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Adversity Quotient and its Relationship to the Personality-Temperament


Traits of Educators in Selected High Schools

Chapter I

The Problem and Its Background

Introduction

"You may encounter many defeats, but you must not be defeated. In fact, it may be

necessary to encounter the defeats, so you can know who you are, what you can rise from and

how you can still come out". - Maya Angelou

No matter who you are, where you are, how powerful or influential you may be, you

are prone to adversities. Dr. Paul Stoltz defines Adversity Quotient as “the capacity of the

person to deal with the adversities of his life. As such, it is the science of human resilience.”

Teachers play one of the most important roles in molding the learners to become a

productive member of the society. The child's future is in the hands of their teachers. They are

the molders and makers of dreams. But unfortunately, teachers are human beings. They also

encounter adversities in and out of the room. They may be smiling in front of the class but

behind those smiles are problems that they are hiding.

In 2010, 1,331 teachers in UK were reported suffering from anxiety; in the first four

months of 2012, the figure has already reached 1, 260, according to Teacher Support Network.

(TES Magazine 2012).In Chicago (2012) a story hit the papers about a teacher who
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Adversity Quotient and its Relationship to the Personality-Temperament
Traits of Educators in Selected High Schools

committed suicide. She wrote in her suicide note that the major reason for this drastic act was

work-related. Those cases simply imply that some teachers have low Adversity Quotient.

La Haye (2000) defined temperaments as the combination of inborn traits that

subconsciously affects all our behavior. These traits, which are passed on by our genes, are

based on hereditary factors and arranged at the time of conception. It is a person’s

temperament that makes that person outgoing and extrovert or shy and introvert, while

personality is the outward expression of oneself, which may or may not be the same as the

person’s character, depending on how genuine that person is.

This study focused on Adversity Quotient and the Personality-Temperament traits of

teachers in selected High Schools. It aimed to determine if there is a significant relationship

between Adversity Quotient and Personality-Temperament traits of the respondents. This

study provided research-based information on the profile of educators in three different

schools. Essential information was gathered in discovering the educators' hidden resource that

can spell success or failure in their performances and practices.

Background of the Study

Life is truly unfair and it is naturally difficult. We don’t consider life as it is without

facing any challenge or problem. Cliché, isn’t it? Well, that’s the reality. That is the nature and

part of being a human and a decent creation of God. For life is a never ending story; we often

face difficulties, hardships, trials, obstacles and other words that are synonymous with the

word problem. Life gives us the ability to fulfill our inner purpose even if struggles occur.

Brunkhorst (1999), a researcher, once penned that adversities are a part of living and people
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Adversity Quotient and its Relationship to the Personality-Temperament
Traits of Educators in Selected High Schools

choose the way they react to each adversity in their lives. Many times, it will be senseless,

unfair, painful and beyond our control. Yes, life is really hard and it’s unfair that we encounter

adversities and sorrows which are difficult to bridge. No one can deny it. However, people do

not respond in the same way to identical situations. Nevertheless, we each have the God-

given inner ability to try such terrible situations to be able to advantage in life. That is why

there are some measurements to determine the ability of an individual to handle adversities,

which is known as Adversity Quotient.

Adversity Quotient (AQ) is the science of human resilience (Stoltz, 2000). Resilience

refers to the ability of an individual to recover or adjust easily to misfortune and adversity.

This coping may result in the individual “bouncing back” to a previous state of normal

functioning. According to Stoltz (2000), Adversity Quotient measures one’s ability to prevail

in the face of adversity. It explains how one responds to adverse situations, and how one rises

above adversity. Stoltz (2000) said that life is like mountain climbing and that people are

born with a core human drive to ascend. Ascending means moving toward one’s purpose no

matter what their goals are. Adversity Quotient is the underlying factor that determines one’s

ability to ascend.

Stoltz (2000) further indicated that “people who successfully apply AQ perform

optimally in the face of adversity – the challenges, big and small, that confront us each day.

In fact, they not only learn from these challenges, but they also respond to them better and

faster. For businesses and other organizations, a high Adversity Quotient workforce translates

to increased capacity, productivity, and innovation as well as lower attrition and higher

morale.”
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Adversity Quotient and its Relationship to the Personality-Temperament
Traits of Educators in Selected High Schools

Temperament is the behavior style or how of behavior as contrasted with the abilities,

or what of behavior, and the motivations, or why of behavior. It is the characteristic

phenomenon of an individual’s emotional nature, including his susceptibility to emotional

stimulation, his customary strength and speed of response, the quality of his prevailing

mood, and all the peculiarities of fluctuation and intensity of mood. It determines and is the

result of unique combinations of personality preference. Over the years, temperaments have

been given a lot of names, including sanguine, melancholic, choleric, and phlegmatic.

Allport(1937) asserted that temperament is the raw material from which personality is

fashioned.

But what are the factors that can influence the personality temperament of an

individual? According to Limpingco and Tria (1991), the origins of personality include

genetics, socio-cultural factors, learning, existential humanistic consideration, and

unconscious mechanism. Oni (2001) also noted that genetics, self-image, experiences in life,

attitude and choices about those experiences, and friends have significant effect on

personality. From this context, the researchers got the idea that they should test educators’

capacity to rise quickly from defeats, and frequent frustrations as they perform their duties

and responsibilities

In the turbulent time of teaching, teachers feel all kinds of pressure such as in school,

their superior, their students, their family and people they associate with. For many teachers,

life is a painful tug of war filled with conflict demands. Of course, it can create hardships,

stress and serious depression to people who can’t cope, communicate or solve problems.

Lastly, it can affect their performance in school which correlates to their effectiveness in
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Adversity Quotient and its Relationship to the Personality-Temperament
Traits of Educators in Selected High Schools

teaching.

This study provided research- based information on the profile of educators in selected

public, private and science high schools. Through this study, the researchers were able to find

essential information in discovering the Adversity Quotient and its effect to the personality-

temperament traits of the teachers. In particular, this study aims to establish the

interrelationship between adversity quotient and personality-temperament traits of teachers.

Theoretical Framework

The theoretical framework for this study is primarily anchored on the leader-trait

paradigm, on the concept of Adversity Quotient, and on theories of temperament/personality.

Dr. Paul Stoltz defines Adversity Quotient as “the capacity of the person to deal with

the adversities of his life. As such, it is the science of human resilience.”

For many years, researchers have devoted a great deal of their studies to Intelligence

Quotient (IQ) and Emotional Quotient (EQ), which are considered to be determinants of

success and superior accomplishment. A decade ago (1997), Paul Stoltz introduced a new yet

interesting & intriguing concept – Adversity Quotient (AQ), which tells how well one

withstands adversity and his ability to triumph over it. In fact, more researches recently have

shown that measurement of AQ is a better index in achieving success than IQ, education or

even social skills.

By understanding the concept of AQ we can better understand how we and others react to
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Adversity Quotient and its Relationship to the Personality-Temperament
Traits of Educators in Selected High Schools

challenge and adversity in all aspects of our lives. In fact, how people respond to adversity is

a strong indicator of ability to succeed in many endeavors.

There are three types of people:

1. Quitter: Abandons their aspirations because it is too difficult.

2. Camper: Grow weary of the hike and find a comfortable plateau on which to

hide from adversity.

3. Climber: possibility thinkers who never allow obstacles to get in their way of

achieving their aspirations. They never forget the power of the journey over the

destination. They simply embrace the challenge.

Adversity Quotient is learned: rewire your brain for success. It is the difference between

pessimism and optimism. Those who respond to adversity optimistically outlive pessimists.

The four dimensions of AQ – CO2RE

 Control

The extent to which someone perceives they can influence whatever happens next.

- How much control do you perceive to have over the adverse event?

It determines resilience, health, and tenacity.


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Adversity Quotient and its Relationship to the Personality-Temperament
Traits of Educators in Selected High Schools

 Origin and Ownership

The likelihood that someone’s will actually does anything to improve the situation he is in,

regardless of his formal responsibilities.

- Who or what was the origin of the adversity?

- To what degree do I own the outcomes?

- Accountability – to what degree am I responsible?

It determines accountability, responsibility, action, and engagement.

 Reach

The extent to which someone perceives an adversity will “reach into” and affect other aspects

of the situation or beyond.

- How far will the outcomes affect the other areas of my life?

It determines burden, stress, energy, and effort; it tends to have cumulative effect.

 Endurance

The length of time the individual perceives the situation / adversity will last, or endure.

- How long will the adversity last?

- How long will the cause of the adversity last?

It determines hope, optimism, and willingness to persevere.


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Adversity Quotient and its Relationship to the Personality-Temperament
Traits of Educators in Selected High Schools

This study also finds supports on the four types of temperament according to LaHaye

(1984), which described temperament as a proto-psychological interpretation of the ancient

medical concept of humor and suggests that four bodily fluids affect human personality traits

and behaviors.

There are four types of temperaments. They are sanguine (pleasure-seeking and

sociable), choleric (ambitious and leader-like), melancholic (introverted and thoughtful), and

phlegmatic (relaxed and quiet). Each of the four types of humors corresponded in ancient

times to a different personality type. The sanguine temperament is fundamentally impulsive

and pleasure-seeking; sanguine people are sociable and charismatic. They tend to enjoy social

gatherings, making new friends and tend to be boisterous. They are usually quite creative and

often daydream.

However, some alone time is crucial for those of this temperament. Sanguine can also

mean sensitive, compassionate and romantic. Sanguine personalities generally struggle with

following tasks all the way through, are chronically late, and tend to be forgetful and

sometimes a little sarcastic. Often, when they pursue a new hobby, they lose interest as soon

as it ceases to be engaging or fun. They are very much people persons. They are talkative and

not shy. Sanguine people generally have an almost shameless nature, certain that what they

are doing is right. They have no lack of confidence.

The choleric temperament is fundamentally ambitious and leader-like. They have a lot

of aggression, energy and/or passion, and try to instill it in others. They can dominate people

of other temperaments, especially phlegmatic types. Many great charismatic military and
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Adversity Quotient and its Relationship to the Personality-Temperament
Traits of Educators in Selected High Schools

political figures were choleric. They like to be in charge of everything. However, choleric

people also tend to be either highly disorganized or highly organized. They do not have in-

between setups; not only one extreme to another. As well as being leader-like and assertive,

choleric people also fall into deep and sudden depression. Essentially, they are very much

prone to mood swings.

The melancholic temperament is fundamentally introverted and thoughtful.

Melancholic people often were perceived as very (or overly) pondering and considerate,

getting rather worried when they could not be on time for events. Melancholic people can be

highly creative in activities such as poetry and art and can become preoccupied with the

tragedy and cruelty in the world. Often they are perfectionists. They are self-reliant and

independent; one negative part of being a melancholic is that they can get so involved in what

they are doing they forget to think of others.

The phlegmatic temperament is fundamentally relaxed and quiet, ranging from

warmly attentive to lazily sluggish. Phlegmatic people tend to be contented with them. They

are accepting, affectionate and kind. They may be receptive and shy and often prefer stability

to uncertainty and change. They are consistent, relaxed, calm, rational, curious, and observant,

qualities that make them good administrators. They can also be passive-aggressive.

Every individual is a combination of the four temperaments, which means that a

person may find out his or her temperament blend by assessing his or her primary and

secondary temperaments.
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Adversity Quotient and its Relationship to the Personality-Temperament
Traits of Educators in Selected High Schools

Conceptual Framework

Independent Variables Dependent Variable

 Adversity Quotient  Personality-

a) Control Temperament Traits


a) Sanguine
b) Ownership b) Choleric
c) Melancholic
c) Reach d) Phlegmatic

d) Endurance

Figure 1.1.The conceptual framework above shows the interplay of the

independent variables which are the adversity quotient and of the dependent

variable which is the personality-temperament of educators in selected schools.


Statement of the Problem

This study determined the relationship between adversity quotient and personality-

temperament traits. It answered the following:

1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of the following:


1.1. gender;
1.2. age; and
1.3. length of service?

2. How may the Adversity Quotient of the respondents be described in terms of the

following:
2.1. Control;
2.2. Ownership;
2.3. Reach; and
2.4. Endurance?

3. What is the Personality- Temperament profile of the respondents?

4. Is there a significant relationship between the respondents’ adversity quotient

level and their personality-temperament traits?

Hypothesis

 There is no significant relationship between adversity quotient and

personality- temperament traits of the respondents`

Scope and Limitation


This study was conducted in three schools; public, private and science high

schools. It focused on the adversity quotient and personal characteristics as correlates of

the personality- temperament traits of educators in selected public, private and public

high schools. The study was conducted during theacademic year 2015- 2016.

Significance of the Study

The researchers believe that the results of the study are beneficial to the

following:

Department of Education Officials

The result of the study will provide an opportunity for the Department of

Education officials in understanding the Adversity Quotient and personality-

temperament traits of an individual specifically the teachers. It can serve as basis in

planning and designing new training programs.

School Administration

This study will help school administration in understanding their abilities to be

strong and stay focused in facing adversities that will lead to self- improvement.

Teachers

This study is mainly focused on the teachers. It will help them to be aware of their

Adversity Quotient and personality temperament traits. This study will serve as their

basis for self- improvement, helping them develop their potential and leadership skills.
Students

Students are not exempted from facing problems and struggles; therefore, this

study will be beneficial for them to have insights and information on how to deal with

adversities or simply how they will turn problems into opportunities.

Future Researchers

This study may provide other researchers with basis and future reference in

undertaking further studies along this line.

Definition of Terms

To facilitate a better understanding of this study, the following terms were

conceptually and operationally defined:

Adversity. This term refers to any difficulty or hardship that an individual

encounters arising from the workplace which is the school.

Adversity Quotient. This term refers to the total score obtained on the

Adversity Quotient Profile developed by Dr. Paul Stoltz version 8.1 (2009) as a

measure on how one handles adversity.

Adversity Quotient Profile. This term refers to a self-rating questionnaire on-line

designed by Dr. Paul Stoltz (2009) to measure an individual’s style of responding to

unfavorable situations and consisted of four dimensions.

Choleric Temperament. This is one of the four temperaments considered in this

study, which is described as fundamentally ambitious and leader-like. Choleric people


have a lot of aggression, energy, and/or passion, and try to instill it in others.

Control. This is a dimension of the Adversity Quotient Profile which

measures the degree of control one has over a difficult event.

Endurance. This is a dimension of the Adversity Quotient Profile which

measures the length of time over which good and bad events and their consequences will

last.

Melancholic Temperament. This is one of the four temperaments considered in

this study, which is described as fundamentally introverted and thoughtful. Melancholic

people often were perceived as very (or overly) pondering and considerate, getting rather

worried when they could not be on time for events.

Ownership. This is a dimension of the Adversity Quotient Profile which

measures the extent of origin and ownership of the difficult situations, one’s

responsibility and accountability for improving the situations.

Phlegmatic Temperament. This is one of the four temperaments considered in

this study, which is described as fundamentally relaxed and quiet, ranging from warmly

attentive to lazily sluggish. Phlegmatic tend to be content with themselves. They are

accepting, affectionate and kind.

Reach. This is a dimension of the Adversity Quotient Profile which measures the

degree on how good and bad events get in touch with other areas of life.

Sanguine Temperament. This is one of the four temperaments considered in this

study, which is described as fundamentally impulsive and pleasure-seeking; sanguine

people are sociable and charismatic.

Temperament. This refers to the characteristic phenomena of an individual’s


emotional nature, including his susceptibility to emotional stimulations, his customary

strength and speed of response, the quality of his prevailing mood, and all peculiarities

of fluctuation and intensity in mood (Allport, cited in Strelau, 1998)


Chapter II

Review of Related Literature and Studies

To further understand the present study, an analysis of the related literature as well as

studies is necessary. This study made use of both local and foreign references, since the

adversity quotient is a rather new study in the Philippines; therefore, the researcher could not

find any local literature whereas the related literature focuses on the relationship between the

AQ and other issues frequently encountered in daily life.

Foreign Literature

Resilience refers to the ability to cope or to give a successful response to high risk or

adversity as measured by the four CORE scales of the adversity quotient. It is an outcome of

both individual characteristics and environmental causes. Resilience is viewed by the

individual from the inside as he or she responds to the outside or external influences and

events, viz. Adversity.

According to Goleman (1997), Richard Davidson, the Director of the Laboratory for

Effective Neuroscience at the University of Wisconsin conducted a landmark series of brain

imaging studies that tested two groups of people: one identified as highly resilient to life’s ups

and downs, the other easily upset by them. Davidson tracked their brain function as they

performed stressful tasks, such as writing about the most upsetting experience in their lives or

performing difficult math problems under time pressure


Goleman (1997) said that resilient people have a remarkably rapid recovery from

stress. A study of store managers at a large American retail chain store found that the

managers who were most tense, beleaguered, or overwhelmed by job pressures ran stores with

the worst performance, as measured four ways: by net profits, sales per square foot, sales per

employee, and per dollar of inventory investment. And those who stayed most composed

under the same pressures had the best per store sales records. Davidson said that the resilient

people had already started to inhibit the distress during the stressful encounter. He also

considers these people as optimistic and action-oriented. If something goes wrong in their

lives, they immediately start to think about how to make it better.

Another study found that those who reacted to stress with hardiness bear the physical

burden of stress much better, coming through with less illness. Indicators of hardiness include

the ability to: (a) stay committed, (b) feel in control, (c) be challenged rather than threatened

by stress, (d) see work as strenuous but exciting, and (e) consider challenge as a change to

develop rather than as an enemy.

Biologically, the brain chemicals that generate enthusiasm to respond to challenges are

different from those that are activated as one responds to stress and threat. They are at work

when a person’s energy is high, his or her efforts are maximal, and his or her moods are

positive. The biochemistry of these productive states revolves around activating the

sympathetic nervous system and the adrenals that secrete chemicals called catecholamines.

The catecholamines, adrenaline and non-adrenaline, arouse a person to action in a more

productive way than the frantic urgency of cortical. Once the brain goes into its emergency

mode, it starts pumping out cortical as well as vastly elevated levels of catecholamines, but a

person does his or her best work at a lower level of brain arousal only when the catecholamine
system is engaged. In a sense then, there are two kinds of stress-good and bad-and two

distinct biological systems at work. There is also a balance when the sympathetic nervous

system is pumping: our mood is positive, and our ability to think and react is optimal. Here

lies our peak performance.

The New Webster’s Dictionary defines adversity as a “misfortune”. There are other

synonyms of adversity. These include stress, conflict, hardship, misfortune, danger, and

challenge. In this study, adversity refers to a given situation in which a person could be

hindered in getting what he or she desires. Adversity can be both a general condition and a

particular situation.

In this study, adversity is functionally defined as strain, hardship, challenge and

emotional or occupational stresses. The level of adversity starts within a person himself and

goes beyond the individual and the workplace and lastly, to the society.

Dr. Paul G. Stoltz (1997) is the proponent of what is now known today as Adversity

Quotient (AQ). According to him, AQ determines whether a person stands strong and true, he

or she will be crippled or destroyed, or continue to grow when he or she is faced with

adversity. It is also a foundational factor of success that can determine how, and to what extent

his or her attitude, abilities, and performance are manifested in the world. AQ can be enriched

and strengthened because it is learned.

In 1997, Dr. Paul G. Stoltz introduced AQ in his book Adversity Quotient: Turning

Obstacles into Opportunities. This groundbreaking discovery was based on his 19 years of

research and 10 years of application. Adversity Quotient or AQ is a measure of a person’s

ability to manage the adversity that he or she faces every day. People who cannot handle
adversity become easily overwhelmed and emotional, then pull back and stop trying. Those

who handle adversity well become the leaders of today and tomorrow.

Stoltz (1997) discussed that the adversity quotient tells how well a person withstands

adversity and his ability to surmount it. It can also predict who will overcome adversity and

who will be crushed, who will exceed expectations of their performance and potential, and

who will fall short. Lastly, it can predict who gives up and who prevails. Breakthroughs in

science explain why people, groups, associations and societies quit or camp while others

persevere. Findings also disclosed that Cognitive Psychology, Psychoneuroimmunology, and

Neurophysiology are the building blocks of the Adversity Quotient that results in the new

understanding, measure and set of tools that enhance human efficiency.

The first building block Cognitive Psychology deals with a one-process perception,

information and situation that have control or mastery over one’s life. It is based on the

studies of the concepts of learned helplessness, empowerment, attribution theory, explanatory

styles, optimism, hardiness, resilience, self-efficacy and locus of control, which are needed in

understanding one’s motivation, effectiveness and performance.

According to Stoltz,(2000) the higher one’s AQ is the more likely he or she will be

resilient in facing adversity, be a top performer and be able to sustain high performance, be

authentically optimistic and be able to take necessary risks, thrive on change, remain healthy.

In addition, a person having a higher AQ is energetic, vital, takes on difficult and complex

challenges, perseveres, innovates to find solutions, is an agile problem solver and thinker and

lastly they learn, grow and improves.


The second building block, which is Psychoneuroimmunology, deals with the direct

link between one’s response to adversity and his or her mental health. Also, one’s response to

adversity influences his immune functions, recovery from surgery, and vulnerability to life-

threatening diseases. Control is essential to health and longevity. If the pattern of response to

adversity is weak it can cause depression.

The third building block is Neurophysiology. It explains how the brain is ideally

equipped to form habits. An individual’s habit of response to adversity can be interrupted and

instantly changed and if changed, old habits wither while new one’s flourish.

Adversity quotient has four sub-sections or dimensions: C, O2, R, and E.C (control)

refers to the amount of perceived control one has over and adverse event or situation. O2

(origin and ownership) refer to how a person searches for the cause of the adverse events and

to the degree to which an individual is willing to own the outcome of the adverse action.

Owning the outcome reflects accountability. R (reach) is a manifestation of how far the

adversity reaches into other aspects of an individual’s life. Lastly, E (endurance) is the

measure of endurance, which reviews how long the adversity and its cause will last in one’s

own life.

Adversity quotient also explains the three levels of adversity in a pyramid shaped

model. This model begins from the top and works down to the individual explaining the two

effects. First, it shows and describes societal, workplace and individual adversities people face

every day in their lives, and second, it shows how an individual changes positively, affecting

the workplace and the larger scale, the society.


According to Stoltz (2000), Analyzing AQ does not simply mean as high or as low, it

falls on a continuum. The higher the score, the more likely a person will enjoy the benefits of

a high AQ. Though an individual’s AQ is high or very high, there are still ways to improve

and better understand and achieve one’s success. At the same time he or she can help other

people to continue to ascend.

Everyone needs to make sense of the world. There may be instances when people are

perplexed how others are making sense of things and how different their view is compared

with ours. Every person have a distinct explanatory style, or pattern of responding to life’s

events. The nature of the pattern determines how we react and all that follows: for example,

those who believe that a given setback is far-reaching and long-lasting are more likely to

believe that what they do will not matter. This pattern is also known as “learned helplessness.”

It has taken close to thirty-eight years of research into how patterns of thought and

emotion---such as explanatory style—affect human behavior for it to be fully acknowledged.

But after more than 1,500 studies into these patterns we have gradually and fundamentally

changed how we view our species. As a longtime student-turned-practitioner of human

performance, the researchers saw the concrete, measurable benefits these understandings and

breakthroughs can provide.

Martin Seligman, Ph. D., of the University of Pennsylvania, as mentioned by Stoltz

(2000), is most prominent among the dozens of accomplished scientists who have contributed

to this field of research. His groundbreaking work on the land-mark theory of “learned

helplessness” opened a flood of research into depression, optimism, health, and performance.
At its most basic, AQ is the precise, measurable, unconscious pattern of how you

respond to adversity. But AQ is much more than a measure. It contributes a vital piece to what

is becoming a grand unification theory of human behavior, drawing from nearly four decades

of wisdom and scientific research from some of the world’s top thinkers. Once you get a

picture of how AQ works, you will be able to apply the following science to unravel some of

the fundamental mysteries of individuals and collective endeavor. (Stoltz, 2000)

Local Literature

LaHaye (2000) discussed that there is nothing more fascinating about people than their

inherited temperament. It is temperament that provides each human being with the

distinguishing qualities that makes each of us individually unique. Temperament is the unseen

force underlying human action, a force that can destroy a normal and productive human being

unless it is disciplined and directed. Temperament provides both our strengths and

weaknesses. Although we like to think only for our strengths, everyone has weaknesses.

According to chapter 1 of his book Spirit Controlled Temperament (2000), the theory

of the four temperaments is not perfect; no theory of human behavior is. However, it is the

oldest on record, going back more than three thousand years: In Proverbs 30:11-14 the wise

man saw four kinds of people. About five hundred years later, the four were given names by

Hippocrates, said to be the father of modern medicine. Galen, a Greek doctor, came up with a

detailed list of the strengths and weaknesses of the four around A.D. 200. This has remained

pretty much intact throughout history and is still the prevailing position in Europe.

Unfortunately, Sigmund Freud and his unscientific theories that based human behavior on
environment and background rather than on inherited tendencies became the predominant

view in America.

LaHaye (2000) Temperament is the combination of inborn traits that subconsciously

affects all our behavior. These traits, which are passed on by our genes, are based on

hereditary factors and arranged at the time of conception. Six people contribute through the

gene pool to the makeup of every baby: two parents and four grandparents. Some authorities

suggest that we may get more genes from our grandparents than our parents. The alignment of

temperament traits, though unseen, is just as predictable as the color of eyes, hair, or size of

body.

It is a person’s temperament that makes that person outgoing and extrovert or shy and

introvert. Doubtless you know both kinds of people who are siblings—born to the same

parents. Similarly, it is temperament that makes some people art or music enthusiasts, while

others are sports or industry minded.

Personality is the outward expression of oneself, which may or may not be the same as

a person’s character, depending on how genuine that person is. Often personality is a pleasing

façade for an unpleasant or weak character. Many are acting a part today on the basis of what

they think they should be as a person, rather than what they really are. This is a formula for

mental and spiritual chaos. It is caused by following the human formula for` acceptable

conduct. The following are the various temperament combinations from Tim Lahaye’s

book entitled Why You Act The Way You Do and what they look like when they are combined

together. Once you have identified your “primary temperament” and the temperament that is

a` close second for you, you are then ready to see how two temperaments looks when joined
together. When looking at the various temperament options below, your “primary

temperament” will be listed first—for example, if your primary temperament is a Sanguine

and your runner-up temperament is a Choleric, they would be listed as “San/Chol” under the

heading “Sanguine,” not as “Chol/San” under the heading “Choleric” (your secondary

temperament); your primary temperament needs to be listed first.

San/Chol – This is the strongest “extrovert” of all the blends because both primary

types are extroverted. They are people-oriented and enthusiastic but with the resolutions of

the Choleric tempering the lack of organization of the Sanguine. He is almost always a sports

enthusiast and is ideal in sales. He can talk too much and can be obnoxious if threatened. The

forgetfulness of the Sanguine and the caustic nature of the Choleric may make them hurtful

without realizing it.

San/Mel- They are highly emotional people whose moods can fluctuate from highs to

lows and back again quickly. The Sanguine outgoing nature often allows the Melancholy’s

critical nature to surface too easily. It is very easy for a San/Mel to “get down” on themselves,

and to realize their potential, it is best that they work with others.

San/Phleg- the overpowering outgoing nature of Sanguine is tempered by the gracious

Phlegmatic. These are extremely happy and carefree individuals who live to help people.

They would not purposely hurt anyone but they must fight a lack of workplace motivation;

they would rather visit than work.

Chol/San- The second strongest extrovert is an active and purposeful individual; he is

almost fearless and has high levels of energy. Whatever his profession, his brain is always

active and engaged. His weaknesses combine the quick anger of the Sanguine with the
resentment of the Choleric. He gets AND gives ulcers. He may leave people (including spouse

and children) shell-shocked and resentful because of his angry outbursts.

Chol/Mel- the choleric/Melancholy is very industrious and capable. He is both

industrious and detailed. He combines verbal aggressiveness with sharp attention `to detail.

He is very competitive and forceful. He can be autocratic and opinionated with `work `habits

that `keep after details until the `job `is completely finished. He finds interpersonal

relationships difficult due to the hard-to-please nature of the Choleric and the perfectionist

nature of the Melancholy.

Chol/Phleg- This is the most subdued of the outgoing temperaments. He is extremely

capable in the long run though he may not impress you that way at first. He is organized and a

good planner. He often gets more accomplished than other temperaments because he always

thinks in terms of enlisting others to help him. His weaknesses include a tendency to quietly

harbor bitterness rather than letting it out. Acknowledging weaknesses is difficult for him and

he tends to worry about his performance in life activities.

Phleg/San- This is the easiest to get along with being congenial, happy, and people

oriented. They make excellent administrators and other jobs that involve getting along with

people. He may lack motivation and discipline and may fall short of his true capabilities. He

may “putter around” for years without making progress.

Phleg/Chol- This is the most active of the introverts but he’ll never be a ball of fire.

He can be an excellent counselor because he is an active listener. He is practical and helpful

and patient. He may lack motivation and may become stubborn if threatened. He may also
have a tendency toward being sedentary and passive. He needs to be around other people as

he is externally motivated.

Phleg/Mel- This is gracious and quiet, does the proper thing and is dependable. He

wobbles between patience and criticism and may tend toward negativism. They can be afraid

of over-extending themselves so may avoid involvement in a group.

The weaknesses of this man revolve around fear, selfishness, negativism, criticism,

and lack of self-image. Once a PhlegMel realizes that only his fears and negative feelings

about himself keep him from succeeding, he is able to come out of his shell and become an

effective man, husband, and father. Most PhlegMels are so afraid of over-extending

themselves or getting over involved that they automatically refuse almost any kind of

affiliation.

Mel/San- They are detailed and organized; the Melancholy is a tempered by the

outgoing and warm Sanguine. He makes an excellent teacher as his organized side is well

versed in the facts and his Sanguine side makes him enjoyable to listen to. If he goes into

sales it will be sale that calls for exacting detail and the presentation of many facts. He is an

emotional person – from being moved to tears to being critical and hard on others. Both

temperaments can be fearful which may take this an insecure person with a poor self-image.

MelChol- This is both a perfectionist and a driver which may lead him into law or

medicine. They mix decisiveness and determination. Because of the critical nature of the

Melancholy they may be very difficult to please. If they become negative about someone or

something it will have a tendency to stay with them for a long time. Their combination can

lead them to “nit-pick” others and be revengeful to those they have a grudged against.
Humanly speaking, nothing has a more profound influence on your behavior than your

inherited temperament. According to the book of Tim LaHaye entitled UNDERSTAND YOUR

MAN Secrets of the Male Temperament (1996), the combination of your parents’ genes and

chromosomes at conception, which determined your basic temperament nine months before

you drew your first breath, is largely responsible for your actions, reactions, emotional

responses, and to one degree or another, almost everything you do.

Most people today are completely unaware of this extremely powerful influence on

their behavior. Consequently, instead of cooperating with and using it, they often try to make

something of themselves that they were never intended to be. This not only limits them

personally and vocationally, but it also affects their immediate family and often spoils other

interpersonal relationships. It is one of the reasons so many people say, “I don’t like myself”,

or “I can’t find myself.”

Foreign Studies

Williams (2003) examined the relationship between a principal’s response to adversity

and student achievement, the relationship between principal and teacher’s response to

adversity, and principals’ perceptions of adversity in education. Using an ex post facto non-

experimental research design, principal (n=17) and teachers (n=79) from the Flagstaff Unified

School District of Arizona were asked to complete an Adversity Quotient (AQ) measure

(Stoltz,1997). AQ scores were compared to standardized student 51 achievement data from

the past two years. Additional qualitative data were gathered through five principal

interviews.
The results of this study showed that students attained higher achievement scores in

schools with higher AQ principals. The study also found that teachers’ perceived control over

their work environment may influence principal/teacher relationships and student

achievement. These findings suggest that principal response to adversity may influence school

climate, teacher self-efficacy, and student achievement. The interview data supports the

quantitative findings, and adds a rich description of the manner in which the principals view

educational adversity and their response to it.

Johnson (2005) determined the relationship between Explanatory Style and AQ and

examined the existence of correlations between each of the constructs and performance in a

high-adversity occupation, sales. The study involved 112 western area sales region of a

leading Fortune 500 company in the computer hardware industry. The findings revealed that

there was a significant relationship between AQ and performance for short-term employees.

Low (2010) conducted a study that aims to determine the resilience levels of

university administrators, specifically academic deans and department chairs, within a state

university system. This quantitative study utilized the survey method to determine the

resilience levels of academic deans and department chairs within a state university system.

Responses were received from 35 deans and 123 chairs, each of whom completed the

Personal Resilience Questionnaire, a survey developed by Conner Partners 52 that measures

individuals’ resilience and addresses how the respondent acts, feels, or thinks given various

situations. Results are provided for each of the seven characteristics of resilience: Positive:

The World, Positive: Self, Focused, Flexible: Thoughts, Flexible: Social, Organized and

Proactive.
The results of the surveys illustrated the levels of resilience for both deans and chairs

and compared their results against the more than 64,000 other individuals who have

completed the instrument. The Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression method was then

utilized in determining an individual’s resilience. The researcher was thus able to identify that

academic deans, on the average, exhibited higher levels of resilience than did department

chairs, and subsequently that female administrators, on the average, were more resilient than

males.

It was also discovered that when compared against individuals from other industries

and professions that academic administrators exhibited above-average levels of resilience on

almost every resilience characteristic. Furthermore, it was shown that gender, institutional

type, experience, size of the college/department 53 supervised, parental influence, formal

training and incentive were influential in determining resilience levels.

Local Studies

Cantuba et al (2014) investigated the relationship between teachers’ adversity quotient

and teaching styles and their teaching performance. Fifty one faculty members from the PUP

San Pedro Campus were the respondents of this study. It used descriptive correlation method

and a survey questionnaire was employed to gather the data needed.

Findings revealed that of the AQ’s four dimensions, respondents possess a high extent

level in the Control and Ownership dimensions, while moderate in the Reach and Endurance

dimensions. Using the Pearson-r, the study revealed that there exist no relationship between

the respondents’ AQ level and their teaching styles. Further, the study found out there is no

relationship between the respondents’ teaching style and their teaching performance. It can be
deduced from the findings, that the respondents’ AQ level is not a factor of their teaching style

nor their teaching style to their teaching performance.

Villaver (2009) examined the significant differences in the Adversity Quotient levels

of female grade school teachers of a public and a private school in Rizal province. One

hundred and five (105) female grade school teachers from a public (74) and a private (31)

Schools in Rizal province were included in this study. The researcher used the Adversity

Response Profile 7.0 to measure the Adversity Quotient revels of the teacher-respondents. It is

a fourteen-item situational questionnaire that can be finished within 15-20 minutes. Another

tool used was the demographic questionnaire designed by the researcher in order to obtain

relevant background information about the teacher-respondents.

The z-test statistical method was used to determine the significant difference between

the Adversity Quotient levels of the teacher-respondents. Her study revealed that simple

majority of the female teacher-respondents is in the early adulthood stage of development. In

terms of civil status and socio-economic status, majority of the teacher-respondents are

married and fall within the middle class. The greatest concentration of number of teacher-

respondents was also found to have 10 years or less length of teaching experience. Findings

concerning AQ and their demographic profile indicate that majority of the respondents that

falls under the early adulthood stage category possess moderate AQ, while their older

counterpart possess moderately low AQ. When it comes to civil status, respondents who are

single were found to have equal percentages for moderate and moderately low AQ's. Simple

majority of married respondents possess moderate AQ level. Teachers who have teaching

experience of ten years or lower were found to have moderate AQ, whereas great number of

respondents with moderately low AQ were those with eleven to twenty years of experience.
Findings regarding socio-economic status indicate that majority of respondents

belonging in the lower class socio-economic status have moderate AQ level while those in the

middle class shows utmost number of concentration within the moderately low AQ level. The

results of the study disclosed also that both public and private female grade school teacher

respondents have moderate Adversity Quotient levels. Finally, it was discovered that no

significant difference exists between the Adversity Quotient level of public and private female

grade school teachers. Computed z was .29, which was much lesser than the critical value of z

(.6368 at .05 level of significance)

Lazaro (2004) conducted and presented her study on adversity quotient on

performance level in the 5th Asian Regionally Congress of Industrial Relations Association

(IIRA) held in Korea. She studied the missing factor of success and performance among

selected middle managers. The interesting concept of Adversity Quotient introduced by Stoltz

in 1997 was used. The capacity of each employee is the basis of organizational capacity where

the manager handles the smallest unit. These managers handled multifaceted tasks being

exposed to different people of various organizational levels creating demands greater speed,

capacity and capabilities. A multi-score assessment or 360- degree feedback process was used

in determining the performance of a middle manager.

The instrument viewed performance accurately by getting input of supervisors, peers,

or colleagues, subordinates, and clients from all angles. The study employed the descriptive,

co relational method of research to determine the relationship of adversity quotient and

performance level of middle manager using the 360-degree feedback system. The selected

middle manager of the different departments of the City of Manila showed a high correlation
between AQ and performance level of the respondents as revealed by the 360- degree

feedback program.

Huijuan (2009) conducted a study entitled “The Adversity Quotient and Academic

Performance among College Students at St. Joseph’s College, Quezon City”. The main

purpose of this study was to find the relationship between the Adversity Quotient and

academic performance of the selected respondents in the school year 2008-2009 of St.

Joseph’s College, Quezon City. Two hundred and eighty (280) male and female college

students from the College of Arts and Sciences and the Institute of Nursing were included in

this study through randomized sampling technique. It was also the goal of the researcher to

determine whether the profile variables or psychosocial correlates examined affect the

Adversity Quotient and academic performance of the selected student respondents. The

researcher concluded that: (1.) Sex difference did not affect the selected respondents’

Adversity Quotient; however, course, and year level significantly affected the said

respondents’ Adversity Quotient. (2.) There is a significant relationship between Adversity

Quotient of the respondents as measured by the major instrument ARP Version 8.1of the study

and their academic performance as reflected in their GPA during the first semester of the

school year 2008-2009.

Aquino (2013) conducted a study entitled Adversity Quotient, Leadership Style and

Performance of Secondary School Heads and Commitment to Organizational Values of

Teachers in the province of Tarlac. The respondents of the study were the 62 secondary school

heads 328 teachers of the Division of Tarlac Province. It showed that secondary school heads

have significantly little control and influence in adverse situations. The leadership styles as to
transformational and transactional have the same descriptive level. However, the computed

grand mean for transformational leadership is higher than in transactional leadership.

Bantang et al (2013) in their thesis entitled The relationship of Personal

Characteristics and Job Satisfaction to Adversity Quotient of Police Officers in Manila Police

Officers in Manila Police District showed that there is no significant relationship between

gender, civil status, age and length of service, except for educational assessment and AQ

Control dimension and the significant relationship between the Job Satisfaction level and

Adversity Quotient, though the AQ Ownership dimension correlates with the Job Satisfaction

level of the respondents, there is no significant relationship between job satisfaction and

Adversity Quotient in Control, Reach, Endurance and Over-all AQ of the respondents.

Ferrer (2009), as cited by Aquino (2013), conducted a study that determines the

relationship of personal characteristics, leadership styles, and job satisfaction to the adversity

quotient® of the academic heads of selected state colleges and universities in the National

Capital Region.

The researcher utilized the descriptive method using the Adversity Response Profile

(ARP) by Dr. Paul Stoltz, Leadership Style Survey by Dan Clark, and Job Satisfaction

Questionnaire by Alita Roxas. These questionnaires were distributed to 121 academic heads

during school year 2008-2009 in the selected State Colleges and Universities in the National

Capital Region. The percentages and weighted mean were computed for the profile of the

respondents in terms of personal characteristics (age, civil status, gender, educational

attainment, and number of years of service), leadership style (participative, delegative, and

autocratic) and job satisfaction level. In testing the hypothesis, the chi-square was used.
Results of the study showed that majority of the academic head respondents belong to middle

range of Adversity quotient Control, Ownership, Reach and Endurance dimensions. In terms

of over-all Adversity quotient level, respondents belong to average range. Majority of the

respondents possess a participative style of leadership.

The study showed no significant relationship between the personal characteristic and

Control, Ownership, and Endurance dimensions and the over-all AQ of the respondents.

However, there found to be a significant relationship between the respondents educational

attainment and Reach dimension. It implies that their academic attainment and experiences

maximize their potentials enabling them to think right and to make wise and just decisions. It

also showed that there was no significant relationship between Leadership Style and

Adversity Quotient Ownership, Reach, and Endurance dimensions and over-all adversity

quotient of the respondents. However, there found to be a significant relationship between the

respondents’ leadership style and Control dimension. With regard to the relationship between

job satisfaction and adversity quotient, the study showed that there is no significant

relationship. Therefore, there is no indication that Adversity Quotient determines the level of

job satisfaction of the academic head respondents.

Synthesis of the Related Studies

The reviewed studies tried to explain and discover the significance of the Adversity

Quotient to the personality-temperament traits of educators. The reviewed studies discussed

above reflect some semblance and differences with the current study but altogether provided
useful insights to the researchers about concepts of Adversity Quotient and personality-

temperament traits.

Dr. Paul G. Stoltz introduced Adversity Quotient. The groundbreaking discovery was

based on his 19 years of research and 10 years of application.

The study of Williams (2003), Johnson (2005), and Low (2010) all dealt on topics

relating to Adversity Quotient in terms of foreign studies.

As to the local setting, the studies of Cantuba et al (2014), Villaver (2009), Lazaro

(2004), Huijuan (2009), and Bantang (2013) were the most related studies.

Tim Lahaye’s book entitled “Why You Act the Way You Do” discussed personality-

temperament traits of a person.


Chapter III

Research Methodology

This chapter presents the research method, description of the respondents,

sampling technique, instrumentation and data gathering procedures, the research locale

and lastly the statistical treatment of data.

Research Method

In this study, descriptive-correlation design was used. Descriptive method was

employed with the use of questionnaire as the major instrument for gathering data. We

chose this method because of its appropriateness to the problem. Descriptive method

allows quantitative and qualitative description of current status, traits, nature and

characteristics of the subjects.

Best (1998) discussed that descriptive research method typically employs a survey

or an assessment approach for its purpose is to collect information that permits one to

discuss the characteristics of person and their perceptions. It will present facts concerning

nature and status of the study.

Description of the Respondents


The respondents of the study were the high school teachers of selected public,

private and science high schools.

Population and Sample

The population of this study were from three different high schools namely;

Sampaguita Village National High School (public) with 117 total number of teachers,

Mater Ecclesiae School (private) with 77 total number of teachers, Muntinlupa Science

High School (science) with 50 total number of teachers. Therefore, there were 244 total

number of population in this study.

Slovin’s Formula was used to find the sample size. The formula is:

N
n=
1+ N e 2

Where: n is the sample

N is Population

e is the margin of error

1 is the numerical coefficient

Therefore,
N
n=
1+ N e 2
244
n=
1+244 (0.05)2

244
1+244 (0.0025)

244
1+0.61

244
1.61

=151.55 or 152

152 was the total number of respondents in this study composed of different

teachers from selected public, private and science high schools.

To get the total number of respondents for each school, the researchers used the

frequency distribution.

Percentage. This was used as a descriptive statistics to describe the relationship of a part

to whole.

Formula:

f
= x 100
N

Where :

% = percentage

f = frequency of responses, and

N = total number of respondents

f
= x 100
N
152
= x 100
244

=0.62 0 r 62

Public – 117 x 0.62 = 73 respondents

Private – 77 x 0.62 = 48 respondents

Science – 50 x 0.62 = 31 respondents

73 + 48+31 = 152

Sampling Technique

In this study, the researchers used the cluster sampling technique. The respondents

were composed of teachers from public, private and science high schools from San Pedro

and Muntinlupa City.

Instrumentation

The researchers used three different questionnaires to gather data. The first part

aims to gather information on the respondents’ profile in terms of age, gender, civil

status, educational attainment, length of service and socio-economic status. The second

part was the Adversity Quotient Profile adopted from Paul T. Stoltz. It is used to measure

the Adversity Quotient (C.O.R.E) of the respondents. The third part aims to assess the

Personality Temperament Traits Test taken from Tim LaHaye’s book “Why You Act The

Way You Do”. It is used for describing the personality temperament of the respondents. It

helps in assessing the respondents’ temperament potential strengths and weaknesses.


The Scale of the levels of Respondent’s Adversity Quotient

Weighted Mean Equivalent Verbal Interpretation


4.22 to 5.00 5 Very High
3.42 to 4.21 4 High
2.62 to 3.41 3 Moderately
1.81 to 2.61 2 Low
1.00 to 1.80 1 Very Low

Data Gathering Procedures

To gather data for this study, the researchers:

1. Prepared the letter of request for concerned school administrators of selected

public, private and science high schools.


2. Upon approval of the request, the researchers personally administered and

retrieved the questionnaires from the target respondents.


3. After retrieving the questionnaires, the researchers classified, encoded and

summarized the gathered data.


4. The researchers analyzed and interpreted the findings of the study following

the sequence of the problems posted in chapter 1 with the help of statistician.

Research Locale

This study was conducted in three different schools namely Sampaguita Village

National High School, Mater Ecclesiae School and Muntinlupa Science High School.

Sampaguita Village National High School, a public school, is located inMolave St.
Sampaguita Village Brgy. Calendola,City of San Pedro, Laguna and was founded in 1977.

This is headed by Dr. Marina de Robles. It has two campus extensions (Adelina 1 and

Southville 3A). Mater Ecclesiae School, a private school, was founded in 1989. It is

headed by Sr. Gemma S. Daseco DVMI and located in Villa Olympia Subdivision, San

Pedro, Laguna. Lastly, Muntinlupa Science High School is located at 999 Buendia St.

Brgy. Tunasan, Muntinlupa City. This school is headed by Ms. Eden B. Binaday and it

was founded in the year 1998.

Statistical Treatment of Data

 To answer statement of the problem number 1, this study used the frequency and

percentage distribution for the profile of the respondents.

Frequency and Percentage. This is used as a descriptive statistics to describe the

relationship of a part to whole.

Formula:

f
= x 100
N

Where :

% = percentage

f = frequency of responses, and

N = total number of respondents


 To answer statement of the problem number 2, this study used the Arithmetic

Mean to get the extent of the respondent’s adversity quotient in terms of Control,

Ownership, Reach and Endurance.

Arithmetic Mean. This is used to determine the mean or average score of the Adversity

Quotient profile of the respondents.

∑X
X́ =
n

Where:

X́ = mean

∑ X = sum of the scores, and

n = number of cases

 To answer statement of the problem number 3, the researchers used the

computation of the Personality temperament Profile designed by Tim LaHaye.

SCORING CRITERIA:

Score how each word best describes you:


1 “That is definitely not me!” 3 "That is mostly me."

2 “That is usually me.” 4 "That is definitely me."


The questionnaire was divided into four sections. The respondents are to fill out

the checklist with numbers 1-5 according to the scoring criteria. To get the personality

temperament trait of each respondent, the researchers have to eliminate all the items
which are scored as 1 and 2. They added up all the 3’s, 4’s and 5’s in each section and

wrote the total score at the bottom of each appropriate section. The section with the

highest score is the primary temperament of the respondent.

Percentage. This is used as a descriptive statistics to describe the relationship of a part to

whole.

Formula:

f
= x 100
N

Where:

% = percentage

f = frequency of responses, and

N = total number of respondents

 To answer statement of the problem number 4, the researchers used Chi-Square

Test of Independence to determine the significant relationship between Adversity

Quotient and Personality-Temperament traits of the respondents.

Chi-Square test of Independence.It is used to determine if there is

a significant relationship between two nominal (categorical) variables.

The frequency of one nominal variable is compared with different values

of the second nominal variable.


y c 2
( Oij −E ij )
x =∑ ❑ ∑ ❑
2

i−1 j−1 E ij

= Chi-Square test of Independence

= Observed value of two nominal variables

= Expected value of two nominal variables

Before computing the Chi-Square, first we have to calculate the expected value of

the two nominal variables. We can calculate the expected value of the two

nominal variables by using this formula:

c y

∑ Oi− j ∑ O k− j Where
Ei− j = k−1 k−1
N

= expected value

= Sum of the ith column

= Sum of the kth column

N = total number

Degree of freedom is calculated by using this formula:

DF = (r-1)(c-1)
Where

DF = Degree of freedom

r = number of rows

c = number of column

Chapter IV

Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data


This chapter presents, analyzes, and interprets the data gathered from the survey

questionnaire which focused on the relationship between personality- temperament traits

and adversity quotient of educators in selected public, private and science high schools.

1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of the following:

1.1. gender;
1.2. age; and
1.3. length of service?

Table 2.1

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the respondents

in terms of gender

GENDER Frequency Percentage


Male 46 30.26%
Female 106 69.74%

Total 152 100%


The table shows the profile of the respondents in terms of gender. It can be seen that the total

number of respondents is 152, 106 or 70% are female while 46 or 30% are male.

Figure 2.1

Male
Female
Table 2.2

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the respondents

in terms of age

AGE Frequency Percentage


29 yrs. old and below 66 43.42%
30- 39 yrs. Old 43 28.29%
40- 49 yrs. Old 27 17.76%
50 yrs. old and above 16 10.53%
Total 152 100%
As shown on the table, majority of the respondents are from ages 29 years old and below with 66

(43.42%); 43 of the respondents are from ages 30-39 years old (28.29%);while 16 or 10.53%. are

50years old and above.

Figure 2.2
29 years old and
below
30 - 39 years Old
40-49 years Old
50 years Old and
above

Table 2.3

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the respondents

in terms of length of service

Length of service Frequency Percentage


5 years and below 82 53.95%
6 - 10 years 34 22.37%
11 – 15 years 11 7.24%
16 years and above 25 16.45%
Total 152 100%

The table shows that 54% or 82 of the respondents have 5 years and below experience in the field

of education, the highest; while 34 of the respondents (22%) have 6-10 years of experience; 25 of

the respondents (17%) have 16 years and above experience in the field; and 11, the lowest

frequency, with 7% have 11-15 years of experience in the field of education.

Figures 2.3

5 years and below


6 - 10 years
11 – 15 years
16 years and above

2. How may the Adversity Quotient of the respondents be described in terms of

the following:

2.1. Control;

2.2. Ownership;

2.3. Reach;

2.4. Endurance?
Table 3.1
The level of the respondents’ AQ in terms of Control
The table revealedthe level of the respondents’ AQ in terms of Control.Item number 15, ‘You are not

Control

Description WM VI

1. You suffer a financial setback. 3.11 Moderate

7. People respond unfavourably to 3.15 Moderate

your latest ideas.


13. Your personal and work 3.17 Moderate

obligations are out of balance.


15. You are not exercising regularly 3.26 Moderate

though you know you should.


17. Your computer crashed for the 3.20 Moderate

third time this week.


General Weighted mean 3.229 Moderate level

exercising regularly though you know you should’, got the highest mean score of 3.26. Item number 1, ‘You

suffer financial setback’, got the lowest mean score of 3.11. All itemsare interpreted as moderate. Overall,

theAQlevel of the respondents in terms of Control is moderate with a total mean score of 3.299.

Table 3.2
The level of the respondents’ AQ in terms of Ownership

Ownership
Description WM VI
2. You are overlooked for a position. 3.41 Moderate
6. Someone you respect ignores your 3.36 Moderate

attempt to discuss an important

issue.
11. Your workplace is under staffed 3.46 High
16. Your organization is not meeting 3.61 High

its goal.
18. The meeting you are in is a total 3.15 Moderate

waste of time.
General WM 3.398 Moderate Level
The table revealed the level of the respondents’ AQ in terms of Ownership. As shown in the table, item

number 16, ‘Your organization is not meeting its goal’, got the highest mean score of 3.61 interpreted as

high. Item number 18, ‘The meeting you are in is a total waste of time’, got the lowest mean score of 3.15

interpreted as moderate. Overall, the AQ of the respondents in terms of ownership is moderate with a mean

score of 3.398.

Table 3.3
The level of the respondents’ AQ in terms of Reach
Reach
Description WM VI
3. You are criticized for a big 3.18 Moderate

project that you just completed.


5. The high-priority project you are 3.19 Moderate

working on gets cancelled.


9. You hit every red light on your 3.38 Moderate

way to an important appointment.


12. You miss an important 3.26 Moderate

appointment.
20. Your boss adamantly disagrees 3.25 Moderate

with your decision.


General WM 3.185 Moderate Level
This table revealed the level of the respondents’ AQ in terms of Reach. It can be gleaned in the table that

item number nine, ‘You hit every red light on your way to an important appointment’, got the highest mean

of 3.38. Item number three, ‘You are criticized for a big project that you just completed’, got the lowest

mean of 3.18.Overall, the AQ of the respondents in terms of reach is on the moderate level with a total

mean of 3.185.

Table 3.4
The level of the respondents’ AQ in terms of Endurance

Endurance

Description WM VI

4. You accidentally delete an 3.30 Moderate


AQ Weighted Verbal
important email.
DIMENSIONS Mean Interpretation
8. You are unable to take a much- 3.47 High
Control 3.229 Moderate
Ownership 3.398 Moderate
needed vacation
Reach 3.185 Moderate
10. After extensive searching, you 3.52 High
Endurance 3.375 Moderate
can’t find an WM
General 3.297 Moderate
important document.
14. You never seem to have enough 3.60 High

money.
19. You lost something that is 2.99 Moderate

important to you.
General WM 3.375 Moderate Level

This table revealed the level of the respondents’ AQ in terms of Endurance. As shown in the table,

item number 14, ‘You never seem to have enough money’, got the highest mean score of 3.60, which is

interpreted as high. Item number 19, ‘You lost something that is important to you’, got the lowest mean

score of 2.99 interpreted as moderate. Overall, AQ of the respondents in terms of Endurance is on the

moderate level with a total mean score of 3.375.

Table 3.5
Respondents’ Overall Adversity Quotient

The table revealed the Adversity Quotient level of the respondents by dimension. It can be gleaned

that with a general mean of 3.297, respondents possess a moderate level of AQ.
3. What is the Personality-Temperament trait of the respondents?

Table 4.1

Personality-Temperament traits of the Respondents

Personality- Frequency Percentage

Temperament Traits
Sanguine 37 24.34%
Choleric 76 50%
Melancholy 23 15.13%
Phlegmatic 16 10.53%
Total 152 100
This table revealed the Personality- Temperament Traits of the respondents. 50% of the

respondents are choleric, 24.34% are sanguine, 15.13% are melancholic and 10.53% are

phlegmatic. This implies that half of the teachers are ambitious and leader-like.
4. Is there a significant relationship between Adversity Quotient and Personality-

Temperament trait of the respondents?

Table 5.1

Chi-square Tests result of Cross Tabulation between Control and

Personality- temperament traits

Value Df Asymp.Sig.
(2-sided)
a
Pearson Chi-square 15 .332 9 .082
Likelihood Ratio 12.820 9 .171
Linear-by-Linear Association .001 1 .977
N of Valid Cases 152
The findings revealed that there is no significant evidence of relationship between Control and Personality-

Temperament Traits of the respondents. The relationship between Control and Personality-Temperament

Traits was determined by chi-square Test of Independence. (Chi-square =15.332, DF=9, P>0.001)
Table 5.2

Chi-square Tests result of Cross Tabulation between Ownership and

Personality- temperament traits

Value Df Asymp.Sig.
(2-sided)
a
Pearson Chi-square 19 .520 12 .077
Likelihood Ratio 18.501 12 .101
Linear-by-Linear Association .003 1 .960
N of Valid Cases 152
The findings revealed that there is no significant evidence of relationship between Ownership and

Personality- Temperament Traits of the respondents. The relationship between Ownership and Personality-

Temperament Traits was determined by the chi-square Test of Independence. (Chi-square =19.520, df=12,

P>0.001).

Table 5.3

Chi-square Tests result of Cross Tabulation between Reach and

Personality- temperament traits

Value Df Asymp.Sig.
(2-sided)
a
Pearson Chi-square 19 . 489 12 .077
Likelihood Ratio 22.286 12 .034
Linear-by-Linear Association 1.321 1 .250
N of Valid Cases 152
The findings revealed that there is no significant evidence of relationship between Reach and Personality-

Temperament Traits of the respondents. The relationship between reach and Personality-Temperament

Traits was determined by chi-square Test of Independence. (Chi-square =19.489, df=12, P>0.001).

Table 5.4

Chi-square Tests result of Cross Tabulation between Endurance and

Personality- temperament traits

Value Df Asymp.Sig.
(2-sided)
a
Pearson Chi-square 4 .519 9 .874
Likelihood Ratio 4.139 9 .902
Linear-by-Linear Association .947 1 .330
N of Valid Cases 152
The findings revealed that there is no significant evidence of relationship between Endurance and

Personality- Temperament Traits of the respondents. The relationship between Endurance and Personality-

Temperament Traits was determined by chi-square Test of Independence .( Chi-square =4.519, df=9,

P>0.001).

Chapter V

Summary of Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations

Summary

The study investigated the relationship of respondents’ adversity quotient to their

personality- temperament traits. And to do this, the researchers visited three schools

namely, Sampaguita Village National High School, Mater Ecclesiae School, and

Muntinlupa Science High School, gathering all the data needed for the study. To

determine the adversity quotient profile and personality- temperament traits of the

teachers, descriptive statistics was applied. For the relationship between adversity
quotient and personality-temperament traits of teachers, Chi- square was used.

The study revealed the following findings:

1. Profile of the respondents

1.1. The findings revealed that of the 152 total numbers of respondents, majority

are female with 106 or 69.74% while 46 or 30.26% are male.

1.2. Based on the findings, majority of the respondents fall under the group of 29

and below, a total of 66 respondents (43.42%) and the least number of respondents falls

under the age group of 50 and above with 16 respondents (10.53%).

1.3. The findings showed that majority of the respondents’ lengths of service is

below five years with 82 number of respondents (53.95%) while the least number of

respondents fall under 11-15 length of service with 11 respondents (7.24%).

2. Adversity Quotient

2.1. The findings showed the level of the respondents’ AQ in terms Control. Item

number 15, ‘You are not exercising regularly though you know you should’, got the

highest mean score of 3.26, while item number 1, ‘You suffer a financial setback’, got the

lowest mean score of 3.11.

2.2. The findings showed the level of the respondents’ AQ in terms of Ownership.

Item number 16, ‘Your organization is not meeting its goal’, got the highest mean score

of 3.61, while item number 18, ‘The meeting you are in is a total waste of time’, got the

lowest mean score of 3.15.


2.3. The findings showed the level of the respondents’ AQ in terms of Reach.

Item number nine, ‘You hit every red light on your way to an important appointment’, got

the highest mean score of 3.38, while item number three, ‘You are criticized for a big

project that you just completed’, got the lowest mean score of 3.18.

2.4. The findings showed the level of the respondents’ AQ in terms of

Endurance. Item number 14, ‘You never seem to have enough money’, got the highest

mean score of 3.60, while item number 19, ‘You lost something that is important to you’,

got the lowest mean score of 2.99.

2.5. The findings showed that control, ownership, reach, and endurance have a

moderate level with a total weighted mean of 3.297.

3. Personality- Temperament Traits

The findings showed that majority of the respondents are choleric with a frequency of 76

(50%), while minority of the respondents is phlegmatic with a frequency of 16 or 10.53%

of the total sample.

4. The relationship of adversity quotient and personality- temperament traits of educators

4.1. The findings revealed that

there is no significant evidence

of relationship between control and personality- temperament traits of the respondents.

The relationship between control and personality-temperament traits was determined by

chi-square Test of Independence.(Chi-square =15.332, df=9, P>0.001).


4.2. The findings revealed that there is no significant evidence of

relationship between ownership and personality- temperament traits of the respondents.

The relationship between ownership and personality-temperament traits was determined

by chi-square Test of Independence. (Chi-square =19.520, df=12, P>0.001).

4.3. The findings revealed that there is no significant evidence of

relationship between reach and personality- temperament traits of the respondents. The

relationship between reach and personality-temperament traits is determined by chi-

square test of independence. (Chi-square =19.489, df=12, p>0.001).

4.4. The findings revealed that there is no significant evidence of

relationship between endurance and personality- temperament traits of the respondents.

The relationship between endurance and personality-temperament traits is determined by

chi-square test of independence. (Chi-square =4.519, df=9, p>0.001).

Conclusions

The significant findings of the study provided bases for the following conclusion:

1. Profile of the respondents

The educator respondents are mostly female under the age bracket of 29 and

below. Most of them have five years and below working experience in the field of

education.

2. Adversity Quotient

2.1. The respondents’ adversity quotient level, in terms of control, ismoderate.


Therefore, they have average control and influence in adverse situations.

2.2. The respondents, in terms of ownership, have moderate level. Therefore, they

are average on reflecting accountability in dealing with situations regardless of their

cause.

2.3. The respondents, in terms of reach, have moderate level. Therefore, they are

average in keeping setbacks and challenges in their place, not letting them infest the

healthy areas of their works and lives.

2.4. The respondents, in terms of endurance, have moderate level. Therefore, they

are average in maintaining hope and optimism.

The respondents gained the highest weighted mean on the dimension ownership.

Therefore, they believe that they are likely responsible for improving the situation they

are into. They have an average ability to turn struggles into opportunities.

2. Personality- Temperament Traits

Most of the respondents are fundamentally ambitious and leader-like, which are

distinguishing traits of individuals with a choleric temperament.

3. The relationship of Adversity Quotient and Personality- Temperament Traits of

Educators

There is no significant relationship between adversity quotient and personality-

temperament traits. The null hypothesis is accepted, so we can say that no matter how

high or low your adversity quotient level is, it won’t affect your personality-temperament
traits and vice versa.

Recommendations

In the light of the significant findings and conclusions of the study, the following

recommendations are offered:

1. The selected educational institutions in the District of Laguna and Muntinlupa

should integrate Adversity Quotient as one of the qualifications criteria in the

hiring and promotion process.

2. Teachers in the research locale should ameliorate their Adversity Quotient by

participating in programs such as reading of self- improvement/ self- help books

and attending self-transformation seminars that aim to focus on how to handle

adversities.

3. The subject educational institutions in the District of Laguna and Muntinlupa

should incorporate the theory and practice of adversity quotient in their staff

development and training programs to instill individual adversity awareness in

order that educators, faculty and non- teaching personnel may be more capable to

deal with adversity inherent in their jobs.

4. Development and validation of an adversity quotient questionnaire based on

Filipino customs, practices or traditions which contains situations normally

experienced by an ordinary Filipino teacher.

5. Educators should continuously engage in self- reflective practice to assess and be

more aware of their personality temperament profile in terms of their strength and

weaknesses, productive tendencies as well as their self- destructive tendencies.


Teachers can take these techniques in consideration for overcoming low AQ

Adversity Quotient.

Listen to your thought responses (are they high or low AQ?)

A. Explore all origins and ownership of the result

 What are the possible origins of the adversity?

 What part was my fault?

 What specifically could I have done better?

 What aspects should I own?

 What aspects shouldn’t I own?

B. Analyze the evidence

 What evidence is there that I have no control?

 What evidence is there that the adversity will affect the other

areas of my life?

 What other evidence is there that there will be prolonged

consequences?

C. Do Something

 What additional information do I need?

 What could I do to gain some control?

 What could I do to limit the reach of the adversity?

 What could I do to limit how long the adversity endures in its

current state?

-ehow.com
6. Since the educators’ Adversity Quotient and Personality- Temperament Traits

have no significant relationship, we recommend that future researchers should

study the relationship between Adversity Quotient and Teaching Efficiency to

show a much different angle of the study.

7. Future researchers must explore more studies concerning Personality-

Temperament Traits. Further research about it can give beneficial information that

may help others especially the future respondents in knowing the importance of

this topic.

8. Future researchers must consider doing comparative studies concerning adversity

quotient of educators from different types of schools such as private, public,

science, Christian schools and others. Further research about it can give beneficial

information that may help others especially the future respondents in knowing the

importance of this topic.

9. Further studies should be conducted covering a larger sampling size to take into

account the effect of Adversity Quotient and Personality-Temperament Traits and

vice versa in order to arrive at more accurate conclusions.

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