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Job Analysis

Job Analysis is a process to identify and determine in detail the particular job duties and
requirements and the relative importance of these duties for a given job. Job Analysis is a
process where judgments are made about data collected on a job.

Job analysis, which is also called job review or job classification, is a systematic
exploration of the tasks, duties, responsibilities and accountabilities of a job. The process
of job analysis involves collection of background information, selection of representative
jobs to be analyzed, collection of job analysis information, development of a job
description and job specification.

Job Analysis of Human Resource

The formal and systematic methods of job analysis are functional job analysis, the
position analysis questionnaire, and the critical incident technique. Job analysis is useful
for preparing job descriptions and job specifications which are the basis for most of the
HR activities like recruitment, training, performance appraisal, industrial relations wage
and salary administration

Job design determines the way in which work should be performed which, in turn, affects
the degree of authority of an employee over the work; the scope of decision-making by
the employee; the number of tasks an employee has to perform; and employee
satisfaction. The main objectives of job design are to meet organization requirements
such as higher productivity, operational efficiency and quality; and to simultaneously
satisfy the psychological and sociological needs of the employees.

The Job; not the person An important concept of Job Analysis is that the analysis is
conducted of the Job, not the person. While Job Analysis data may be collected from
incumbents through interviews or questionnaires, the product of the analysis is a
description or specifications of the job, not a description of the person.

1. Purpose of Job Analysis

The purpose of Job Analysis is to establish and document the 'job relatedness' of
employment procedures such as training, selection, compensation, and performance

Determining Training Needs

Job Analysis can be used in training/"needs assessment" to identify or develop:

 training content
 assessment tests to measure effectiveness of training
 equipment to be used in delivering the training
 Methods of training (i.e., small group, computer-based, video, classroom...)

Job Analysis can be used in compensation to identify or determine:

 skill levels
 compensable job factors
 work environment (e.g., hazards; attention; physical effort)
 responsibilities (e.g., fiscal; supervisory)
 required level of education (indirectly related to salary level)

Selection Procedures
Job Analysis can be used in selection procedures to identify or develop:

 job duties that should be included in advertisements of vacant positions;

 appropriate salary level for the position to help determine what salary should be
offered to a candidate;
 minimum requirements (education and/or experience) for screening applicants;
 interview questions;
 selection tests/instruments (e.g., written tests; oral tests; job simulations);
 applicant appraisal/evaluation forms;
 orientation materials for applicants/new hires
Performance Review
Job Analysis can be used in performance review to identify or develop:

 goals and objectives

 performance standards
 evaluation criteria
 length of probationary periods
 duties to be evaluated


Methods of collecting job analysis information include:


Methods of observation include direct observation, work methods analysis, critical

incident technique.

1. Direct observation

Direct Observation is a method of job analysis to observe and record behavior / events /
activities / tasks / duties while something is happening.

2. Work methods analysis

Work methods analysis is used to describe manual and repetitive production jobs, such as
factory or assembly-line jobs. Work methods analysis includes time and motion study and
micro-motion analysis.

3. Critical incident technique (CIT model).

Critical incident technique is a method of job analysis used to identify work behaviors that
classify in good and poor performance.

Interview method is a useful tool of job analysis to ask questions to both incumbents and
supervisors in either an individual or a group setting. Interview includes structured
Interviews, unstructured interview, open-ended questions.


Questionnaire methods include 6 techniques as follows:

5. Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ model)

PAQ model is a questionnaire technique of job analysis. It developed by McCormick,

Jeanneret, and Mecham (1972), is a structured instrument of job analysis to measure job
characteristics and relate them to human characteristics. It consists of 195 job elements that
describe generic human work behaviors.

6. Functional job analysis (FJA model)

FJA model is a technique of job analysis that was developed by the Employment and
Training Administration of the United States Department of Labor. It includes 7 scales
(numbers) that measure: 3 worker-function scales: measure % of time spent with: data,
people, things; 1 worker-instruction scale; 3 scales that measure reasoning, mathematics,

7. Work Profiling System (WPS model)

WPS model is a questionnaire technique of job analysis, is a computer-administered system

for job analysis, developed by Saville & Holdsworth, Ltd.

9. Common Metric Questionnaire (CMQ model)

CMQ model is a technique of job analysis that was developed by Harvey as a “worker-
oriented” job analysis instrument designed to have applicability to a broad range of
exempt and nonexempt jobs. It includes 41 general questions of background section, 62
questions of contacts with people, 80 items of decision making, 53 items of physical and
mechanical activities, 47 items of work setting.

10. Fleishman Job Analysis System (FJAS model)

FJAS model is is a technique of job analysis that describe jobs from the point of view of
the necessary capacities. It includes 52 cognitive, physical, psycho-motor, and sensory
ability, each of the categories consists of two parts – an operational and differential
definition and a grading scale.


What are the uses of job analysis information?

Job analysis information is used in human resources on a regular basis to define:

 Job description: A job description gives an account of the work and duties
associated with a particular job. It describes the way the job is performed currently.
Most job descriptions contain the following information:

 the job name

 summary description of the job
 a list of duties for the job
 a list of organizational responsibilities related to the job

 Job specifications: Job specifications define the characteristics of the activities

associated with the job and given in the job description. They describe the skill sets
and qualifications that a candidate for the job should possess.

 Job classification: Job classification groups similar jobs into classes and families.
This simplifies the overview for managers and is essential for streamlined
functioning of an organization.
 Job evaluation: Job evaluation involves finding out the monetary worth of a job
and helps to set up equitable pay structures.

 Job design: Job design integrates employee needs with productivity needs to
maximize worker efficiency.

The conclusions draw from this data will often be:

 Identifying training needs of personnel

 Creating recruitment strategies
 Making performance reviews

Without proper job analysis by the human resources department, it is difficult for any
organization to remain competitive and be able to attract and retain talent.

Security Officer Job Description

This security officer sample job description can assist in your creating a job application
that will attract job candidates who are qualified for the job. Feel free to revise this job
description to meet your specific job duties and job requirements.

Security Officer Job Responsibilities

Maintains safe and secure environment for customers and employees by patrolling and
monitoring premises and personnel.

Security Officer Job Duties:

 Secures premises and personnel by patrolling property; monitoring surveillance

equipment; inspecting buildings, equipment, and access points; permitting entry.
 Obtains help by sounding alarms.
 Prevents losses and damage by reporting irregularities; informing violators of
policy and procedures; restraining trespassers.
 Controls traffic by directing drivers.
 Completes reports by recording observations, information, occurrences, and
surveillance activities; interviewing witnesses; obtaining signatures.
 Maintains environment by monitoring and setting building and equipment controls.
 Maintains organization's stability and reputation by complying with legal
 Ensures operation of equipment by completing preventive maintenance
requirements; following manufacturer's instructions; troubleshooting malfunctions;
calling for repairs; evaluating new equipment and techniques.
 Contributes to team effort by accomplishing related results as needed.

Security Officer Skills and Qualifications:

Lifting, Surveillance Skills, Deals with Uncertainty, Judgment, Objectivity, Dependability,

Emotional Control, Integrity, Safety Management, Professionalism, Reporting Skills

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back—not to mention the backs of your customers. It starts with making an informed
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out and bring them aboard
Lab Assistant Job Description

We are looking for a talented and highly-analytical Lab Assistant to join our growing team.
As the Lab Assistant, you will work with our senior staff to process samples, perform tests,
and record and analyze results. The successful candidate will have in-depth knowledge of
lab procedures and understand the importance of maintaining a clean workspace by
following all lab regulations for health and safety.
In addition to having strong attention to detail, you must be responsible and demonstrate
excellent communication skills. If you thrive in fast-paced working environments that
require a professional with drive and exceptional analytical skills, then you could be our
ideal candidate.
 Prepare samples for testing using various laboratory equipment.
 Maintain all laboratory records.
 Comply with the correct procedures, policies, and health and safety regulations.
 Conduct laboratory tests, analyze results, and document your findings.
 Stay informed with the latest industry trends, techniques, and best practices.
 Document all activities, results and report back to management.
 Clean and sterilize equipment and work area.
 Collect and prepare research and information needed for studies.
 Classify and label samples.
 Undertake basic administrative tasks such as filing and answering telephones.
Bachelor’s degree in Medical Technology, Biology or relevant field.
A minimum of 2 years’ experience in a similar role.
Good understanding of laboratory information systems and automated laboratory
A critical thinker with strong attention to detail.
Excellent verbal and written communication skills.
Outstanding analytical abilities.

Skills and Qualifications:

Biology lab assistants may consider completing a graduate degree to advance their careers. Graduate
degree programs generally require students to conduct independent research projects on topics in
biology. These courses help students become familiar working within a lab setting and prepare them for
administrative job opportunities and advanced research.


Individuals possessing an undergraduate, graduate or doctoral degree in biological science may be

qualified for lab management jobs. Lab managers typically train and supervise assistants working within
the lab, complete research and ensure that the lab remains in compliance with all government
regulations. Those with an advanced degree may also qualify to conduct independent research and teach
for colleges and universities.

In summary, biology lab assistants work in the lab to assist scientists with experiments, equipment
maintenance, research, or in college courses and need a bachelor's degree and lab experience.