³. If there is little gas in the holder, the gas pressure is low.

If the gas is required at constant pressure (e.g., for engines), a gas pressure regulator or a floating

gasholder is required. Engines require a great deal of gas, and hence large gasholders.

The gas pressure then becomes too high if there is no floating gasholder.

then becomes too high if there is no floating gasholder. Fig.: Fixed dome type of plant

Fig.: Fixed dome type of plant

Advantages:

Low construction cost, no moving parts, no rusting steel parts, hence long life (20 years or more), underground construction, affording protection from winter cold and saving space, creates employment locally.

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Disadvantages:

Plants often not gaslight (porosity and cracks), gas pressure fluctuates substantially and is often very high, low digester temperatures.

Fixed-dome plants can be recommended only where construction can be supervised by experienced biogas technicians.

3. Floating-Drum Plants

Floating-drum plants consist of a digester and a moving gasholder. The gasholder floats either direct on the fermentation slurry or in a water jacket of its own. The gas collects in the gas drum, which thereby rises. If gas is drawn off, it falls again. The gas drum is prevented from tilting by a guide frame.

Advantages:

Simple, easily understood operation, constant gas pressure, volume of stored gas visible directly, few mistakes in construction.

Disadvantages:

High construction cost of floating-drum, many steel parts liable to corrosion, resulting in short life (up to 15 years; in tropical coastal regions about five years for the drum), and regular maintenance costs due to painting.

for the drum), and regular maintenance costs due to painting. Fig.: Floating dome type of plant

Fig.: Floating dome type of plant

 

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In spite of these disadvantages, floating-drum plants are always to be recommended in cases of doubt. Water-jacket plants are universally applicable and especially easy to maintain. The drum won't stick, even if the substrate has high solids content. Floating-drums made of glass-fibre reinforced plastic and high density polyethylene have been used successfully, but the construction cost is higher than with steel. Floating-drums made of wire-mesh-reinforced concrete are liable to hairline cracking and are intrinsically porous. They require a gaslight, elastic internal coating. PVC drums are unsuitable because not resistant to UV.

The floating gas drum can be replaced by a balloon above the digester. This reduces construction costs (channel type digester with folia), but in practice problems always arise with the attachment of the balloon at the edge. Such plants are still being tested under practical conditions.

Applications

Biogas can be used for electricity production on sewage works, in a CHP gas engine, where the waste heat from the engine is conveniently used for heating the digester; cooking; space heating; water heating; and process heating. If compressed, it can replace compressed natural gas for use in vehicles, where it can fuel an internal combustion engineer fuel cells and is a much more effective displacer of carbon dioxide than the normal use in on-site CHP plants.

Biogas upgrading

Raw biogas produced from digestion is roughly 60% methane and 29% CO2 with trace elements of H2S; it is not of high enough quality to be used as fuel gas for machinery. The corrosive nature of H2S alone is enough to destroy the internals of a plant.

Methane in biogas can be concentrated via a biogas upgrade to the same standards as fossil natural gas, which itself has had to go through a cleaning process, and becomes bio methane. If the local gas network allows, the producer of the biogas may use their distribution networks. Gas must be very clean to reach pipeline quality and must be of the correct composition for the distribution network to accept. Carbon dioxide, water, hydrogen sulphide, and particulates must be removed if present.

There are four main methods of upgrading: water washing, pressure swing adsorption, selexol adsorption, and amine gas treating. In addition to these, the use of membrane separation technology for biogas upgrading is increasing, and there are already several plants operating in Europe and USA.

The most prevalent method is water washing where high pressure gas flows into a column where the carbon dioxide and other trace elements are scrubbed by cascading water running counter- flow to the gas. This arrangement could deliver 98% methane with manufacturers guaranteeing maximum 2% methane loss in the system. It takes roughly between 3% and 6% of the total energy output in gas to run a biogas upgrading system.

Biogas Problems

The dangers of biogas are mostly similar to those of natural gas, but with an additional risk from the toxicity of its hydrogen sulfide fraction. Biogas can be explosive when mixed one part biogas to 8-20 parts air. When the tank is open for cleaning or repair work is being done open flames, sparks, and smoking should be avoided. If light is needed a flashlight or sunlight reflected off

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of a mirror should be used. Biogas leaks smell like rotten eggs (hydrogen sulfide). If someone enters a biogas digester they should always have someone with them in case they stop breathing due to low oxygen intake.

It is important that a biogas system never have negative pressure as this could cause an explosion or kill the digesting bacteria. Negative gas pressure can occur if too much gas is removed or leaked. Because of this biogas shouldn't be used at pressures below one column inch of water, measured by a pressure gauge.

Frequent smell checks must be performed on a biogas system. If biogas is smelled anywhere windows and doors should be opened immediately. If there is a fire the gas should be shut off at the gate valve of the biogas system.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING U.V.PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, GANPAT UNIVERSITY, KHERVA
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING
U.V.PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, GANPAT UNIVERSITY, KHERVA
BACHELOR TECHNOLOGY 8TH SEMESTER (MECHANICAL ENGINEERING)
2 ME 801 ALTERNATE ENERGY SOLUTION
Experiment No.6
Date:
-
-
Aim: to study of working principle of solar radiation measuring Instruments.
THEORY
What is solar radiation?
The sun is the earth's major energy source and radiates its energy from a distance of 150
million kilometres, or 8.3 light minutes. This solar radiation reaches the outside of our atmosphere
with an irradiance of about 1360 Watts per square meter (W/m2). Pyrheliometer is an instrument
designed specifically to measure the direct beam solar irradiance with a field of view limited to 5
degree. The front aperture is fitted with a quartz window to protect the instrument and to act as a
filter that passes solar radiation between 200 nm and 400 nm. Other professional instruments include
pyrgeometers for measurement of far infrared radiation, albedometers for albedo measurements, UV
radiometers for solar UV measurements etc.
Good quality, reliable solar radiation data is becoming increasingly important in the field of
renewable energy, with regard to both photovoltaic (PV) and thermal systems. It helps well- founded
decision making on activities such as research and development, production quality control,
determination of optimum locations, monitoring the efficiency of installed systems and predicting
the system output under various sky conditions. Especially with larger solar power plants, errors of a
few percent can significantly impact upon the return on investment.
Global radiation is measured with pyranometers, which are radiometers designed for
measuring the total (global) irradiance on a plane surface. Direct radiation is measured with a
Pyrheliometer that has a slightly larger view than the sun and its aureole and does not see the rest of
the sky. To make measurements the Pyrheliometer must point precisely at the sun and this is
achieved by using an automatic two-axis sun tracker. A shading assembly on the sun tracker is used
to block the direct radiation from a Pyranometer so that it measures only the diffuse sky radiation.
PV panels have a wide field of view and are positioned to receive the maximum amount of
solar radiation. Therefore, in addition to the horizontally mounted pyranometers it is recommended
to have another Pyranometer fixed to the panel or array to measure the energy available from the
hemisphere that the panel can see the 'tilted' global radiation. This allows the system efficiency to be
monitored and maintenance, such as cleaning, to be scheduled. Concentrating PV systems use lenses
to collect and focus the sun's radiation onto the cells. Thermal solar energy systems use reflectors to
focus the radiation onto a target to be heated. Both have a relatively small angle of view and it is
important to know the amount of radiation available directly from the sun. In this case a
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Pyrheliometer mounted on a sun tracker is used to monitor the energy available. Depending upon the atmospheric conditions, 10 % or more' of the incoming energy is far infrared radiation from the sky and clouds that could be utilized I 'y thermal solar energy systems. This can be measured using a pyrgeometers. Pyranometers and Pyrheliometer make technology-independent and widely comparable measurements and their calibrations are traceable to the World Radiometric Reference at the World Radiation Centre in Davos, Switzerland.

Kipp & Amen has been designing and manufacturing solar radiation measurement equipment for over 80 years and supplies leading meteorology:, and climatology organizations, research institutes and energy companies around the globe. Our radiometers are constantly improved and adapted to customer requirements. They can help you to optimize the performance of your systems. IF) addition to radiometers and sun trackers the product range includes accessories, data loggers and interfacing solutions. All products have a 2-year warranty and Kipp & Zonen has a world-wide reputation for quality, reliability, expertise and support.

Pyranometers and Pyrheliometer are most common used instruments for solar irradiance measurements. Pyranometers are used for global irradiance measurements typical in the wavelength range from 300 to 3000 nm - UV light to infra red radiation. In low cost models silicon photo diodes are used as sensor but in professional instruments thermopiles are used. Pyranometers do not require much maintenance and are designed for long life service. Such instruments are daily used by weather monitoring organizations for example.

Good quality solar radiation data is becoming increasingly important in the field of renewable energy with regard to both photovoltaic (PV) and thermal systems. This applies in activities such as research and development, production quality control, determination of optimum locations, monitoring the efficiency of installed systems and predicting the system output under various sky conditions. Radiation arriving at the Earth's surface from the sun and the sky is split into short- wave radiation (ultraviolet, visible and near infrared) in the wavelength range 300 to 4000 nm (4 p.m) and long-wave radiation (far infrared) from 4.5 to beyond 40 rim. PV materials have most of their sensitivity from approximately 400 to 1100 nm, with a peak just beyond the visible range. There is no response to long-wave radiation, and little to ultraviolet. Measurements of solar radiation are usually made using thermopile type radiometers with a flat spectral response. The types of instruments are defined by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the International Standards Organization (ISO). In a solar monitoring station the short-wave radiation is measured in three ways:

1. Global Solar Irradiance: Global Solar Irradiance is measured by a Pyrometer, which is a radiometer with a glass dome that has a hemispherical view of the whole sky.

2. Direct Solar Irradiance: Direct Solar Irradiance is measured by a Pyrheliometer. This is a radiometer with a 5° view that is pointed accurately at the centre of the sun by an automatic Sun Tracker. It only sees the sun and its aureole.

3. Diffuse Solar Irradiance: Diffuse Solar Irradiance is scattered by aerosols in the atmosphere and reflected by clouds. It is measured by a Pyranorneters mounted on a sun tracker with a shading mechanism to block the direct solar irradiance.

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Different Types of Solar radiation Measuring Instrument

1. Pyrometer

2. Pyrheliometer

3. Radiometer

Total Radiation Pyranometer

Principle used for radiation pyronameters

There are two principle used for the construction of radiation temperature measuring device. In which radiation emitted by the radiant body or fluid whose temperature is to be measured is focused on a thermal receiving surface. They receiving element may be a resistance element, usually it is blackened platinum, thermopile or a thermopile is a set of thermocouples connected in series or side by side to form a wheel.

connected in series or side by side to form a wheel. Fig.: Typical Thermopile Pyronameter Thermopile

Fig.: Typical Thermopile Pyronameter

Thermopile thermal detecting elements are most commonly used in total radiation detectors. The optical system focuses the energy emitted by an object onto the detector, which is sensitive to the radiation. The output of the detector is proportional to the amount of energy radiated by the target object (less the amount absorbed by the optical system), and the response of the detector to the specific radiation wavelengths. This output can be used to infer the objects temperature. The emissivity, or emittance, of the object is an important variable in converting the detector output into an accurate temperature signal.

Advantage

Used to measure very high temperature

High output signal and moderate cost.

No need to have contact with measuring system.

Fast Response.

 

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Disadvantages

Non-linear scale.

Emissivity of target material affects measurement

Application of Radiation pyrometer

Used to measure temperature of moving target.

Used to measure temperature of a target where physical contact is impossible.

Used to measure temperature in corrosive environment.

Used to measure invisible rays from radiations.

Pyro-electric Technique Thermometers

They are relatively new forms of pyrometers. Usually made up of ceramic material the molecular dipoles are fixed in these materials at ambient temperature and the molecules are present in a "mish-mash" manner. When the temperature is increased, a point is reached that the molecules start to freely rotate this temperature is called curie temperature.

Working

If

it is placed between a pair of electrodes, at ambient temperature the molecules will be fixed

(shown in first figure) by applying voltage across electrodes and increasing temperature beyond Curie temperature, molecules start to align in a certain orientation and electric field is generated as a result. As the ceramic temperature is further increased, the free rotation also increases.

Photo-electric pyrometer

They are used in places where the radiations of the measured object are of shorter wavelength i.e. at very high temperatures. They are also very similar in construction to total radiation pyrometers. The one major difference in construction though is the use of photodiode as the detector rather than Thermopile.

What is a photo-diode?

A

photodiode is usually a semiconductor diode; it could be made of germanium or silicon.

The diode is constructed in such a manner that the incident radiations can reach the junction region of the semiconductor. If germanium is used, the diodes will be a simple P-N junction, but if silicon is

used it could be a P-N or P-I-N junction.

Working

As the radiant energy impacted upon the surface of the photoelectric diode increase, more electrons cross the barrier and hence more voltage reading will be obtained. This will obviously

 

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ALTERNATE ENERGY SOLUTIONS MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Fig.: Photo Electric Pyrometer happen at higher source temperature, thus

Fig.: Photo Electric Pyrometer

happen at higher source temperature, thus the temperature is measured indirectly by measuring the voltage reading.

Optical Pyrometers

Optical radiation thermometers are a simple in construction and they are accurate for temperature measurement between 600 °C to 3000 °C. They require the eye and the decision making of the viewer (operator), thus they are not a suitable device for recording or control purposes. They are Very effective for point measurements and for calibration of total radiation thermometers.

Working

and for calibration of total radiation thermometers. Working Fig.: Principle of Optical Pyranometer Page 64 of

Fig.: Principle of Optical Pyranometer

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ALTERNATE ENERGY SOLUTIONS MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Fig.: Principle of Optical Pyranometer In terms of construction, they

Fig.: Principle of Optical Pyranometer

In terms of construction, they are similar to a telescope. Here a tungsten filament lamp is placed at the focus of the objective lens. To use the instrument the point where the temperature is required to be known is viewed through the pyrometer. The current passing through the filament of the lamp is adjusted in such a way that the filament disappears in the image.

Construction of an optical pyrometer

Represent the manner in which the filament appears in the eyepiece against the background of the radiant object whose temperature is being measured.

(a) The current through the filament (i.e. the temperature) is too high and it looks bright against the

light coming from the radiant object.

(b) In the filament is at the same temperature as the radiant object indicated by the fact that

filament has disappeared from the image

(c) The current through the filament is too low.

Application

the

The Optical is used in hundreds of industrial applications. Red scales can be provided for emissivity correction of targets with a 0.4 emissivity value. This is useful for temperature measurement of molten iron and steel. The PYRO Optical Pyrometer is calibrated at an effective wavelength of 0.655 micrometer and is inherently less subject to most errors due to uncertain emissivity or extraneous reflected light than infrared or radiation thermometers.

Pyrheliometer

It is an instrument for measuring direct solar radiation incident on a surface perpendicular to solar. It is an instrument for measuring direct solar radiation incident on a surface perpendicular to solar beam. A Pyrheliometer is an instrument designed specifically to measure the direct beam solar irradiance with a field of view limited to 5°. The front aperture is fitted with a quartz window to protect the instrument and to act as a filter that passes solar radiation between 200 nm and 400 nm.

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Other professional

instruments

include pyrgeometers for

measurement

of far infrared

radiation, albedometers for albedo measurements, UV radiometers for solar UV measurements etc.

Different Pyrheliorneter

1. Thermoelectric Pyrheliometer.

 

2. Angstrom compensation pyrheliometer.etc

 

Thermoelectric Pyrheliometer

 
 
 

It is an instrument which measures direct solar irradiance from 300-4000 rim at normal *incidence. Sensor: Blackened copper constantan thermopile. Sensor mounted in a long metallic tube to collimate the incident beam. Solar tracker maintains the Pyrheliometer always directed towards the sun. Generated emf by the thermopile is proportional to incident irradiance. (Approx. 5 micro volts/watt/sq. meter)Used for instantaneous measurements and continuous recording of direct solar irradiance.

Advantages

They offer a wide range.

 

They have highest accuracy to cost-effective solutions.

 

They are the main supplier of pyranometers and Pyrheliometer to the PV Industry.

Difference between pyrometer & pyranamometer

 

Pyranometers and Pyrheliometer are most common used instruments for solar irradiance measurements. Pyranometers are used for global irradiance measurements typical in the wavelength range from 300 to 3000 nm - UV light to infra red radiation. In low cost models silicon photo diodes are used as sensor but in professional instruments thermopiles are used. Pyranometers do not require

 

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much maintenance and are designed for long life service. Such instruments are daily used by weather monitoring organizations for example.

Good quality solar radiation data is becoming increasingly important in the field of renewable energy with regard to both photovoltaic (PV) and thermal systems. This applies in activities such as research and development, production quality control, determination of optimum locations, monitoring the efficiency of installed systems and predicting the system output under various sky conditions. Radiation arriving at the Earth's surface from the sun and the sky is split into short- wave radiation (ultraviolet, visible and near infrared) in the wavelength range 300 to 4000 nm (4 micrometer) and long-wave radiation (far infrared) from 4.5 to beyond 40 micrometer. PV materials have most of their sensitivity from approximately 400 to 1100 run, with a peak just beyond the visible range. There is no response to long-wave radiation, and little to ultraviolet. Measurements of solar radiation are usually made using thermopile type radiometers.

Angstrom compensation Pyrheliometer

Working

Two very thin identical managing strips that have been blackened on top are used as the detecting unit of the instrument. One strip (A) is heated by the solar radiation; the other (B) is shielded from the radiation and is heated by an electric current from an outside source (E). When the temperatures of the two strips are equal, the thermocouple attached to the strips does not generate a current, since there is total compensation. In such a situation, the amount of heat generated by the current in the second strip is equal to the amount of heat received by the first strip from solar radiation.

of heat received by the first strip from solar radiation. Fig.: Angstrom compensation pyrheliometer Water flow

Fig.: Angstrom compensation pyrheliometer

Water flow Pyrheliometer

Abbot with design corrections by the Soviet scientist V. M. Shul'gin has been adopted as the standard in the USA. Internally blackened chambers washed by streams of water are housed in two identical tubes. One chamber is exposed to radiation, and the other is screened and is heated by a

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current of strength such that the temperatures of the streams of water emerging from the two chambers are identical. The heating is monitored by thermocouples. The radiation intensity (calories/cm 2-min) is calculated from the amount of heat released in the chamber and the area of the chamber receiving aperture.

Radiometer

A radiometer is a device for measuring the radiant flux (power) of electromagnetic radiation. Generally, the term radiometer denotes an infrared radiation detector, yet it also includes detectors operating on any electromagnetic wavelength. A common example is the Crookes radiometer, an early-model device wherein a rotor (having vane s which are dark on one side, and light on the other) in a partial vacuum spins when exposed to light. A common myth (one originally held even by Crookes) is that the momentum of the absorbed light on the black faces makes the radiometer operate. If this were true however, the radiometer would spin away from the non-black faces, since the photons bouncing off those faces impart even more momentum than the photons absorbed on the black faces. Follow the link below for an in- depth explanation of the principles behind a Crookes radiometer.

explanation of the principles behind a Crookes radiometer. The Nichols radiometer operates on a different principle

The Nichols radiometer operates on a different principle and is more sensitive than the Crookes type. Microwave radiometer operates in the microwave wavelengths. The radiometer contains argon gas to enable it to rotate. The MEMS radiometer, invented by Patrick Jankowiak can operate on the principles of Nichols or Crooke and can operate over a wide spectrum of wavelength and particle energy levels.

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Other Solar Radiation Instrument Description

Sunphtometers

A sun photometer is a class of photometers designed for observing certain narrow spectral bands of sunlight. A typical instrument will produce an output signal proportional to the solar irradiance within the intended spectral band. The instruments typically used by ESRL/GMD are intended to deduce spectral atmospheric transmission, or optical depth, from which the contributions of various atmospheric constituents can be calculated; most commonly aerosol, but water vapour and ozone are also potentially derived. The spectral discrimination of the sun photometer is often accomplished with a narrowband interference glass filter which is the source of considerable uncertainty in the typical measurement. There have been numerous commercial sources of sun photometers but in most cases ESRL/GMD has designed and built their own for various field programs.

has designed and built their own for various field programs. Fig.: Sunphtometers Calibration of the ESRL/GMD

Fig.: Sunphtometers

Calibration of the ESRL/GMD sun photometers is accomplished by the common Langley technique at our field site at Mauna Loa. The filters used in past instruments have proven to typically be too unstable for long-term measurements at remote sites. Therefore, ESRL/GMD has subsequently utilized sun photometers for short-term expeditionary programs or for ongoing observations at Mauna Loa where they are frequently calibrated.

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Precision Spectral Pyranometer

 

The Precision Spectral Pyranometers is a World Meteorological Organization First Class Radiometer designed for the measurement of sun and sky radiation, totally or in defined broad wavelength bands. It comprises a circular multi-junction wire-wound Eppley thermopile which has the ability to withstand severe mechanical vibration and shock. Its receiver is coated with Parson's black lacquer (non wavelength selective absorption). This instrument is supplied with a pair of removable precision ground and polished hemispheres of Schott optical glass. Both hemispheres are made of clear WG295 glass which is uniformly transparent to energy between 0.285 to 2.81_tm. For special applications, other Schott glasses and Infeasible II quartz hemispheres are available. Included is a spirit level, adjustable levelling screws and desiccators which can be readily inspected. The instrument has a cast bronze body with a white enamelled guard disk (shield) and comes with a transit/storage case. A calibration certificate traceable to the World Radiation Reference and a temperature compensation curve is included.

Specification

Sensitivity:

approx. 91.1V/Wm-2.

Impedance:

approx. 650 Ohms.

Temperature Dependence: ±1% over ambient temperature range -20 to 40°

 

Linearity:

±0.5% from 0 to 2800 Wm-2.

Response time:

1 second (1/e signal).

Cosine:

±1% from normalization 0 - 70° zenith angle; ±3% 70 - 80° z Zenith angle.

Mechanical Vibration:

tested up to 20 gs without damage.

 

Calibration:

integrating hemisphere.

Size:

5.75 inch diameter, 3.75 inches high.

Weight:

7 pounds.

Orientation:

Performance is not affected by orientation or tilt.

Precision Infrared Radiometer

 

The Precision Infrared Radiometer, Pyrgeometers, is intended for unidirectional operation in the measurement, separately, of incoming or outgoing terrestrial radiation as distinct from net long- wave flux. The PIR comprises a circular multi-junction wire-wound Eppley thermopile which has the ability to withstand severe mechanical vibration and shock. Its receiver is coated with Parson’s black lacquer (non-wavelength selective absorption). Temperature compensation of detector response is incorporated. Radiation emitted by the detector in its corresponding orientation is automatically compensated, eliminating that portion of the signal. A battery' voltage, precisely controlled by a

 

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thermostat which senses detector temperature continuously, is introduced into the principle electrical circuit. Isolation of long-wave radiation from solar short-wave radiation in daytime is accomplished by using a silicone dome. The inner surface of this hemisphere has a vacuum-deposited interference filter with a transmission range of approximately 3.5 to 50 micrometer

 
 

Fig.: Precision Infrared Radiometer

Specifications

• Sensitivity:

approx.4 µ.V/WM-2.

• Impedance:

approx. 700 Ohms.

• Temperature Dependence: ±1% over ambient temperature range -20 to +40°C.

• Linearity:

±1% from 0 to 700 Wm-2.

• Response time:

2 seconds (1/e signal).

• Cosine:

better than 5%.

• Mechanical Vibration:

tested up to 20 gs without damage.

• Calibration:

blackbody reference.

• Size:

5.75 inch diameter, 3.5 inches high.

• Weight:

7 pounds.

• Orientation:

Performance is not affected by orientation or tilt.

Normal Incidence Pyrheliometer

 

The Eppley Normal Incidence Pyrheliometer is a World Meteorological Organization First Class Pyrheliometer designed, as its name implies. For the measurement of solar radiation at normal incidence. The NIP incorporates a wire-wound thermopile at the base of a tube, the aperture of which bears a ratio to its length of 1 to 10, subtending an angle of 5°43'30". The inside of this brass tube is blackened and suitably diaphragm. The tube is filled with dry air at atmospheric pressure and sealed at the viewing end by an insert carrying a 1 mm thick, Infrasil II window. Two flanges, one at each end of the tube, are provided with a sighting arrangement for aiming the Pyrheliometer directly at the

 

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sun. A manually rotatable wheel (shown) which can accommodate three filters, while leaving one aperture free is provided. The Pyrheliometer is mounted on a power-driven equatorial mount for continuous readings. Please see Solar Trackers.

 
 

Fig.: Normal Incidence Pyrheliometer

A calibration certificate traceable to the World Radiation Reference and a temperature compensation curve are included.

Specifications

Sensitivity:

approx 8 [IV/Wm-2.

Impedance:

approx. 200 Ohms.

Temperature Dependence: ±1% over ambient temperature range -20 to +40°C.

 

Linearity:

±0.5% from 0 to 1400 Wm-2.

Response time:

1 second (1/e signal).

Mechanical Vibration:

tested up to 20 gs without damage.

Calibration:

reference Eppley primary standard group of Pyrheliometer.

Size:

11 inches long.

Weight:

5 pounds.

HF Absolute Cavity Radiometer

 

The self-calibrating Absolute Cavity Pyrheliometer, Model HF, has been a reference standard level device for many years. The sensor consists of a balanced cavity receiver pair attached to a circular wire-wound and plated thermopile. The blackened cavity receivers are fitted with heater windings which allow for absolute operation using the electrical substitution method, which relates radiant power to electrical power in SI units. The forward cavity views the direct beam through a precision aperture. The precision aperture area is nominally 50 mm2 and is measured for each unit.

 

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The rear receiver views an ambient temperature blackbody. The HF radiometer element with baffle tube and blackbody are fitted into an outer tube which acts as the enclosure of the instrument. The Model AHF has an automatic shutter attached to the outer tube. Model HF Control The operation of the cavity radiometer and the measurement of the required parameters is performed using an appropriate control box. The control functions include setting of the calibration heater power level, activation of the calibration heater, selection of the signals to be measured and control of the meter measurement functions and ranges. The measured parameters include the thermopile signal, the heater voltage and the heater current which is measured as the voltage drop across a 10 Ohms precision resistor. The instrument temperature may also be measured using an internally mounted then thermostat. The meter resolution of 100 nV allows for a thermopile signal equivalent in radiation of approximately 0.1 Wm-2.

signal equivalent in radiation of approximately 0.1 Wm-2. Fig.: HF Absolute Cavity Radiometer Control boxes for
signal equivalent in radiation of approximately 0.1 Wm-2. Fig.: HF Absolute Cavity Radiometer Control boxes for

Fig.: HF Absolute Cavity Radiometer

Control boxes for manual or manual/automatic are available. The control box can operate either one radiometer in the measurement mode or two radiometers in the comparison mode. Automatic operation allows for computer control of shuttering, calibration heating and measurement functions. Calculation operations and data storage are also possible under computer control. Programs for independent, automatic measurement and cavity radiometer comparison are supplied with automatic units.

Although these are absolute devices, the radiometers are compared with the EPLAB reference cavity radiometers which have participated in the International pyrheliometric comparison and other inters comparisons and are directly traceable to the World Radiation Reference (WRR).

Multi filter Rotating Shadow band Radiometer

The Multi filter Rotating Shadow band Radiometer (MFR-7) is a field instrument that measures the global, direct, and diffuse components of solar irradiance at up to seven wavelengths. A microprocessor- controlled shadow band alternately shades and exposes the instrument diffuser, enabling the system to measure all three irradiance components with only one detector. In addition to a broadband channel, this instrument has six narrowband channels.

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Channel Wavelength

1

Broadband

(silicon Pyranometer)

2

415

3

500

4

615

5

673

6

870

7

940

The narrowband wavelengths can be used in various atmospheric studies. For example, certain wavelengths are affected by aerosols, so by comparing the ratios of data from various channels, the presence of aerosols can be detected. The 940 nm channel can be used to measure column water vapour; the 415 and 500 nm channels can be used to extract column ozone data. The shadow band is a strip of metal formed into a circular arc and mounted along a celestial meridian, with the instrument's entrance aperture at the centre of the arc. The shadow band blocks a strip of sky with a 3.3. umbral angle, sufficient to block the sun. It can be positioned with an accuracy of .4• by a microprocessor controlled stepper motor. The motor housing is adjusted for the latitude of the instrument and is azimuthally aligned to the North or South Pole, depending on the hemisphere. A microprocessor in the Yankee Environmental Systems Data Acquisition System (YESDAS), a 32- channel data logger, controls the instrument. At each measurement interval, the instrument computes the solar position using an approximation of the solar ephemeris. The first measurement is made with the band rotated to its nadir position (also called the home position) to obtain the global or total irradiance. The band is then rotated to make three more measurements. The first measurement (the diffuse horizontal irradiance) is made with the sun completely blocked; the other two are made with the band rotated 9• to either side of the sun. These side measurements permit the system to correct for the excess sky that is blocked by the shadow band during the sun-blocked measurement.

YESDAS subtracts the corrected diffuse component value from the global irradiance to obtain the direct horizontal component. It then divides the direct horizontal component by the cosine of the solar zenith angle (available from the ephemeris calculation) to compute the direct normal Component. This entire sequence completes in less than 15 seconds on an MFR and can be programmed to occur up to 4 times per minute. (The sequence takes 20 seconds on a high-latitude instrument and can occur up to 3 times per minute.)The wavelengths listed are nominal. Each instrument is individually characterized in the YES .Optical Calibration laboratory, and the effective centre wavelength and effective band pass are included in the calibration file for that instrument.

The UVB-1 Ultraviolet Pyranometers

The UVB-1 Ultraviolet Pyranometers is a precision radiometer that measures biologically- effective solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation. The instrument uses collared glass filters and a UV-B phosphor to convert incoming UV-B radiation to green light, which is then measured by a calibrated solid state photo detector.

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UV-B radiation to green light, which is then measured by a calibrated solid state photo detector.
UV-B radiation to green light, which is then measured by a calibrated solid state photo detector.

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Measures global solar irradiance

The UVB-1 measures global solar UV-B irradiance or the power per unit area of UV-B radiation received by a horizontal surface from the entire hemisphere of the sky. Global radiation includes both light transmitted directly through the atmosphere and light scattered by atmospheric gases and particulate matter in the atmosphere. The UVB-1 measures both the direct and diffuse components of global radiation.

Applications

and diffuse components of global radiation. Applications Fig.: Ultraviolent Pyranometer The spectral response of the

Fig.: Ultraviolent Pyranometer

The spectral response of the instrument is similar to the erythemal and DNA damage Spectra, making it ideal for climatologically data gathering and ozone layer depletion Impact studies. Because ozone in the stratosphere strongly absorbs energy in the UV-B portion of the solar spectrum (280 to 320 nm), any changes in the total amount of ozone affect the levels of UV-B radiation reaching the ground

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING U.V.PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, GANPAT UNIVERSITY, KHERVA
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING
U.V.PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, GANPAT UNIVERSITY, KHERVA
BACHELOR TECHNOLOGY 8TH SEMESTER (MECHANICAL ENGINEERING)
2 ME 801 ALTERNATE ENERGY SOLUTION
Experiment No.7
Date:
-
-
Aim: to measure the performance of solar water heater.
Introduction
Solar water Heater (SWH) or solar hot water (SHW) systems comprise several innovations
and many mature renewable energy technologies that have been well established for many years. SWH
has been widely used in Greece, Turkey, Israel, Australia, Japan, Austria and China.
In a "close-coupled" SWH system the storage tank is horizontally mounted immediately
above the solar collectors on the roof. No pumping is required as the hot water naturally rises into the tank
through thermo siphon flow. In a "pump-circulated" system the storage tank is ground or floor mounted and
is below the level of the collectors; a circulating pump moves water or heat transfer fluid between the tank
and the collectors.
System design requirements:
The type, complexity, and size of a solar water heating system is mostly determined by:
 The temperature and amount of the water required from the system.
 Changes in ambient temperature and solar radiation between summer and winter.
 The changes in ambient temperature during the day-night cycle.
 The possibility of the potable water or collector fluid overheating.
 The possibility of the potable water or collector fluid freezing.
The minimum requirements of the system are typically determined by the amount or temperature of
hot water required during winter, when a system’s output and incoming water.
Freeze protection:
Freeze protection measures prevent damage to the system due to the expansion of freezing
transfer fluid. Drain back systems drain the transfer fluid from the system when the pump stops.
Many indirect systems use antifreeze (e.g. propylene glycol) in the heat transfer fluid. In some direct
systems, the collectors can be manually drained when freezing is expected. This approach is common
in climates where freezing temperatures do not occur often, but is somewhat unreliable since the
operator can forget to drain the system. Other direct systems use freeze-tolerant collectors made with
flexible polymers such as silicone rubber.
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Overheat protection:

When no hot water has been used for a day or two, the fluid in the collectors and storage can reach very high temperatures in all systems except for those of the drain back variety. When the storage tank in a drain back system reaches its desired temperature, the pumps are shut off, putting an end to the heating process and thus preventing the storage tank from overheating.

Types of solar water heating systems

Solar water heaters can be either active or passive. An active system uses an electric pump to circulate the heat -transfer fluid; a passive system has no pump. The amount of hot water a solar water heater produces depends on the type and size of the system, the amount of sun available at the site, proper installation, and the tilt angle and orientation of the collectors. Solar water heaters are also characterized as open loop (also called "direct") or closed loop (also called "indirect"). An open- loop system circulates household (potable) water through the collector. A closed-loop system uses a heat-transfer fluid (water or diluted antifreeze, for example) to collect heat and a heat exchanger to transfer the heat to household water.

Passive system

to transfer the heat to household water. Passive system Fig.: Passive water heating system Direct or

Fig.: Passive water heating system

Direct or open loop systems circulate potable water through the collectors. They are cheaper than indirect systems and offer superior heat transfer from the collectors to the storage tank, but have many drawbacks:

They offer link or no overheat protection.

They offer little or no freeze protection.

The collectors will accumulate scale in hard water areas.

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They are often not considered suitable for cold climates since, in the event of the collector being damaged by a freeze, pressurized water lines will force water to gush from the freeze-damaged collector until the problem is noticed and rectified.

Active systems

Indirect active systems: (C) Indirect system with heat exchanger in tank; (D) Drain back system with drain back reservoir. In these schematics the controller and pump arc driven by mains electricity

Passive systems rely on heat-driven convection or heat pipes to circulate water or heating fluid in the system. Passive solar water heating systems cost less and have extremely low or no maintenance, but the efficiency of a passive system is significantly lower than that of an active system, and overheating and freezing arc major concerns.

system, and overheating and freezing arc major concerns. Fig.: Active System Active systems use one or

Fig.: Active System

Active systems use one or more pumps to circulate water and/or heating fluid in the system.

Integrated collector storage (ICS) system

An integrated collector storage (ICS or Batch Heater) system uses a tank that acts as both storage and solar collector. Batch heaters are basically thin rectilinear tanks with a glass side, facing south. They are simple and less costly than plate and tube collectors, but they

Sometimes require extra bracing if installed on a roof (since they are heavy when filled with water [400-700 lbs] suffer from significant heat loss at night since the side facing the sun is largely uninsulated, and are only suitable in moderate climates.

A convection heat storage unit (CHS) system is similar to an ICS system, except the storage tank and collector are physically separated and transfer between the two is driven by convection. CHS systems typically use standard fiat-plate type or evacuated tube collectors, and the storage tank must be located above the collectors for convection to work properly. The main benefit of a CHS

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systems over an ICS system is that heat loss is largely avoided since (1) the storage tank can be better insulated, and (2) since the panels are located below the storage tank, heat loss in the panels will not cause convection, as the cold water will prefer to stay at the lowest part of the sys

Energy production

 

The amount of heat delivered by a solar water heating system depends primarily on the

amount of heat delivered by the sun at a particular place (the insolation). In tropical places the insolation can be relatively high, e.g. 7 kWh/m2 per day, whereas the insolation can be much lower

in

temperate areas where the days are shorter in winter, e.g. 3.2 kWh/m2 per day. Even at the same

latitude the average insolation can vary a great deal from location to location due to differences in local weather patterns and the amount of overcast.

 

Advantages

Common: the sun shine on the earth, whether land or sea, whether mountains or islands, are everywhere and recent development and use of direct, and goes without mining and transportation.

Sound: development and utilization of solar energy will not pollute the environment, it is one of the cleanest energy in today's increasingly serious environmental pollution, and this is extremely valuable.

Enormous: Each year the sun reaches the earth's surface radiation equivalent to about 130 trillion t of standard coal, and its total is now the world's largest energy that can be developed.

A

long time: According to the current estimated rate of nuclear energy produced by the sun,

hydrogen storage is sufficient to maintain billions of years, but also about the life of the Earth

billions of years, in this sense can be said that the sun's energy is the inexhaustible.

Disadvantages

Dispersion: solar radiation reaching the Earth's total surface, despite the great, but energy density is very low. On average, near the Tropic of Cancer, sunny summer weather in the case when the noon maximum irradiance of solar radiation in the direction perpendicular to the sunlight area of 1 square meter of solar energy received on average about 1000W; if by the year The average day and night, only 200W or so. Only half or less in the winter, cloudy day to only about 1 / 5, this energy density is very low. Therefore, when the use of solar energy, want to get some of the conversion power, often require a fairly large area of collection and conversion equipment, higher

Instability: due to the day and night, season, geographic latitude and altitude and natural conditions such as sunny, cloudy, clouds, rain and other random factors, therefore, at a certain ground is both intermittent solar irradiance, is very unstable, giving large-scale application of solar energy more difficult. To make solar energy a continuous, stable energy, which eventually become able to compete with conventional energy sources alternative energy, energy storage to be a good solution to the problem, that is fine as far as possible during the day and store up the solar radiation, for the night or on rainy day use, but also the use of solar energy storage in one of more weeks.

 

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Low clticiency and high cost: the current level of development of solar energy in some respects it is feasible and technically matures. However, some solar energy installations, because the low efficiency, high cost, in general, economy cannot compete with conventional energy sources. Considerable period of time in the future, further development of solar energy, mainly by economic constraints.

Application

Domestic: Flats, Bungalows and Apartments.

Commercial: Hotels, Hospitals, Hostels and Dormitories.

Industrial: Process Industries, Preheating boiler feed water. In domestic sector, hot water is used for bathing, washing of clothes & utensils etc. The requirement may, however, vary with the season of the year & number of family members. Our experience says that on an average 30 to 35 liters of water at 50 to 55° C. is consumed by an individual. Thus for a family of 4 members, 125 LPD Solar Water Heating System is quite sufficient. In commercial & industrial sectors, where large quantity of water is required at fairly high temperature, "Jain Solar Water heating Systems' arc designed to meet the above requirement.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING U.V.PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, GANPAT UNIVERSITY, KHERVA
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING
U.V.PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, GANPAT UNIVERSITY, KHERVA
BACHELOR TECHNOLOGY 8TH SEMESTER (MECHANICAL ENGINEERING)
2 ME 801 ALTERNATE ENERGY SOLUTION
Experiment No.08
Date:
-
-
Aim: to measure the performance of the solar dryer Equipment.
Solar dryer
A solar dryer is an enclosed unit, to keep the food safe from damage, birds, insects and
unexpected rainfall. The food is dried using solar thermal energy in a cleaner and healthier way.
Basically, there are four types of solar dryers;
 Direct solar dryers - in these dries the material to be dried are placed in a transparent
Enclose of glass or plastics. The sun heat the material to be dried and enclosure causes a heat
buildup due to the “green house effect” the dried chamber is usually painted black to absorb
the maximum amount of heat.
 Indirect solar Dryer – in these dryers, sun does not act directly on the material to be dried,
thus making them useful in the preparation of those crops whose vitamin content can be
destroyed by sunlight; the products are dried by hot air heated by the sun.
 Mixed Mode dried – in these dryers the combined action of solar radiation incident on the
material to be dried and the air preheated in solar collector provide the heat required for the
drying operation.
 Hybrid solar dryer – in these dryer, although sun is used to dry product, other technologies
are used to cause air movement in the dryers. Example fan powered by solar PV can be used
in these types of dryers.
The drying process
The process of dehydration consists of removal of moisture from the food by heat, usually in the
presence of a controlled flow of air. Initially the food is washed, pealed, prepared and placed on flat-
bottomed trays that are placed into the dryer. The solar rays enter the cabinet through the cover
material. When reaching the solar collector or the tray surface, they are converted into heat energy
raising the temperature inside. The heat energy is transferred to the food to be dried. The heated food
gives out water vapour and dries up. Gradually the heated moist air goes up leaves the drying
chamber through the air outlet at the high end of the drier.
1. Cold dry air enters the drying chamber through the air inlet.
2. The solar rays enter the cabinet through the transparent cover material where they are
converted into heat energy, thereby raising the temperature inside. The heated food gives out
water vapour and dries up.
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3.

Gradually the heated moist air goes up and leaves the drying chamber through the air outlet at the high end of the dryer.

As a result of a natural and conventional process, dry air will enter the drying chamber through the air inlet that is situated at the lower end of the drying chamber. The efficiency of drying is influenced by relative humidity in the air, the moisture content of the materials to be dried, their amount and thickness. The solar radiation intensity on the materials varies with seasons, time of the day and length of exposure. Ambient air temperature and wind speed are important factors.

Theory of drying

Most agricultural products, which are dried may be seen as solid, porous or course material in a loose bulk state (i.e. in piles or in layer). The pile is blown through by pre-heated air during drying, by means of which energy needed for evaporation is provided for the materials. Evaporating water from the surface of the material is removed by air.

The mass and heat transfer that do occur during drying constitutes a complex mathematical description based on approximation. Therefore it is a common practice to apply semi empirical methods based on experimental data.

 
 

Fig.: Solar Dryer

Moisture is removed as a result of the difference in vapour pressure between the surface and its surroundings. There is migration of moisture to the surface under the effect of the moisture gradient forming between the inner parts of the surface. Drying process lasts until equilibrium is attained between the surface and inner part and between the surface and the ambient.

Temperature is a decisive factor in drying, both the concentration gradient and the diffusion coefficient increase with temperature, whereby the amount of water removed is also increase. For a temperature above 1000 C, the partial pressure of the water vapour increases in the material such that it may exceed the external pressure. In this case, removal of the water is also promoted by the pressure gradient. The drying time a complex function of temperature, since its effect differs in the various phases of drying.

 

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Design calculation

 

Declination Angle ()

This is the angle between the sun’s direction and the equatorial plane and is given by Forson.(2007) as,

= .

[. ( + )]

()

 

Where, (n) is the day in the year which varies from n=1 to n=365.

Optimum collector slope ()

 

The optimum collector slope,β is determined from

=

+ ∅

()

Where, () is the angle of declination for Baghdad, Iraq and () is the latitude of the location.

Collector efficiency (n)

 

This is computed from,

 

n =

(3)

Where, () is the density of air (kg/m 3 ), (I) is the insolation on the collector, (T) is the temperature elevation, (cp) is the specific heat capacity of air constant pressure (J/kgK), (V) is the volumetric flow rate (m 3 /s), and (A) is the effective area of the collector facing the sun (m 3 ).

Dryer efficiency (nd)

 

n =

(4)

Where, (L) is the latent heat of vaporization of water, (M) is the mass of the crop and (t) is the time of drying.

Heat energy Q needed for crop drying at moderate temperature

This is given by

 

Q = MwL = (Ta-Tb)

(5)

Where L = latent heat of vaporization of water, M w =mass of crop before drying, =density of water, T a =ambient Temperature, T b = dryer temperature.

Moisture content (M.C.)

 

The moisture content is given as:

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MC (%) = [ ] × %

(6)

Where, M i =mass of sample before drying and M f =mass of sample after drying.

Moisture loss (ML)

The moisture loss is given as:

ML = (Mi - Mf) (g)

(7)

Here, M i is the mass of the sample before drying and M f is the mass of the sample after.

 

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING U.V.PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, GANPAT UNIVERSITY, KHERVA
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING
U.V.PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, GANPAT UNIVERSITY, KHERVA
BACHELOR TECHNOLOGY 8TH SEMESTER (MECHANICAL ENGINEERING)
2 ME 801 ALTERNATE ENERGY SOLUTION
Experiment No.09
Date:
-
-
Aim: to study about tidal power plant.
Theory
Introduction
Tidal power, also called tidal energy, is a form of hydropower that converts the energy of
tides into useful forms of power - mainly electricity. Although not yet widely used tidal power has
potential for future electricity generation. Tides are more predictable than wind energy and solar
power. Among sources of renewable energy, tidal power has traditionally suffered from relatively
high cost and limited availability of sites with sufficiently high tidal ranges or flow velocities, thus
constricting its total availability. However, many recent technological developments and
improvements, both in design (e.g. dynamic tidal power, tidal lagoons) and turbine technology (e.g.
new axial turbines, cross flow turbines), indicate that the total availability of tidal power may be
much higher than previously assumed, and that economic and environmental costs may be brought
down to competitive levels.
Generation of tidal energy
Tidal power is extracted from the Earth's oceanic tides; tidal forces are periodic variations in
gravitational attraction exerted by celestial bodies.
Fig.: Gravitational Effect of the earth on tidal range
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These forces create corresponding motions or currents in the world's oceans. The magnitude and character
These forces create corresponding motions or currents in the world's oceans. The magnitude
and character of this motion reflects the changing positions of the Moon and Sun relative to the Earth,
the effects of Earth's rotation, and local geography of the sea floor and coastlines.
Tidal power is the only technology that draws on energy inherent in the orbital characteristics
of the Earth—Moon system, and to a lesser extent in the Earth -Sun system. Other natural energies
exploited by Human technology originate directly or indirectly with the Sun, energy including fossil
fuel, conventional hydroelectric, wind, biofuel, wave and solar energy. Nuclear the makes use of
Earth mineral deposits of fissionable elements, while geothermal power taps Earth's internal heat,
which comes from a combination of residual heat from planetary accretion (about 20%) and heat
produced through radioactive decay (80%).A tidal generator converts the energy of tidal flows into
electricity. Greater tidal variation and generation higher tidal the velocities can dramatically increase
the potential of a site for tidal electricity.
Fig.: Principle of Tidal Energy Generation
Because the Earth's tides are ultimately due to gravitational interaction with the Moon and
Earth's rotation, tidal power energy, power is practically inexhaustible and classified as a renewable
resource. Movement of tides cause s a loss of mechanical energy in the Earth—Moon stem: this is a
result of pumping of water through natural restrictions around coastlines and consequent viscous
dissipation at the seabed and in turbulence. This loss of energy has caused the rotation y n of the
Earth to slow in the 4.5 billion years since its formation. During the last 620 million g Fears the
period of rotation of the earth (length of a day) has increased from 21.9 hours to hours, in this period
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the Earth has lost 17% of its rotational energy. While tidal power may take additional energy from the system, the effect is negligible and would only be noticed over millions of years.

Generating methods

Tidal power can be classified into three generating methods:

Tidal stream generators

Tidal stream generators (or TSGs) make use of the kinetic turbines, in a similar way to wind turbines that use wind to power turbines.

Tidal barrage

Tidal barrages make use of the potential energy in the difference in height (or head) between across high and low tides. Barrages are essentially dams’ across the full width of a tidal estuary.

dams’ across the full width of a tidal estuary. Fig.: Schematic Layout of Tidal Power Plant

Fig.: Schematic Layout of Tidal Power Plant

Dynamic tidal power

Dynamic tidal power (or DTP) is a theoretical generation technology that would exploit an interaction between potential and kinetic energies in tidal flows. It proposes that very long dams (for example: 30-50 km length) be built from coasts straight out into the sea or ocean, without enclosing an area. Tidal phase differences are introduced across the dam, leading to a significant water-level differential in shallow coastal seas - featuring strong coast-parallel oscillating tidal currents such as found in the UK, China and Korea. Components of Tidal Power Plants: There are three main

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components of a tidal power plant. The dam or barrage to form pool or basin Sluice-ways forms the basins to the sea and vice versa. The turbines, electric generators and other auxiliary equipments are the main Equipments of a power house. The function of dam to form a barrier between the sea and the basin or between one basin and the other in case of multiple basins. The sluice ways are used either to fill the basin during the high tide or empty the basin during the low tide, as per operational requirement. These are gate controlled devices.

Operation method of utilization of tidal energy

A number of concept have been proposed for generating electricity by utilization the head that can be

produced by the rise and fall of the tides to operate a hydraulic turbine. The power generation from tides involves flow between an artificially developed basin and the sea. This basin • scheme can be elaborated by having two or more basins. There are two types’ arrangements:-

1. Single basin arrangements 2. Double basin arrangements

Single basin arrangements

In Single basin arrangements there is only one in interacting with the sea. The two are separated by dam and the flow between them is through sluice ways located conveniently along darn. The generation of power can be achieved in a single arrangement either as a

Single ebb-cycle system or

Single tide-cycle system or

Double cycle system

system or Single tide-cycle system or Double cycle system Fig.: Single basin arrangements Double basin arrangements

Fig.: Single basin arrangements

Double basin arrangements

It requires two separate but adjacent basins. In one basin called "upper basin", the water level is

maintained above that in the other, the low basin. Because there is always a head between upper and lower basin, electricity can be generated continuously, although at a variable rate. In this system the turbine are located in between the adjacent basins.

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Advantages and Limitation of Tidal Power Generation

Advantages:

Once you've built it, tidal power is free.

It produces no greenhouse gases or other waste.

It needs no fuel.

It produces electricity reliably.

Not expensive to maintain.

Tides are totally predictable.

Offshore turbines and vertical-axis turbines are not ruinously expensive to build and do not have a large environmental impact.

Limitation:

The main drawback of the tidal power is the variability in output caused by the variations in the tidal range.

The tidal ranges are highly variable and thus the turbines have to work on a wide range of head variation. Thus affects the efficiency of the plant.

Construction in sea or in estuaries is found difficult.

Sea water is corrosive and it was feared that machinery may get corroded.

Cost is not favourable compared to the other sources of energy.

It is feared that the tidal power plant would hamper the other natural uses of estuaries such as fishing, or navigation.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING U.V.PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, GANPAT UNIVERSITY, KHERVA
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING
U.V.PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, GANPAT UNIVERSITY, KHERVA
BACHELOR TECHNOLOGY 8TH SEMESTER (MECHANICAL ENGINEERING)
2 ME 801 ALTERNATE ENERGY SOLUTION
Experiment No.10
Date:
-
-
Aim: to study about magneto hydro dynamic power generation (MHD).
Power generation
The MID (magneto hydrodynamic) generator or dynamo transforms thermal energy or kinetic
energy directly into electricity. MHD generators are different from traditional electric generators in
that they can operate at high temperatures without moving parts. MHD was developed because the
exhaust of a plasma MHD generator is a flame, still able to heat the boilers of a steam power plant.
So high-temperature MHD was developed as a topping cycle to increase the efficiency of electric
generation, especially when burning coal or natural gas. MHD dynamos are the complement of MHD
proposers, which have been applied to pump liquid metals and in several experimental ship engines.
Fig.: MHD Generator
Magneto hydrodynamics (MHD) (magneto fluid dynamics or hydro magnetic) is the
academic discipline which studies the dynamics of electrically conducting fluids. Examples of such
fluids include plasmas, liquid metals, and salt water. The word magneto hydro dynamics (MHD) is
derived from magneto - meaning magnetic field, and hydro- meaning liquid, and -dynamics meaning
movement. The field of MHD was initiated by Humes Alfven, for which he received the Nobel Prize
in Physics in 1970.
Magneto hydrodynamic power generation provides a way of generating electricity directly
from a last moving stream of ionized gases without, the need for any moving mechanical parts -no
turbines and no rotary generators. Several MHD projects were initiated in the 1960s but overcoming
the technical challenges of making a practical system proved very expensive. Interest consequently
waned in favour of nuclear power which since that time has seemed a more attractive option.
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Working Principle

The MHD generator can be considered to be a fluid dynamo. This is similar to a mechanical in which the motion of a metal conductor through a magnetic field creates a current in the conductor except that in the MHD generator the metal conductor is replaced by conducting gas conductor moves through a magnetic field it creates an electrical field perpendicular to magnetic field and the direction of movement of the conductor. This is the principle, discovered by Michael Faraday, behind the conventional rotary electricity generator. Dutch physicist Antoon Lorentz provided the mathematical theory to quantify its effects.

provided the mathematical theory to quantify its effects. Fig.: MHD Power Generation Principle The MHD System

Fig.: MHD Power Generation Principle

The MHD System

The expansion nozzle reduces the gas pressure and consequently increases the plasma speed (Bernoulli's Law) through the generator duct to increase the power output (See Power below). Unfortunately, at the same time the pressure drop causes the plasma temperature to fail (Gay - Lussac's Law) which also increases the plasma resistance, so a compromise Bernoulli’s and Gay- Lussac must be found.

The exhaust heat from the working fluid is used to drive a compressor to increase the fuel combustion rate but much of the heat will be wasted unless it can be used in another process.

rate but much of the heat will be wasted unless it can be used in another

Fig.: MHD Generation

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The Plasma

The prime system requirement is creating and managing the conducting gas plasma since the system depends on the plasma having a high electrical conductivity. Suitable working fluids .arc gases derived from combustion, noble gases, and alkali metal vapours.

The Gas Plasma

To achieve high conductivity, the gas must he ionised, detaching the electrons from the atoms or molecules leaving positively charged ions of the gas. The plasma flows through the magnetic field at high speed, in some designs, more than the speed of sound, the flow of the charged patic1es providing the necessary moving electrical conductor.

Methods of Ionizing the Gas

Various methods for ionising the gas are available, all of which depend on imparting sufficient energy to the gas. It may be accomplished by heating or irradiating the gas with X-rays. It has also been proposed to use the coolant gases such as helium and carbon dioxide employed in some nuclear reactors as the plasma fuel for direct MHD electricity generation rather extracting the heat energy of the gas through heat exchangers to raise steam to drive turbine generators. Seed materials such as Potassium carbonate or Cesium are often added in small amounts, typically about 1% of the total mass flow to increase the ionisation and improve the conductivity, particularly of combustion gas plasmas.

Containment

Since the plasma temperature is typically over 1000 °C, the duct containing the plasma must constructed from non-conducting materials capable of withstanding these high temperature the electrodes must of course be conducting as well as heat resistant.

Power Output

The output power is proportional to the cross sectional area and the flow rate of the ionized plasma. Me conductive substance is also cooled and slowed in this process. MHD generators typically reduce the temperature of the conductive substance from plasma temperatures to just over 1000 'C. An MHD generator produces a direct current output which needs an expensive high power inverter to convert the output into alternating current for connection to the grid.

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Efficiency

Typical efficiencies of MHD generators are around l to 20 percent mainly due to the heat lost through the high temperature exhaust. This limits the MHD's potential applications as a standalone device hut they were originally designed to be used in combination with other energy converters in hybrid applications where the output gases (flames) are used as the energy source to raise steam in a steam turbine plant. Total plant efficiencies of 65% could be possible in such arrangements.

Experience

Demonstration plants with capacities of 50 MW or more have been built in several countries but MHD generators are expensive. Typical use could be in peek shaving applications but they are less efficient than combined-cycle gas turbines which means there are very few installations and MHD is currently not considered for mainstream commercial power generation.

Various MHD systems

The MHD systems are broadly classified into two types:

Open cycle system

Closed cycle system

Seeded inert gas system

Liquid metal system

Open cycle system

The fuel used may be oil through an oil tank or gasified coal through a coal gasification plant. The fuel (coal, oil or natural gas) is burnt in the combustor or combustion chamber. The hot gases from combustor are then seeded with a small amount of ionized alkali metal (cesium or potassium) to increase the electrical conductivity of the gas. The seed material, generally potassium carbonate is injected into the combustion chamber; the potassium is then ionized by the hot combustion gases at temperature of roughly 2300' c to 2700'c. To attain such high temperatures, the compressed air is used to bum the coal in the combustion chamber, must be adequate to at least 1100'c. A lower preheat temperature would be adequate if the air is enriched in oxygen. An alternative is used to compress oxygen alone for combustion of fuel, little or no preheating is then required. The additional cost of oxygen might the balanced by saving on the preheated. The hot pressurized working fluid living in the combustor flows through a convergent divergent nozzle. In passing through the nozzle, the random motion energy of the molecules in the hot gas is largely converted into directed, mass of energy. Thus, the gas emerges from the nozzle and enters the MHD generator unit at a high velocity.

When a liquid metal provides the electrical conductivity, it is called a liquid metal MHD system. An inert gas is a convenient carrier the carrier gas is pressurized and heated by passage through a heat exchanger within combustion chamber. The hot gas is then incorporated into the

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liquid metal usually hot sodium to form the working fluid. The latter then consists of
liquid metal usually hot sodium to form the working fluid. The latter then consists of gas bubbles
uniformly dispersed in an approximately equal volume of liquid sodium.
Fig. Open Cycle MHD
The working fluid is introduced into the MHD generator through a nozzle in the usual ways.
The carrier gas then provides the required high direct velocity of the electrical conductor. After
passage through the generator, the liquid metal is separated from the carrier gas. Part of the heat
exchanger to produce steam for operating a turbine generator. Finally the carrier gas is cooled,
compressed and returned to the combustion chamber for reheating and mixing with the recovered
liquid metal. The working fluid temperature is usually around 800'c as the boiling point of sodium
even under moderate pressure is below 900'c.At lower operating temp, the other MHD conversion
systems may be advantageous from the material standpoint, but the maximum thermal efficiency is
lower. A possible compromise might be to use liquid lithium, with a boiling point near 1300'c as the
electrical conductor lithium is much more expensive than sodium, but losses in a closed system are
less.
ADVANTAGES
The conversion efficiency of a MHD system can be around 50% much higher compared to
the most efficient steam plants. Still higher efficiencies are expected in future, around 60 — 65 %,
with the improvements in experience and technology. Large amount of power is generated. It has no
moving parts, so more reliable. The closed cycle system produces power, free of pollution. It has
ability to reach the full power level as soon as started. The size if the plant is considerably smaller
than conventional fossil fuel plants. Although the cost cannot be predicted very accurately, yet it has
been reported that capital costs of MHD plants will be competitive to conventional steam plants. It
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has been estimated that the overall operational costs in a plant would be about 20% less than conventional steam plants. Direct conversion of heat into electricity permits to eliminate the turbine (compared with a gas turbine power plant) or both the boiler and the turbine (compared with a steam power plant) elimination reduce losses of energy. These systems permit better fuel utilization. The reduced fuel consumption would offer additional economic and special benefits and would also lead to conservation of energy resources. It is possible to use MHD for peak power generations and emergency service. It has been estimated that MHD equipment for such duties is simpler, has capability of generating in large units and has the ability to make rapid start to full load.

FUTURE PROSPECTS

It is estimated that by 2020, almost 70 % of the total electricity generated in the world will be from MHD generators. Research and development is widely being done on MHD by different countries of the world. Nations involved: USA, Former USSR, Japan, India, China, Yugoslavia, Australia, Italy, Poland

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