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Equipments design

CHAPTER FOUR

Equipments design

The contents:

(4-1)Condenser design

(4-1-1) Introduction

(4-2)Reactor design

(4-2-2)Choosing the reactor which will be designed

(4-2-3)The calculation

35

4 Chapter

Equipments design

(4-1-1) Introduction :

When a saturated vapor is brought into contact with a cool surface, heat is transferred

from the vapor to the surface and a film of condensate is produced. the method first put

forward by NUSSELT and later modified by subsequent workers is followed. In Nusselt's

work it is assumed that the temperature of the film at the cool surface is equal to that of the

surface, arid at the other side was at the temperature of the vapor. In practice, there must

be some small difference in temperature between the vapor and the film, although this may

generally be neglected except where non-condensable gas is present in the vapor. (ref.

vol.1 p471)

1. Horizontal, with condensation in the shell, and the cooling medium in the tubes.

2. Horizontal, with condensation in the tubes.

3. Vertical, with condensation in the shell.

4. Vertical, with condensation in the tubes.

(4-1-3) The assumption :

1- Properties of fluid is constant .

2- No heat loses.

3- Steady State System

(4-1-4) The properties of condenser:

We choose horizontal condenser have one shell and two pass , the pitch is square and the

hot martial is the methanol which is pass through the shell have inlet temperature(67cͦ) and

outlet temperature (28.2cͦ) , the cold material passes through the tube for less corrosion

and scale formation which have inlet temperature (25cͦ) and outlet temperature (37cͦ).

36

4 Chapter

Equipments design

T1(methanol in shell)

t1 (water in pipe) t2

T2

Properties Hot fluid (methanol) Could fluid (water)

inlet temperature (c ͦ) 67 25

(4-1-5-1)Heat load (Q) :

Q= m Cp ∆T = (333.9 kg/h) * ( 2.48 kj/kg.c) * (67-28.2c ͦ ) =8.9167 kw

(4-1-5-2)The amount of water required :

8.9167

M = Q/ (Cp ∆T) = = 673.2 kg/h

4.18∗(37−25)

The Cpmean of methanol :

( 67+28.2)

Tmean = = 47.1 C ͦ

2

a= 21.152 b =0.07092 c =2.59*10^-5 d=2.85*10^-8

= 21.152 + (0.07092) * (47) + (2.59*10^-5) (47²) + (2.85*10^-8)(47ᵌ)

=2.4794 kj /kg .c

37

4 Chapter

Equipments design

( 25+37)

Tmean = = 31 C ͦ

2

a = 18.2964 b= 47.212 *10^-2 c = 133.88 *10^-5

= 18.2964 + (47.212 *10^-2) * (31) + (133.88 *10^-5) (31)

= 4.180 kj /kg.c

Mean temperature difference

(𝑇1−𝑡2)− ( 𝑇2−𝑡1)

∆TLm = 𝑇1−𝑡2

𝑙𝑛( )

𝑇2−𝑡1

= 11.97 cͦ

(67−37)− ( 28.2−25)

= (67−37

𝑙𝑛( )

28.2−25

The correction factor

𝑡2−𝑡1 37−25

S= 𝑇1−𝑡1 = 67−25= 0.2

𝑇1−𝑇2 67−28.2

R= = = 3.2

𝑡2−𝑡1 37−25

Then Ft = 0.94

Then the ∆Tm =Ft * ∆TLm = 0.94 * 11.97 = 11.25 c ͦ

(4-1-5-4)The area of condenser :

First we assume Overall all coefficient from table 12-1 vol.6

U = 740 w/m².c ͦ

Q =U A ∆Tm A = Q/U ∆Tm

8.916 ∗10ᵌ

A = 750 ∗ 11.25 = 1.312 m²

The standard dimension for steel tube we obtain it from table in vol.6 12-3

Outside diameter = 20 mm

Inside diameter = 16.8 mm

Length of tube = 4.88 m

Area of one tube = 3.14 * do * L

= 3.14 * 20*10^-3 *4.88 = 0.303 m²

(4-1-5-5)Number of tube :

Nt = trial Area / area at one tube

= 1.312 / 0.303 = 4.3 ≅ 5

Will used square pitch tube bundle diameter that mean

Pt = 1.25 * do

= 1.25 * 20 = 25 mm

Tube bundle diameter :

Db= do ( Nt/k) ^1/n1

The taken of k1 & n1 its depend on pitch if triangular or square and pass number .

38

4 Chapter

Equipments design

Hence

Bundle diameter (Db) = 20 (5/0.156) ^1/2.291

Db = 90.69 mm

Number of tube in center row

Nr =2/3 * Db/ pt

Nr = 2/3 * 0.69/25 = 2.4

(4-1-5-6)Shell side coefficient :

𝑊𝑐 0.0926

ᴦh = 𝐿𝑁𝑡 =4.88∗5= 3.795 * 10^-3 kg/m.sec

𝜌𝑙 (𝜌𝑙− 𝜌𝑣)𝑔

hc = 0.95 kL ( ) ^1/3 *Nr ^ -1/6

𝜇𝑙 ᴦℎ

where

𝑤

kL = condensate thermal conductivity , 𝑚.𝑐

𝑘𝑔

𝜌𝑙 = condensate density , 𝑚³

𝑘𝑔

𝜌𝑣 = vapor density , 𝑚³

𝑁.𝑆

𝜇𝑙 = condensate viscosity , 𝑚²

𝑚

g = gravitational acceleration , 9.81 𝑠𝑒𝑐²

hc = 0.95 *0.1 (3.7∗10−3 ∗0.399∗10 ^−3) ^1/3 *(2.4) ^ -1/6

= 1289.116 w/m².c

(4-1-5-7)Tube side coefficient

Tube cross – section area = 3.14 * d²i = 3.14 * ( 16.8) ²

At = 2.216 *10^ -4 m²

Tube per pass = 5/2

Total flow area = 2.5 *2.216 *10^-4

Total flow area = 5.54 *10^4 m²

Density of water at 31 c ͦ = 993 kg/mᵌ

Mass velocity per area = m/A

= 0.177/5.54*10^-4 =319.49 kg /m² .sec

The velocity per area (ut) = = =0.3217 m/sec

𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 993

hi =

𝑑𝑖 0.2

39

4 Chapter

Equipments design

where

hi = inside coefficient for water , w/m².c

t = water mean temperature , c

Ut = water velocity , m/s

di = inside diameter

4200(1.35+0.02∗(31)∗(0.3217)^0.8

hi = = 7562.49 w/m².c

(16.8∗10−3 )^0.2

Hid= 6000 w/m².c

Hod and hid taken from (table 12-2 volume 6)

(4-1-5-8)The overall all transfer coefficient evidence :

𝑑𝑜

1 1 1 𝑑𝑜 𝑙𝑛( ) 𝑑𝑜 1 𝑑𝑜 1

𝑑𝑖

= ℎ𝑜 + ℎ𝑜𝑑 + + ∗ ℎ𝑖𝑑 + ∗ ℎ𝑖

𝑈 2 𝑘𝑤 𝑑𝑖 𝑑𝑖

where

𝑈 = the overall coefficient , w/m².c

ℎ𝑜 = outside fluid film coefficient , w/m².c

ℎ𝑖 = inside fluid film diameter , w/m².c

ℎ𝑜𝑑 = outside dirt coefficient , w/m².c

ℎ𝑖𝑑 = inside dirt coefficient , w/m².c

𝑘𝑤 = thermal conductivity of the tube wall material , w/m.c

𝑑𝑜 = tube outside diameter , m

𝑑𝑖 = tube inside diameter , m

20

1 1 1 20 𝑙𝑛( ) 20 1 20 1

16.8

= 1289.116 + 6000 + + ∗ 6000 + 16.8 ∗ 7562.5=

𝑈 2∗45 16.8

(4-1-5-9)The pressure drop :

Tube side pressure drop :

𝐿 𝑢 𝜌 𝑢𝑡²

∆ Pt = Np { 8 jf (𝑑𝑖 ) (𝜇𝑤) + 2.5} 2

𝑢

We neglect the (𝜇𝑤) 𝑏𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑢 ≅ 𝜇

Where

Np= number of passes

Μw =viscosity of wall

Ρ =density of water

Ut= velocity of water in tube

40

4 Chapter

Equipments design

𝑢𝑡 𝜌 𝑑𝑖 0.3217∗993∗16.8∗10^−3

Re = ( )= =6702.5 = 6.702 * 10^3

𝜇 0.8007∗10^−3

Then from figure jf = 5.5 *10^-3

4.88

∆pt = 2 {8*5.5*10^-3* (16.8∗10^−3) +2.5}

(4-1-5-10)Shell side pressure drop :

𝐷𝑠 𝐿 𝜌 𝑢𝑠2 𝜇 −0.14

∆Ps = 8 jf (𝑑𝑒) (𝑙𝐵) ∗ ∗ (𝜇𝑤)

2

where

𝑁

∆Ps = shell side pressure drop,

𝑚²

𝑑𝑒 = equivalent diameter , mm

𝑙𝐵 = baffles spacing , m

L = length of one tube , m

Jf = fraction factor

𝜌 = density of mixture , kg/m³

𝑢𝑠 = linear velocity , m/s

LB = Ds

Ds =Db + x = 90.7 +52 = 142.7 mm

(𝑃𝑡−𝑑𝑜)𝐷𝑠∗𝐿𝐵 (25−20)∗142.7∗142.7∗10^−6

As = = =4.07*10^-3

𝑃𝑡 25

𝑊𝑠

Gs = =22.768 kg/sec.m²

𝐴𝑠

1.27

De= 𝑑𝑜 (𝑃𝑡 2 − 0.785 ∗ 𝑑 2 𝑜)

1.27

De = ( 25² - 0.785 *20²) = 19.75 mm

20

𝐺𝑠∗𝑑𝑒 22.768∗19.75∗10^−3

Re = = =1126.98

𝜇𝑤 0.399∗10^−3

(from figure 12-30 volume 6 )

𝐺𝑠 22.768

Us = = =0.029 m/s

𝜌 764

∆Ps = 8 (5*10^-2) (19.75) (142.7) ∗ = 31.75 N/m²

2

= 0.03175 kpa

41

4 Chapter

Equipments design

Specification Value

Number of passes 2

Bundle diameter 90.69 mm

Number of tubes 5

42

4 Chapter

Equipments design

(4-2)Reactor Design:

The reactor: is the heart of chemical process. It is the only place in the process where

raw materials are converted into products, and reactor design is the vital steps in the

overall design of the process. So the knowledge of chemical engineer about the nature and

mechanism of reaction is distinguished him than other in the plant.

,26c

S: 103 ,

60c

The classification of reactor design depends upon the mode of operation, Batch or

continuous phase present: homogeneous or heterogeneous. Reactor geometry: flow pattern

and manner of contacting

1-Continous stirred tank reactor (C.S.T.R.)

2- Tubular reactor

3- Fixed bed, backed bed and moving

4- Fluidized bed

(4-2-2)Choosing the reactor which will be designed :

We select in this project the (C.S.T.R.) .

Know lodgment about (C.S.T.R.): Stirred tank (agitated) reactors consists of tank fitted

mechanical agitated and cooling jacket or coils. They are operated as batch reactors or

continuously. Several reactors may be used in series. The stirred tank reactor can be

considered the basic chemical reactor. They are used for Homogeneous and

Heterogeneous reaction .and where good mass transfer or heat transfer is required and for

reactions that involve finely suspended solids which are held in suspension be the agitation.

some advantages of the (C.S.T.R.)

1-Easly controlling for the temperature .

2-Contacting time is high.(good mass transfer )

3-Economical for large amounts.

4-Preferred in polymerization reactions

43

4 Chapter

Equipments design

(4-2-3)The calculation :

(4-2-3-1)Reactor volume:

Ʈ= 4 hr (Ref.12 )

where

𝑉

Ʈ = 𝑣˳

V:Reactor volume

V= v˳ * Ʈ = 0.9805 * 4 = 3.992 m³

𝐻

= 1- 2

𝐷

H= D * 1.5

𝜋

𝑉 = 4 𝑑2𝐻

𝜋

V= 𝑑 2 (1.5𝑑)

4

𝜋

4.706 = 4 (1.5 )𝑑³

H=2.38 (REACTOR HEIGHT )

𝜋 𝜋

A= 4 𝑑 2 = 4

(1.586)2 = 2 𝑚2 (REACTOR AREA )

44

4 Chapter

Equipments design

(4-2-3-3)Agitator dimensions :

b

D

3

d

D

3

h

D H

5

a r

D

4 a

r

D h

10

b

Agitator long : r = d / 4 = 1.586 / 4 = 0.3965 m

Baffle width : b= d / 10 = 1.586 / 10 = 0.1586 m

(4-2-3-4)Thickness of shell :

𝑝𝑖∗𝑑𝑖

e = (2𝑓 –𝑝𝑖 ) (volume 6)

where

e :minimum thickness required (mm)

Pi :internal pressure (n/𝑚𝑚2 )

f :design stress (n/𝑚𝑚2 ) from plant design standard

di: internal diameter (mm)

design pressure =10% excess of operating pressure

We add 2mm corrosion allowance

Design pressure = 0.1013*1.1 =0.11143 n/m𝑚2

From table (13-2 ( Ref.6)

Design stress at 60 c and selecting stainless steel = 160 n/mm²

0.11143 𝑥 1586

e = 2 𝑥 (160−0.11143) = 0.58 𝑚𝑚

then e =0.58 + 2 = 2.58 mm

45

4 Chapter

Equipments design

Parameter value

Residence time 4 hr

Area of reactor 2 m²

46

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