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4 Chapter

Equipments design

CHAPTER FOUR

Equipments design

The contents:

(4-1)Condenser design

(4-1-1) Introduction

(4-1-2) Type of condenser's

(4-1-3) The assumption

(4-1-4) The properties of condenser

(4-1-5) The calculation

(4-2)Reactor design

(4-2-1)Principal types of reactor


(4-2-2)Choosing the reactor which will be designed
(4-2-3)The calculation

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4-1) Condenser design :

(4-1-1) Introduction :

When a saturated vapor is brought into contact with a cool surface, heat is transferred
from the vapor to the surface and a film of condensate is produced. the method first put
forward by NUSSELT and later modified by subsequent workers is followed. In Nusselt's
work it is assumed that the temperature of the film at the cool surface is equal to that of the
surface, arid at the other side was at the temperature of the vapor. In practice, there must
be some small difference in temperature between the vapor and the film, although this may
generally be neglected except where non-condensable gas is present in the vapor. (ref.
vol.1 p471)

(4-1-2) Type of condenser's :


1. Horizontal, with condensation in the shell, and the cooling medium in the tubes.
2. Horizontal, with condensation in the tubes.
3. Vertical, with condensation in the shell.
4. Vertical, with condensation in the tubes.
(4-1-3) The assumption :
1- Properties of fluid is constant .
2- No heat loses.
3- Steady State System
(4-1-4) The properties of condenser:
We choose horizontal condenser have one shell and two pass , the pitch is square and the
hot martial is the methanol which is pass through the shell have inlet temperature(67cͦ) and
outlet temperature (28.2cͦ) , the cold material passes through the tube for less corrosion
and scale formation which have inlet temperature (25cͦ) and outlet temperature (37cͦ).

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T1(methanol in shell)

t1 (water in pipe) t2

T2

Table(4-1-1) Physical properties :


Properties Hot fluid (methanol) Could fluid (water)

inlet temperature (c ͦ) 67 25

outlet temperature (c ͦ) 28.2 37

mass flow rate (kg/h) 333.6 673.2

cp -(kj/kg.c) at reference 2.48 4.18

density (kg/m^3) 764 993

Liquid density (kg/m^3) 764 0.99564

vapor density (kg/m^3) 0.75

viscosity (μ) (kg/m.sec) 0.000399 0.0008007

(4-1-5) The calculation :


(4-1-5-1)Heat load (Q) :
Q= m Cp ∆T = (333.9 kg/h) * ( 2.48 kj/kg.c) * (67-28.2c ͦ ) =8.9167 kw
(4-1-5-2)The amount of water required :
8.9167
M = Q/ (Cp ∆T) = = 673.2 kg/h
4.18∗(37−25)

(4-1-5-3)The heat capacity at mean temperature :


The Cpmean of methanol :
( 67+28.2)
Tmean = = 47.1 C ͦ
2

Cpmean = a +bT +cT²+ dTᵌ


a= 21.152 b =0.07092 c =2.59*10^-5 d=2.85*10^-8
= 21.152 + (0.07092) * (47) + (2.59*10^-5) (47²) + (2.85*10^-8)(47ᵌ)
=2.4794 kj /kg .c

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The Cpmean of water :


( 25+37)
Tmean = = 31 C ͦ
2

Cpmean = a +bT +cT²+ dTᵌ


a = 18.2964 b= 47.212 *10^-2 c = 133.88 *10^-5
= 18.2964 + (47.212 *10^-2) * (31) + (133.88 *10^-5) (31)
= 4.180 kj /kg.c
Mean temperature difference
(𝑇1−𝑡2)− ( 𝑇2−𝑡1)
∆TLm = 𝑇1−𝑡2
𝑙𝑛( )
𝑇2−𝑡1

= 11.97 cͦ
(67−37)− ( 28.2−25)
= (67−37
𝑙𝑛( )
28.2−25

For one shell pass- two tube passes


The correction factor
𝑡2−𝑡1 37−25
S= 𝑇1−𝑡1 = 67−25= 0.2
𝑇1−𝑇2 67−28.2
R= = = 3.2
𝑡2−𝑡1 37−25

Then Ft = 0.94
Then the ∆Tm =Ft * ∆TLm = 0.94 * 11.97 = 11.25 c ͦ
(4-1-5-4)The area of condenser :
First we assume Overall all coefficient from table 12-1 vol.6
U = 740 w/m².c ͦ
Q =U A ∆Tm  A = Q/U ∆Tm

8.916 ∗10ᵌ
A = 750 ∗ 11.25 = 1.312 m²

The standard dimension for steel tube we obtain it from table in vol.6 12-3
Outside diameter = 20 mm
Inside diameter = 16.8 mm
Length of tube = 4.88 m
Area of one tube = 3.14 * do * L
= 3.14 * 20*10^-3 *4.88 = 0.303 m²
(4-1-5-5)Number of tube :
Nt = trial Area / area at one tube
= 1.312 / 0.303 = 4.3 ≅ 5
Will used square pitch tube bundle diameter that mean
Pt = 1.25 * do
= 1.25 * 20 = 25 mm
Tube bundle diameter :
Db= do ( Nt/k) ^1/n1

The taken of k1 & n1 its depend on pitch if triangular or square and pass number .

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K1 = 0.156 n1= 2.291 (taken from Table (12-4)( Ref.6)


Hence
Bundle diameter (Db) = 20 (5/0.156) ^1/2.291
Db = 90.69 mm
Number of tube in center row
Nr =2/3 * Db/ pt
Nr = 2/3 * 0.69/25 = 2.4
(4-1-5-6)Shell side coefficient :
𝑊𝑐 0.0926
ᴦh = 𝐿𝑁𝑡 =4.88∗5= 3.795 * 10^-3 kg/m.sec
𝜌𝑙 (𝜌𝑙− 𝜌𝑣)𝑔
hc = 0.95 kL ( ) ^1/3 *Nr ^ -1/6
𝜇𝑙 ᴦℎ

where
𝑤
kL = condensate thermal conductivity , 𝑚.𝑐
𝑘𝑔
𝜌𝑙 = condensate density , 𝑚³
𝑘𝑔
𝜌𝑣 = vapor density , 𝑚³
𝑁.𝑆
𝜇𝑙 = condensate viscosity , 𝑚²
𝑚
g = gravitational acceleration , 9.81 𝑠𝑒𝑐²

764 (764− 0.75) 9.8


hc = 0.95 *0.1 (3.7∗10−3 ∗0.399∗10 ^−3) ^1/3 *(2.4) ^ -1/6

= 1289.116 w/m².c
(4-1-5-7)Tube side coefficient
Tube cross – section area = 3.14 * d²i = 3.14 * ( 16.8) ²
At = 2.216 *10^ -4 m²
Tube per pass = 5/2
Total flow area = 2.5 *2.216 *10^-4
Total flow area = 5.54 *10^4 m²
Density of water at 31 c ͦ = 993 kg/mᵌ
Mass velocity per area = m/A
= 0.177/5.54*10^-4 =319.49 kg /m² .sec

𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 319.49


The velocity per area (ut) = = =0.3217 m/sec
𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 993

4200 (1.35+0.02 𝑡 ) 𝑈𝑡 0.8


hi =
𝑑𝑖 0.2

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where
hi = inside coefficient for water , w/m².c
t = water mean temperature , c
Ut = water velocity , m/s
di = inside diameter
4200(1.35+0.02∗(31)∗(0.3217)^0.8
hi = = 7562.49 w/m².c
(16.8∗10−3 )^0.2

Hod =6000 w/m².c


Hid= 6000 w/m².c
Hod and hid taken from (table 12-2 volume 6)
(4-1-5-8)The overall all transfer coefficient evidence :
𝑑𝑜
1 1 1 𝑑𝑜 𝑙𝑛( ) 𝑑𝑜 1 𝑑𝑜 1
𝑑𝑖
= ℎ𝑜 + ℎ𝑜𝑑 + + ∗ ℎ𝑖𝑑 + ∗ ℎ𝑖
𝑈 2 𝑘𝑤 𝑑𝑖 𝑑𝑖

where
𝑈 = the overall coefficient , w/m².c
ℎ𝑜 = outside fluid film coefficient , w/m².c
ℎ𝑖 = inside fluid film diameter , w/m².c
ℎ𝑜𝑑 = outside dirt coefficient , w/m².c
ℎ𝑖𝑑 = inside dirt coefficient , w/m².c
𝑘𝑤 = thermal conductivity of the tube wall material , w/m.c
𝑑𝑜 = tube outside diameter , m
𝑑𝑖 = tube inside diameter , m

20
1 1 1 20 𝑙𝑛( ) 20 1 20 1
16.8
= 1289.116 + 6000 + + ∗ 6000 + 16.8 ∗ 7562.5=
𝑈 2∗45 16.8

=748.09 w/m.c  which is near from the assumption value


(4-1-5-9)The pressure drop :
Tube side pressure drop :
𝐿 𝑢 𝜌 𝑢𝑡²
∆ Pt = Np { 8 jf (𝑑𝑖 ) (𝜇𝑤) + 2.5} 2
𝑢
We neglect the (𝜇𝑤) 𝑏𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑢 ≅ 𝜇

Where
Np= number of passes
Μw =viscosity of wall
Ρ =density of water
Ut= velocity of water in tube

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𝑢𝑡 𝜌 𝑑𝑖 0.3217∗993∗16.8∗10^−3
Re = ( )= =6702.5 = 6.702 * 10^3
𝜇 0.8007∗10^−3

We obtained the fraction factor from( figure 12-24( Ref.6)


Then from figure jf = 5.5 *10^-3
4.88
∆pt = 2 {8*5.5*10^-3* (16.8∗10^−3) +2.5}

∆pt= 3882.4 n/m² =3.882 kpa


(4-1-5-10)Shell side pressure drop :
𝐷𝑠 𝐿 𝜌 𝑢𝑠2 𝜇 −0.14
∆Ps = 8 jf (𝑑𝑒) (𝑙𝐵) ∗ ∗ (𝜇𝑤)
2

where
𝑁
∆Ps = shell side pressure drop,
𝑚²

Ds = shell diameter ,mm


𝑑𝑒 = equivalent diameter , mm
𝑙𝐵 = baffles spacing , m
L = length of one tube , m
Jf = fraction factor
𝜌 = density of mixture , kg/m³
𝑢𝑠 = linear velocity , m/s
LB = Ds
Ds =Db + x = 90.7 +52 = 142.7 mm

(𝑃𝑡−𝑑𝑜)𝐷𝑠∗𝐿𝐵 (25−20)∗142.7∗142.7∗10^−6
As = = =4.07*10^-3
𝑃𝑡 25

𝑊𝑠
Gs = =22.768 kg/sec.m²
𝐴𝑠

Equivalent diameter (square pitch)

1.27
De= 𝑑𝑜 (𝑃𝑡 2 − 0.785 ∗ 𝑑 2 𝑜)
1.27
De = ( 25² - 0.785 *20²) = 19.75 mm
20
𝐺𝑠∗𝑑𝑒 22.768∗19.75∗10^−3
Re = = =1126.98
𝜇𝑤 0.399∗10^−3

Chose 45% baffle cuts then we get jf = 5*10^-2


(from figure 12-30 volume 6 )

𝐺𝑠 22.768
Us = = =0.029 m/s
𝜌 764

142.7 4.88 764 (0.029)^2


∆Ps = 8 (5*10^-2) (19.75) (142.7) ∗ = 31.75 N/m²
2

= 0.03175 kpa

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Table (4-2 ) specification of condenser


Specification Value

Area of condenser 1.312 m²

Number of passes 2

Length of tubes 4.88 m

Tube inside diameter 16.8 mm

Tube outside diameter 20 mm


Bundle diameter 90.69 mm

Number of tubes 5

Material construction Stainless steel

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(4-2)Reactor Design:

The reactor: is the heart of chemical process. It is the only place in the process where
raw materials are converted into products, and reactor design is the vital steps in the
overall design of the process. So the knowledge of chemical engineer about the nature and
mechanism of reaction is distinguished him than other in the plant.

figure(4-2) Reactor flow diagram

S:101c S:102B, 60c


,26c

S: 103 ,
60c

(4-2-1)Principal types of reactor:


The classification of reactor design depends upon the mode of operation, Batch or
continuous phase present: homogeneous or heterogeneous. Reactor geometry: flow pattern
and manner of contacting
1-Continous stirred tank reactor (C.S.T.R.)
2- Tubular reactor
3- Fixed bed, backed bed and moving
4- Fluidized bed
(4-2-2)Choosing the reactor which will be designed :
We select in this project the (C.S.T.R.) .
Know lodgment about (C.S.T.R.): Stirred tank (agitated) reactors consists of tank fitted
mechanical agitated and cooling jacket or coils. They are operated as batch reactors or
continuously. Several reactors may be used in series. The stirred tank reactor can be
considered the basic chemical reactor. They are used for Homogeneous and
Heterogeneous reaction .and where good mass transfer or heat transfer is required and for
reactions that involve finely suspended solids which are held in suspension be the agitation.
some advantages of the (C.S.T.R.)
1-Easly controlling for the temperature .
2-Contacting time is high.(good mass transfer )
3-Economical for large amounts.
4-Preferred in polymerization reactions

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(4-2-3)The calculation :

(4-2-3-1)Reactor volume:

Ʈ= 4 hr (Ref.12 )

v˳= 0.9805 m³/hr

where

𝑉
Ʈ = 𝑣˳

V:Reactor volume

v˳:Volumetric flow rate

V= v˳ * Ʈ = 0.9805 * 4 = 3.992 m³

We added 20 % to the reactor volume :

V= 3.992 *0.2 = 4.706 m³

(4-2-3-2)Reactor residence time:


𝐻
= 1- 2
𝐷

Take it 1.5 (optimum)


H= D * 1.5
𝜋
𝑉 = 4 𝑑2𝐻
𝜋
V= 𝑑 2 (1.5𝑑)
4
𝜋
4.706 = 4 (1.5 )𝑑³

D= 1.586 (REACTOR DIAMETER )


H=2.38 (REACTOR HEIGHT )
𝜋 𝜋
A= 4 𝑑 2 = 4
(1.586)2 = 2 𝑚2 (REACTOR AREA )

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(4-2-3-3)Agitator dimensions :
b
D
3
d
D
3
h
D H
5
a r
D
 4 a
r
D h
 10
b

Agitator height : a = d/5 =1.586 / 5 = 0.3172 m d

Agitator height from base : h = d / 3 = 1.586 / 3 = 0.5286 m D


Agitator long : r = d / 4 = 1.586 / 4 = 0.3965 m
Baffle width : b= d / 10 = 1.586 / 10 = 0.1586 m

figure(4-3) Agitator dimensions

(4-2-3-4)Thickness of shell :
𝑝𝑖∗𝑑𝑖
e = (2𝑓 –𝑝𝑖 ) (volume 6)

where
e :minimum thickness required (mm)
Pi :internal pressure (n/𝑚𝑚2 )
f :design stress (n/𝑚𝑚2 ) from plant design standard
di: internal diameter (mm)
design pressure =10% excess of operating pressure
We add 2mm corrosion allowance
Design pressure = 0.1013*1.1 =0.11143 n/m𝑚2
From table (13-2 ( Ref.6)
Design stress at 60 c and selecting stainless steel = 160 n/mm²

0.11143 𝑥 1586
e = 2 𝑥 (160−0.11143) = 0.58 𝑚𝑚

and for corrosion allowance = 2 mm


then e =0.58 + 2 = 2.58 mm

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Table (4-3) Summary of reactor design

Parameter value

Type of reactor CSTR

Diameter of reactor 1.586 m

Length of reactor 2.38 m

Volume of reactor 4.706 m³

Residence time 4 hr

Thickness of reactor 2.58 mm

Area of reactor 2 m²

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