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Project Beton Pg.

Project Beton

1. SELE. WALL-001

Cantilever concrete wall


(EC2 EN1992-1-1:2004, EC0 EN1990:2002, EC7 EN1997-1-1:2004, EC8 EN1998-5:2004, )

C20/25 - S400 Ng=20.00kN g=1.80, q=10.00 kN/m²


Seismic a=0.060g Nq=50.00kN

Hg=1.00kN
Hq=2.00kN
0.300

β=0.00° φk=35.00°
ck=0.000N/mm²
δk=0.00°
γ=16.00 kN/m³

0.600 1.000
φk=35.00°
ck=0.000N/mm²
δk=0.00°
γ=17.00 kN/m³

2.400

φk=35.00°
ck=0.010N/mm²
quk=0.30N/mm²

2. Wall properties-Parameters-Code requirements N


H
Dimensions
X
Height of wall h= 4.000 m
Transverse length of wall L=10.000 m
Stem thickness at top B1= 0.300 m s
Stem thickness at bottom B2= 0.800 m
Pa
Width of wall base B= 2.400 m Y0
Width of wall toe 0.600 m
Width of wall heel 1.000 m
Height of wall stem ho= 3.500 m
Thickness of wall footing 0.500 m
Pp X0
Front thickness of wall toe 0.350 m
Y
Back thickness of wall heel 0.350 m
Slope (batter) at front face 8.130° (1:7.00)
Slope (batter) at back face 0.000° (0:1)

Loads on wall top


Vertical permanent load Ng= 20.00 kN/m
Vertical variable load Nq= 50.00 kN/m
Eccentricity of vertical load eN= 0.13 m
Horisontal permanent load Hg= 1.00 kN/m
Horisontal variable load Hq= 2.00 kN/m
Eccentricity of horisontal load eH= 0.00 m

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Project Beton Pg. 2

Weight of wall
Unit weight of wall material γg=25.000 kN/m³
Cross section area of wall A= 3.005 m²
Self weight per meter of wall W= 3.005x25.000= 75.13 kN/m
Center of gravity of wall at x=0.267 m, y=2.647 m (xo=1.133 m, yo=1.353 m)

Wall materials
Stem : Concrete-Steel class: C20/25-S400 (EN1992-1-1, §3)
: Concrete cover: Cnom=30 mm (EN1992-1-1, §4.4.1)
Footing : Concrete-Steel class: C20/25-S400
: Concrete cover: Cnom=50 mm

Weight of backfill
Weight of backfill per meter Ws=57.20 kN/m
Center of gravity of backfill x=-0.503 m, y=1.788 m

3. Partial factors for actions and soil properties (EC7 Tab. A.1-A.4, EC8-5 §3.1)
Equilibrium limit state (EQU), Structural limit state (STR), Geotechnical limit state (GEO)
( EQU ) (STR/GEO) (STR/GEO) (Seismic)
( A1+M1 ) ( A2+M2 )
Actions Permanent Unfavorable γGdst: 1.10 1.35 1.00 1.00
Permanent Favorable γGstb: 0.90 1.00 1.00 1.00
Variable Unfavorable γQdst: 1.50 1.50 1.30 1.00
Variable Favorable γQstb: 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Soil Angle of shearing resistance γφ: 1.25 1.00 1.25 1.25


parameters Effective cohesion γc: 1.25 1.00 1.25 1.25
Undrained shear strength γcu: 1.40 1.00 1.40 1.40
Unconfined strength γqu: 1.40 1.00 1.40 1.40
Weight density γw: 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00

γR,v(R1)=1.00, γR,h(R1)=1.00, γR,v(R2)=1.40, γR,h(R2)=1.10, γR,v(R2)=1.00, γR,h(R2)=1.00

4. Properties of foundation soil


Bearing capacity of foundation soil qu=0.30 N/mm²
Friction angle between wall footing and soil φ=35.00°, friction coefficient tan(φ)=0.700
Cohesion between wall footing and soil c=0.010 N/mm²

5. Seismic coefficients (EC8 EN1998-5:2004, §7.3.2)


Design ground acceleration ratio gh=axg, a=0.06 (EC8-5 §7.3.2)
Verti./horiz. acceleration αvg/αg=0.90 (EC8 §3.2.2.3)
Soil factor S=1.00 (EC8 §3.2.2.2)
Importance factor γΙ=1.00 (EC8 §3.2.1, T.4.3)
Reduction factor for seismic coefficient r=1.50 (EC8-5 Table 7.1)
Coefficient for horisontal seismic force kh=1.00x0.06x1.00/1.500=0.040 (EC8-5 Eq.7.1)
Coefficient for vertical seismic force kv=0.50x0.040=0.020 (EC8-5 Eq.7.2)

Forces due to seismic load (except from earth pressure)


Horisontal seismic force due to self weight Fwx= 75.13x0.040= 3.00 kN/m
Vertical seismic force due to self weight Fwy= 75.13x0.020= 1.50 kN/m
Horisontal seismic force of top loading Ng Fgx= 20.00x0.040= 0.80 kN/m
Vertical seismic force of top loading Ng Fgy= 20.00x0.020= 0.40 kN/m
Horisontal seismic force of top loading Nq Fqx= 50.00x0.040= 2.00 kN/m
Vertical seismic force of top loading Nq Fqy= 50.00x0.020= 1.00 kN/m
Horisontal seismic force of backfill Fwsx= 57.20x0.040= 2.29 kN/m
Vertical seismic force of backfill Fwsy= 57.20x0.020= 1.14 kN/m

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Project Beton Pg. 3

6. Computation of active earth pressure (Rankine theory)

6.1. Wall part from Y=0.000 m to Y=4.000 m, Hs=4.000 m


q
Top point A x=-1.000 m y= 0.000 m
Bottom point B x=-1.000 m y= 4.000 m β
x
qA
Soil properties A PA
Soil type : Thin gravel δ α
y
Unit weight of soil γ =16.00 kN/m³
Unit weight of soil (saturated) γs=20.00 kN/m³
Hs
Unit weight of water γw=10.00 kN/m³ +θ
Angle of shearing resistance of ground φ=35.00°
Cohesion of ground c=0.000 N/mm²
Slope angle of ground surface β= 0.00° B qB
Earth pressure on vertical surface θ= 0.00°
Angle of shear resist. between ground-wall δ= 0.00°

Loads on soil surface


Permanent uniform load g = 1.80 kN/m²
Variable uniform load q = 10.00 kN/m²

Earth pressure according to Coulomb theory


EQU STR GEO cos 2 (φ-θ)
KA=
cos2 θ cos(θ+δ) 1+ sin(φ+δ)sin(φ-β)
Angle of rupture plane ρ=45°+φ/2 = 59.00 62.50 59.00° 2

Coefficient of active earth pressure Ka= 0.361 0.271 0.361 cos(θ+δ)cos(θ-β)


Earth pressure q(y)=qA+γ·y·Ka

Permanent actions
EQU STR GEO
Earth pressure at the top (y=yA) qA= 0.65 0.49 0.65 kN/m²
Earth pressure at the bottom (y=yA+ 4.00m) qB= 23.75 17.83 23.75 kN/m²
Earth force Pa= ½(qA+qB)H Pa= 48.80 36.64 48.80 kN/m
Angle of earth force α = 0.00 0.00 0.00 °
Earth force in x direction Pax= 48.80 36.64 48.80 kN/m
Earth force in y direction Pay= 0.00 0.00 0.00 kN/m
Moment of earth force at top point (x=0,y=0) M =-128.39 -96.40-128.39 kNm/m
Point of application of earth force x= -1.000 m, y= 2.631 m

Variable actions
EQU STR GEO
Earth pressure at the top (y=yA) qA= 3.61 2.71 3.61 kN/m²
Earth pressure at the bottom (y=yA+ 4.00m) qB= 3.61 2.71 3.61 kN/m²
Earth force Pa= ½(qA+qB)H Pa= 14.44 10.84 14.44 kN/m
Angle of earth force α = 0.00 0.00 0.00 °
Earth force in x direction Pax= 14.44 10.84 14.44 kN/m
Earth force in y direction Pay= 0.00 0.00 0.00 kN/m
Moment of earth force at top point (x=0,y=0) M =-28.88 -21.68 -28.88 kNm/m
Point of application of earth force x= -1.000 m, y= 2.000 m

Total forces and moments

Forces and moments at bottom point B (x=-1.000 m, y=4.000 m)

Permanent actions
EQU STR GEO
Total horizontal earth force Fsx= 48.80 36.64 48.80 kN/m
Total vertical earth force Fsy= 0.00 0.00 0.00 kN/m
Total moment of earth force Ms = 66.81 50.16 66.81 kNm/m

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Project Beton Pg. 4

Variable actions
EQU STR GEO
Total horizontal earth force Fsx= 14.44 10.84 14.44 kN/m
Total vertical earth force Fsy= 0.00 0.00 0.00 kN/m
Total moment of earth force Ms = 28.88 21.68 28.88 kNm/m

Seismic loading (EC8 EN1998-5:2004, §7.3.2, Annex E)

Horizontal seismic coefficient kh=1.00x0.06x1.00/1.500=0.040 (EC8-5 Eq.7.1, T.7.1)


Vertical seismic coefficient kv=0.50x0.040=0.020 (EC8-5 Eq.7.2)
Soil above the water table (EC8-5 Annex E.5)
tan(ω)=kh/(1-kv)=0.040/(1-0.020)=0.041, ω=2.34°

Method Mononobe-Okabe (EC8-5 Annex E.4)


for active earth force during seismic loading cos 2(φ-ω-θ)
KE = 2
Coefficient of active earth pressure, Ke*= 0.381 cosω cos 2θ cos(δ+θ+ω) 1+ sin(φ+δ)sin(φ-ω-β)
cos(θ+ω+δ) cos(θ-β)
Additional earth pressure due to seismic load
over STR load case ξ=(Ke*/Ke-1)=(0.381/0.271-1)=0.406

Earth force due to seismic load (Permanent actions) Fx=1.406x36.64=51.52 kN/m


Earth force due to seismic load (Variable actions ) Fx=1.406x10.84=15.24 kN/m

7. Computation of passive earth pressure (Rankine theory)

7.1. Wall part from Y=3.000 m to Y=4.000 m, Hs=1.000 m


Top point A x= 1.400 m y= 3.000 m
Bottom point B x= 1.400 m y= 4.000 m x
A
qA
Soil properties
Soil type : Dense sand
Unit weight of soil γ =17.00 kN/m³
Unit weight of soil (saturated) γs=20.00 kN/m³ Hs
Unit weight of water γw=10.00 kN/m³
PP
Angle of shearing resistance of ground φ=35.00°
Cohesion of ground c=0.000 N/mm²
Slope angle of ground surface β= 0.00°
B
qB y
Earth pressure on vertical surface θ= 0.00°
Angle of shear resist. between ground-wall δ= 0.00°

Earth pressure according to Coulomb theory


EQU STR GEO cos 2 (φ+θ)
Angle of rupture plane ρ=45°-φ/2 = 31.00 27.50 31.00°
Kp = 2
cos2 θ cos(θ-δ) 1- sin(φ+δ)sin(φ+β)
Coefficient of passive earth pressure Kp= 2.770 3.690 2.770 cos(θ-δ) cos(θ-β)
Earth pressure q(y)=qA+γ·y·Kp

Permanent actions
EQU STR GEO
Earth pressure at the top (y=yA) qA= 0.00 0.00 0.00 kN/m²
Earth pressure at the bottom (y=yA+ 1.00m) qB=-47.09 -62.73 -47.09 kN/m²
Earth force Pa= ½(qA+qB)H Pp= 23.55 31.36 23.55 kN/m
Angle of earth force α = 0.00 0.00 0.00 °
Earth force in x direction Ppx=-23.55 -31.36 -23.55 kN/m
Earth force in y direction Ppy= 0.00 0.00 0.00 kN/m
Moment of earth force at top point (x=0,y=0) M = 86.36 115.00 86.36 kNm/m
Point of application of earth force x= 1.400 m, y= 3.667 m

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Project Beton Pg. 5

Total forces and moments

Forces and moments at bottom point B (x=1.400 m, y=4.000 m)

Permanent actions
EQU STR GEO
Total horizontal earth force Fsx=-23.55 -31.36 -23.55 kN/m
Total vertical earth force Fsy= 0.00 0.00 0.00 kN/m
Total moment of earth force Ms = -7.84 -10.44 -7.84 kNm/m

8. Checks of wall stability (EQU)

8.1. Forces (driving and resisting) on the wall (EQU)

Action y1 - y2 Fx Fy x y H
N

[kN/m] [kN/m] [m] [m] e H e N

X
Active earth pressure Pa 0.00- 4.00 48.80 0.00 -1.000 2.631
Backfill surcharge (live) Pq 0.00- 4.00 14.44 0.00 -1.000 2.000 Pa
Passive earth pressure Pp 3.00- 4.00 -23.55 0.00 1.400 3.667 Y0
h

Wall weight W 0.00 75.13 0.267 2.647


Backfill weight Ws 0.00 57.20 -0.503 1.788
Pp X0
Backf. surcharge (dead) Wsg 0.00 1.80 -0.503 0.000 Y

Backf. surcharge (live) Wsq 0.00 10.00 -0.503 0.000


Vert. load on top (dead) Ng 0.00 20.00 0.125 0.000
Vert. load on top (live) Nq 0.00 50.00 0.125 0.000
Horiz. load on top (dead) Hg 1.00 0.00 0.150 0.000
Horiz. load on top (live) Hq 2.00 0.00 0.150 0.000

8.2. Check of soil bearing capacity (EQU) (EC7 EN1997-1-1:2004, §6.5.2)

Check for 0.90x(self weight+top vertical dead load)+0.00x(top vertical live load)

Action (P.γ) y1 - y2 Fx Fy xo yo M
y0
[kN/m] [kN/m] [m] [m] [kNm/m]
Active earth pressure Pax1.10 0.00- 4.00 53.68 0.00 2.400 1.369 73.49
Backfill surcharge (live) Pqx1.50 0.00- 4.00 21.66 0.00 2.400 2.000 43.32 x0
Wall weight W x0.90 0.00 67.61 1.133 1.353 -76.61
Backfill weight Wsx0.90 0.00 51.48 1.903 2.212 -97.96
Backf. surcharge (dead) Wsgx0.90 0.00 1.62 1.903 4.000 -3.09
Vert. load on top (dead) Ngx0.90 0.00 18.00 1.275 4.000 -22.95
Horiz. load on top (dead) Hgx1.10 1.10 0.00 1.250 4.000 4.40
Horiz. load on top (live) Hqx1.50 3.00 0.00 1.250 4.000 12.00
Sum= 138.71 -67.40

Sum of vertical forces = 138.71 kN/m


Sum of moments at front toe = -67.40 kNm/m Bq
Sum of moments at middle of base = 99.05 kNm/m
Eccentricity ec=99.05/138.71=0.714m, ec>2.400/6=0.400m q
Soil pressure q=0.190 N/mm² Bq=1.458 m
Effective footing L'=2.400-2x0.714= 0.972 m (EC7 Annex D)
Soil bearing capacity Rd=L'·quk/γM=0.972x(1000x0.30)/1.40= 208.29 kN/m
Bearing resistance check Vd=138.71 < Rd=208.29 kN/m, Is verified (EC7 Eq.2.2, Eq.6.1)

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Project Beton Pg. 6

Check for 1.10x(self weight+top vertical dead load)+1.50x(top vertical live load)

Action (P.γ) y1 - y2 Fx Fy xo yo M
[kN/m] [kN/m] [m] [m] [kNm/m]
Active earth pressure Pax1.10 0.00- 4.00 53.68 0.00 2.400 1.369 73.49
Backfill surcharge (live) Pqx1.50 0.00- 4.00 21.66 0.00 2.400 2.000 43.32
Wall weight W x1.10 0.00 82.63 1.133 1.353 -93.63
Backfill weight Wsx1.10 0.00 62.92 1.903 2.212 -119.74
Backf. surcharge (dead) Wsgx0.90 0.00 1.62 1.903 4.000 -3.09
Backf. surcharge (live) Wsqx1.50 0.00 15.00 1.903 4.000 -28.55
Vert. load on top (dead) Ngx1.10 0.00 22.00 1.275 4.000 -28.05
Vert. load on top (live) Nqx1.50 0.00 75.00 1.275 4.000 -95.62
Horiz. load on top (dead) Hgx1.10 1.10 0.00 1.250 4.000 4.40
Horiz. load on top (live) Hqx1.50 3.00 0.00 1.250 4.000 12.00
Sum= 259.17 -235.47

Sum of vertical forces = 259.17 kN/m


Sum of moments at front toe = -235.47 kNm/m
Sum of moments at middle of base = 75.53 kNm/m q1 q2
Eccentricity ec=75.53/259.17=0.291m, ec<=2.400/6=0.400m
Soil pressure q1=0.187 N/mm² q2=0.029 N/mm²
Effective footing L'=2.400-2x0.291= 1.817 m (EC7 Annex D)
Soil bearing capacity Rd=L'·quk/γM=1.817x(1000x0.30)/1.40= 389.36 kN/m
Bearing resistance check Vd=259.17 < Rd=389.36 kN/m, Is verified (EC7 Eq.2.2, Eq.6.1)

8.3. Failure check due to overturning (EQU) (EC7 EN1997-1-1:2004, §9.7.4)


Overturning with respect to the toe (xo=0,yo=0) (x=1.400,y=4.000 m)

Action (P.γ) y1 - y2 Fx Fy xo yo Mo+ Mo-


[kN/m] [kN/m] [m] [m] [kNm/m] [kNm/m]
y0
Active earth pressure Pax1.10 0.00- 4.00 53.68 0.00 2.400 1.369 73.49 0.00
Backfill surcharge (live) Pqx1.50 0.00- 4.00 21.66 0.00 2.400 2.000 43.32 0.00
Wall weight W x0.90 0.00 67.61 1.133 1.353 0.00 76.61 x0
Backfill weight Wsx0.90 0.00 51.48 1.903 2.212 0.00 97.96
Backf. surcharge (dead) Wsgx0.90 0.00 1.62 1.903 4.000 0.00 3.09
Vert. load on top (dead) Ngx0.90 0.00 18.00 1.275 4.000 0.00 22.95
Horiz. load on top (dead) Hgx1.10 1.10 0.00 1.250 4.000 4.40 0.00
Horiz. load on top (live) Hqx1.50 3.00 0.00 1.250 4.000 12.00 0.00
Sum= 133.21 200.61

Sum of overturning moments = 133.21 kNm/m


Sum of moments resisting overturning = 200.61 kNm/m
Overturning check Med=133.21 < Mrd=200.61 kNm/m, Is verified

8.4. Failure check against sliding (EQU) (EC7 EN1997-1-1:2004, §9.7.3, §6.5.3)

Action (P.γ) y1 - y2 Fx+ Fx- Fy H N


[kN/m] [kN/m] [kN/m]
Active earth pressure Pax1.10 0.00- 4.00 53.68 0.00 0.00
s
Backfill surcharge (live) Pqx1.50 0.00- 4.00 21.66 0.00 0.00 Y0
Pa
Passive earth pressure Ppx0.90 3.00- 4.00 0.00 21.19 0.00
Wall weight W x0.90 0.00 0.00 67.61
Backfill weight Wsx0.90 0.00 0.00 51.48 Pp X0
Backf. surcharge (dead) Wsgx0.90 0.00 0.00 1.62 Fs =c.B+W.tan()
φ
Vert. load on top (dead) Ngx0.90 0.00 0.00 18.00
Horiz. load on top (dead) Hgx1.10 1.10 0.00 0.00
Horiz. load on top (live) Hqx1.50 3.00 0.00 0.00
Sum= 79.44 21.19 138.71

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Project Beton Pg. 7

Soil friction Rd=Nd·tan(φ/γM)= 138.71xtan(35.00°/1.25)= 73.75 kN/m


Soil cohesion Rd=A·cu/γM = 1000x1.458x0.010/1.25= 11.66 kN/m
(resisting forces from effective cohesion are neglected) (EC7 §6.5.3. 10)
Sum of driving forces = 79.44 kN/m
Sum of resisting forces (21.19+73.75) = 94.94 kN/m
Sliding resistance check Hd=79.44 < Rd=94.94 kN/m, Is verified

9. Checks of wall stability (STR/GEO A1+M1)

9.1. Forces (driving and resisting) on the wall (STR/GEO A1+M1)

Action y1 - y2 Fx Fy x y H
N

[kN/m] [kN/m] [m] [m] e H e N

X
Active earth pressure Pa 0.00- 4.00 36.64 0.00 -1.000 2.631
Backfill surcharge (live) Pq 0.00- 4.00 10.84 0.00 -1.000 2.000 Pa
Passive earth pressure Pp 3.00- 4.00 -31.36 0.00 1.400 3.667 Y0
h

Wall weight W 0.00 75.13 0.267 2.647


Backfill weight Ws 0.00 57.20 -0.503 1.788
Pp X0
Backf. surcharge (dead) Wsg 0.00 1.80 -0.503 0.000 Y

Backf. surcharge (live) Wsq 0.00 10.00 -0.503 0.000


Vert. load on top (dead) Ng 0.00 20.00 0.125 0.000
Vert. load on top (live) Nq 0.00 50.00 0.125 0.000
Horiz. load on top (dead) Hg 1.00 0.00 0.150 0.000
Horiz. load on top (live) Hq 2.00 0.00 0.150 0.000

9.2. Check of soil bearing capacity (STR/GEO A1+M1) (EC7 EN1997-1-1:2004, §6.5.2)

Check for 1.00x(self weight+top vertical dead load)+0.00x(top vertical live load)

Action (P.γ) y1 - y2 Fx Fy xo yo M
y0
[kN/m] [kN/m] [m] [m] [kNm/m]
Active earth pressure Pax1.35 0.00- 4.00 49.46 0.00 2.400 1.369 67.72
Backfill surcharge (live) Pqx1.50 0.00- 4.00 16.26 0.00 2.400 2.000 32.52 x0
Wall weight W x1.00 0.00 75.12 1.133 1.353 -85.12
Backfill weight Wsx1.00 0.00 57.20 1.903 2.212 -108.85
Backf. surcharge (dead) Wsgx1.00 0.00 1.80 1.903 4.000 -3.43
Vert. load on top (dead) Ngx1.00 0.00 20.00 1.275 4.000 -25.50
Horiz. load on top (dead) Hgx1.35 1.35 0.00 1.250 4.000 5.40
Horiz. load on top (live) Hqx1.50 3.00 0.00 1.250 4.000 12.00
Sum= 154.12 -105.26

Sum of vertical forces = 154.12 kN/m


Sum of moments at front toe = -105.26 kNm/m Bq
Sum of moments at middle of base = 79.68 kNm/m
Eccentricity ec=79.68/154.12=0.517m, ec>2.400/6=0.400m q
Soil pressure q=0.150 N/mm² Bq=2.049 m
Effective footing L'=2.400-2x0.517= 1.366 m (EC7 Annex D)
Soil bearing capacity Rd=L'·quk/γM=1.366x(1000x0.30)/1.40= 292.71 kN/m
Bearing resistance check Vd=154.12 < Rd=292.71 kN/m, Is verified (EC7 Eq.2.2, Eq.6.1)

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Project Beton Pg. 8

Check for 1.35x(self weight+top vertical dead load)+1.50x(top vertical live load)

Action (P.γ) y1 - y2 Fx Fy xo yo M
[kN/m] [kN/m] [m] [m] [kNm/m]
Active earth pressure Pax1.35 0.00- 4.00 49.46 0.00 2.400 1.369 67.72
Backfill surcharge (live) Pqx1.50 0.00- 4.00 16.26 0.00 2.400 2.000 32.52
Wall weight W x1.35 0.00 101.41 1.133 1.353 -114.91
Backfill weight Wsx1.35 0.00 77.22 1.903 2.212 -146.95
Backf. surcharge (dead) Wsgx1.00 0.00 1.80 1.903 4.000 -3.43
Backf. surcharge (live) Wsqx1.50 0.00 15.00 1.903 4.000 -28.55
Vert. load on top (dead) Ngx1.35 0.00 27.00 1.275 4.000 -34.43
Vert. load on top (live) Nqx1.50 0.00 75.00 1.275 4.000 -95.62
Horiz. load on top (dead) Hgx1.35 1.35 0.00 1.250 4.000 5.40
Horiz. load on top (live) Hqx1.50 3.00 0.00 1.250 4.000 12.00
Sum= 297.43 -306.25

Sum of vertical forces = 297.43 kN/m


Sum of moments at front toe = -306.25 kNm/m
Sum of moments at middle of base = 50.67 kNm/m q1 q2
Eccentricity ec=50.67/297.43=0.170m, ec<=2.400/6=0.400m
Soil pressure q1=0.177 N/mm² q2=0.071 N/mm²
Effective footing L'=2.400-2x0.170= 2.059 m (EC7 Annex D)
Soil bearing capacity Rd=L'·quk/γM=2.059x(1000x0.30)/1.40= 441.21 kN/m
Bearing resistance check Vd=297.43 < Rd=441.21 kN/m, Is verified (EC7 Eq.2.2, Eq.6.1)

9.3. Failure check due to overturning (STR/GEO A1+M1) (EC7 EN1997-1-1:2004, §9.7.4)
Overturning with respect to the toe (xo=0,yo=0) (x=1.400,y=4.000 m)

Action (P.γ) y1 - y2 Fx Fy xo yo Mo+ Mo-


[kN/m] [kN/m] [m] [m] [kNm/m] [kNm/m]
y0
Active earth pressure Pax1.35 0.00- 4.00 49.46 0.00 2.400 1.369 67.72 0.00
Backfill surcharge (live) Pqx1.50 0.00- 4.00 16.26 0.00 2.400 2.000 32.52 0.00
Wall weight W x1.00 0.00 75.12 1.133 1.353 0.00 85.12 x0
Backfill weight Wsx1.00 0.00 57.20 1.903 2.212 0.00 108.85
Backf. surcharge (dead) Wsgx1.00 0.00 1.80 1.903 4.000 0.00 3.43
Vert. load on top (dead) Ngx1.00 0.00 20.00 1.275 4.000 0.00 25.50
Horiz. load on top (dead) Hgx1.35 1.35 0.00 1.250 4.000 5.40 0.00
Horiz. load on top (live) Hqx1.50 3.00 0.00 1.250 4.000 12.00 0.00
Sum= 117.64 222.90

Sum of overturning moments = 117.64 kNm/m


Sum of moments resisting overturning = 222.90 kNm/m
Overturning check Med=117.64 < Mrd=222.90 kNm/m, Is verified

9.4. Failure check against sliding (STR/GEO A1+M1) (EC7 EN1997-1-1:2004, §9.7.3, §6.5.3)

Action (P.γ) y1 - y2 Fx+ Fx- Fy H N


[kN/m] [kN/m] [kN/m]
Active earth pressure Pax1.35 0.00- 4.00 49.46 0.00 0.00
s
Backfill surcharge (live) Pqx1.50 0.00- 4.00 16.26 0.00 0.00 Y0
Pa
Passive earth pressure Ppx1.00 3.00- 4.00 0.00 31.36 0.00
Wall weight W x1.00 0.00 0.00 75.12
Backfill weight Wsx1.00 0.00 0.00 57.20 Pp X0
Backf. surcharge (dead) Wsgx1.00 0.00 0.00 1.80 Fs =c.B+W.tan()
φ
Vert. load on top (dead) Ngx1.00 0.00 0.00 20.00
Horiz. load on top (dead) Hgx1.35 1.35 0.00 0.00
Horiz. load on top (live) Hqx1.50 3.00 0.00 0.00
Sum= 70.07 31.36 154.12

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software by RUNET (c)
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Project Beton Pg. 9

Soil friction Rd=Nd·tanφ/γM = 154.12xtan(35.00°)/1.10= 98.11 kN/m


Soil cohesion Rd=A·cu/γM = 1000x2.049x0.010/1.10= 18.63 kN/m
(resisting forces from effective cohesion are neglected) (EC7 §6.5.3. 10)
Sum of driving forces = 70.07 kN/m
Sum of resisting forces (31.36+98.11) = 129.47 kN/m
Sliding resistance check Hd=70.07 < Rd=129.47 kN/m, Is verified

10. Checks of wall stability (STR/GEO A2+M2)

10.1. Forces (driving and resisting) on the wall (STR/GEO A2+M2)

Action y1 - y2 Fx Fy x y H
N

[kN/m] [kN/m] [m] [m] e H e N

X
Active earth pressure Pa 0.00- 4.00 48.80 0.00 -1.000 2.631
Backfill surcharge (live) Pq 0.00- 4.00 14.44 0.00 -1.000 2.000 Pa
Passive earth pressure Pp 3.00- 4.00 -23.55 0.00 1.400 3.667 Y0
h

Wall weight W 0.00 75.13 0.267 2.647


Backfill weight Ws 0.00 57.20 -0.503 1.788
Pp X0
Backf. surcharge (dead) Wsg 0.00 1.80 -0.503 0.000 Y

Backf. surcharge (live) Wsq 0.00 10.00 -0.503 0.000


Vert. load on top (dead) Ng 0.00 20.00 0.125 0.000
Vert. load on top (live) Nq 0.00 50.00 0.125 0.000
Horiz. load on top (dead) Hg 1.00 0.00 0.150 0.000
Horiz. load on top (live) Hq 2.00 0.00 0.150 0.000

10.2. Check of soil bearing capacity (STR/GEO A2+M2) (EC7 EN1997-1-1:2004, §6.5.2)

Check for 1.00x(self weight+top vertical dead load)+0.00x(top vertical live load)

Action (P.γ) y1 - y2 Fx Fy xo yo M
y0
[kN/m] [kN/m] [m] [m] [kNm/m]
Active earth pressure Pax1.00 0.00- 4.00 48.80 0.00 2.400 1.369 66.81
Backfill surcharge (live) Pqx1.30 0.00- 4.00 18.77 0.00 2.400 2.000 37.54 x0
Wall weight W x1.00 0.00 75.12 1.133 1.353 -85.12
Backfill weight Wsx1.00 0.00 57.20 1.903 2.212 -108.85
Backf. surcharge (dead) Wsgx1.00 0.00 1.80 1.903 4.000 -3.43
Vert. load on top (dead) Ngx1.00 0.00 20.00 1.275 4.000 -25.50
Horiz. load on top (dead) Hgx1.00 1.00 0.00 1.250 4.000 4.00
Horiz. load on top (live) Hqx1.30 2.60 0.00 1.250 4.000 10.40
Sum= 154.12 -104.15

Sum of vertical forces = 154.12 kN/m


Sum of moments at front toe = -104.15 kNm/m Bq
Sum of moments at middle of base = 80.79 kNm/m
Eccentricity ec=80.79/154.12=0.524m, ec>2.400/6=0.400m q
Soil pressure q=0.152 N/mm² Bq=2.027 m
Effective footing L'=2.400-2x0.524= 1.352 m (EC7 Annex D)
Soil bearing capacity Rd=L'·quk/γM=1.352x(1000x0.30)/1.40= 289.71 kN/m
Bearing resistance check Vd=154.12 < Rd=289.71 kN/m, Is verified (EC7 Eq.2.2, Eq.6.1)

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software by RUNET (c)
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Project Beton Pg. 10

Check for 1.00x(self weight+top vertical dead load)+1.30x(top vertical live load)

Action (P.γ) y1 - y2 Fx Fy xo yo M
[kN/m] [kN/m] [m] [m] [kNm/m]
Active earth pressure Pax1.00 0.00- 4.00 48.80 0.00 2.400 1.369 66.81
Backfill surcharge (live) Pqx1.30 0.00- 4.00 18.77 0.00 2.400 2.000 37.54
Wall weight W x1.00 0.00 75.12 1.133 1.353 -85.12
Backfill weight Wsx1.00 0.00 57.20 1.903 2.212 -108.85
Backf. surcharge (dead) Wsgx1.00 0.00 1.80 1.903 4.000 -3.43
Backf. surcharge (live) Wsqx1.30 0.00 13.00 1.903 4.000 -24.74
Vert. load on top (dead) Ngx1.00 0.00 20.00 1.275 4.000 -25.50
Vert. load on top (live) Nqx1.30 0.00 65.00 1.275 4.000 -82.87
Horiz. load on top (dead) Hgx1.00 1.00 0.00 1.250 4.000 4.00
Horiz. load on top (live) Hqx1.30 2.60 0.00 1.250 4.000 10.40
Sum= 232.12 -211.76

Sum of vertical forces = 232.12 kN/m


Sum of moments at front toe = -211.76 kNm/m
Sum of moments at middle of base = 66.78 kNm/m q1 q2
Eccentricity ec=66.78/232.12=0.288m, ec<=2.400/6=0.400m
Soil pressure q1=0.166 N/mm² q2=0.027 N/mm²
Effective footing L'=2.400-2x0.288= 1.825 m (EC7 Annex D)
Soil bearing capacity Rd=L'·quk/γM=1.825x(1000x0.30)/1.40= 391.07 kN/m
Bearing resistance check Vd=232.12 < Rd=391.07 kN/m, Is verified (EC7 Eq.2.2, Eq.6.1)

10.3. Failure check due to overturning (STR/GEO A2+M2) (EC7 EN1997-1-1:2004, §9.7.4)
Overturning with respect to the toe (xo=0,yo=0) (x=1.400,y=4.000 m)

Action (P.γ) y1 - y2 Fx Fy xo yo Mo+ Mo-


[kN/m] [kN/m] [m] [m] [kNm/m] [kNm/m]
y0
Active earth pressure Pax1.00 0.00- 4.00 48.80 0.00 2.400 1.369 66.81 0.00
Backfill surcharge (live) Pqx1.30 0.00- 4.00 18.77 0.00 2.400 2.000 37.54 0.00
Wall weight W x1.00 0.00 75.12 1.133 1.353 0.00 85.12 x0
Backfill weight Wsx1.00 0.00 57.20 1.903 2.212 0.00 108.85
Backf. surcharge (dead) Wsgx1.00 0.00 1.80 1.903 4.000 0.00 3.43
Vert. load on top (dead) Ngx1.00 0.00 20.00 1.275 4.000 0.00 25.50
Horiz. load on top (dead) Hgx1.00 1.00 0.00 1.250 4.000 4.00 0.00
Horiz. load on top (live) Hqx1.30 2.60 0.00 1.250 4.000 10.40 0.00
Sum= 118.75 222.90

Sum of overturning moments = 118.75 kNm/m


Sum of moments resisting overturning = 222.90 kNm/m
Overturning check Med=118.75 < Mrd=222.90 kNm/m, Is verified

10.4. Failure check against sliding (STR/GEO A2+M2) (EC7 EN1997-1-1:2004, §9.7.3, §6.5.3)

Action (P.γ) y1 - y2 Fx+ Fx- Fy H N


[kN/m] [kN/m] [kN/m]
Active earth pressure Pax1.00 0.00- 4.00 48.80 0.00 0.00
s
Backfill surcharge (live) Pqx1.30 0.00- 4.00 18.77 0.00 0.00 Y0
Pa
Passive earth pressure Ppx1.00 3.00- 4.00 0.00 23.55 0.00
Wall weight W x1.00 0.00 0.00 75.12
Backfill weight Wsx1.00 0.00 0.00 57.20 Pp X0
Backf. surcharge (dead) Wsgx1.00 0.00 0.00 1.80 Fs =c.B+W.tan()
φ
Vert. load on top (dead) Ngx1.00 0.00 0.00 20.00
Horiz. load on top (dead) Hgx1.00 1.00 0.00 0.00
Horiz. load on top (live) Hqx1.30 2.60 0.00 0.00
Sum= 71.17 23.55 154.12

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software by RUNET (c)
01/04/2019 12:58:18 PM
Project Beton Pg. 11

Soil friction Rd=Nd·tan(φ/γM)= 154.12xtan(35.00°/1.25)= 81.95 kN/m


Soil cohesion Rd=A·cu/γM = 1000x2.027x0.010/1.25= 16.22 kN/m
(resisting forces from effective cohesion are neglected) (EC7 §6.5.3. 10)
Sum of driving forces = 71.17 kN/m
Sum of resisting forces (23.55+81.95) = 105.50 kN/m
Sliding resistance check Hd=71.17 < Rd=105.50 kN/m, Is verified

11. Seismic design (EC8 EN1998-5:2004)


Checks of wall stability (with seismic loading)

11.1. Forces (driving and resisting) on the wall


N
H
Action y1 - y2 Fx Fy x y e H e N

X
[kN/m] [kN/m] [m] [m]
Active earth pressure Pa 0.00- 4.00 36.64 0.00 -1.000 2.631 Pa
Backfill surcharge (live) Pq 0.00- 4.00 10.84 0.00 -1.000 2.000 Y0
h

Passive earth pressure Pp 3.00- 4.00 -31.36 0.00 1.400 3.667


Wall weight W 0.00 75.13 0.267 2.647
Pp X0
Backfill weight Ws 0.00 57.20 -0.503 1.788 Y

Backf. surcharge (dead) Wsg 0.00 1.80 -0.503 0.000


Backf. surcharge (live) Wsq 0.00 10.00 -0.503 0.000
Vert. load on top (dead) Ng 0.00 20.00 0.125 0.000
Vert. load on top (live) Nq 0.00 50.00 0.125 0.000
Horiz. load on top (dead) Hg 1.00 0.00 0.150 0.000
Horiz. load on top (live) Hq 2.00 0.00 0.150 0.000

11.2. Additional forces due to seismic load

Action y1 - y2 Fx Fy x y
[kN/m] [kN/m] [m] [m]
Active earth pressure Pa 0.00- 4.00 14.88 -1.000 2.631
Backfill surcharge (live) Pq 0.00- 4.00 4.40 -1.000 2.000
Wall weight W 3.00 -1.50 0.267 2.647
Backfill weight Ws 2.29 -1.14-0.503 1.788
Backf. surcharge (dead) Wsg 0.07 -0.04-0.503 0.000
Backf. surcharge (live) Wsq 0.40 -0.20-0.503 0.000
Vert. load on top (dead) Ng 0.80 -0.40 0.125 0.000
Vert. load on top (live) Nq 2.00 -1.00 0.125 0.000

11.3. Check of soil bearing capacity (with seismic loading) (EC7 §6.5.2)

Action (P.γ) y1 - y2 Fx Fy xo yo M
[kN/m] [kN/m] [m] [m] [kNm/m]
Active earth pressure Pax1.00 0.00- 4.00 51.52 0.00 2.400 1.369 70.52
Backfill surcharge (live) Pqx0.30 0.00- 4.00 4.57 0.00 2.400 2.000 9.14
Wall weight W x1.00 3.00 76.62 1.133 1.353 -79.36
Backfill weight Wsx1.00 2.29 58.34 1.903 2.212 -101.62
Backf. surcharge (dead) Wsgx1.00 0.07 1.76 1.903 4.000 -3.07
Backf. surcharge (live) Wsqx0.30 0.12 2.94 1.903 4.000 -5.12
Vert. load on top (dead) Ngx1.00 0.80 19.60 1.275 4.000 -21.79
Vert. load on top (live) Nqx0.30 0.60 14.70 1.275 4.000 -16.34
Horiz. load on top (dead) Hgx1.00 1.00 0.00 1.250 4.000 4.00
Horiz. load on top (live) Hqx0.30 0.60 0.00 1.250 4.000 2.40
Sum= 173.96 -141.24

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software by RUNET (c)
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Project Beton Pg. 12

Sum of vertical forces = 173.96 kN/m


Sum of moments at front toe = -141.24 kNm/m
Sum of moments at middle of base = 67.51 kNm/m q1 q2
Eccentricity ec=67.51/173.96=0.388m, ec<=2.400/6=0.400m
Soil pressure q1=0.143 N/mm² q2=0.002 N/mm²
Effective footing L'=2.400-2x0.388= 1.624 m (EC7 Annex D)
Soil bearing capacity Rd=L'·quk/γM=1.624x(1000x0.30)/1.40= 348.00 kN/m
Bearing resistance check Vd=173.96 < Rd=348.00 kN/m, Is verified (EC7 Eq.2.2, Eq.6.1)

11.4. Failure check due to overturning (with seismic loading) (EC7 §9.7.4)
Overturning with respect to the toe (xo=0,yo=0) (x=1.400,y=4.000 m)

Action (P.γ) y2 y1 -Fx Fy xo yo Mo+ Mo-


[kN/m] [kN/m] [m] [m] [kNm/m] [kNm/m]
Active earth pressure Pax1.00 0.00- 4.00 51.52 0.00 2.400 1.369 70.52 0.00
Backfill surcharge (live) Pqx0.30 0.00- 4.00 4.57 0.00 2.400 2.000 9.14 0.00
Wall weight W x1.00 3.00 76.62 1.133 1.353 5.76 85.12*
Backfill weight Wsx1.00 2.29 58.34 1.903 2.212 7.23 108.85*
Backf. surcharge (dead) Wsgx1.00 0.07 1.76 1.903 4.000 0.36 3.43*
Backf. surcharge (live) Wsqx0.30 0.12 2.94 1.903 4.000 0.59 5.71*
Vert. load on top (dead) Ngx1.00 0.80 19.60 1.275 4.000 3.71 25.50*
Vert. load on top (live) Nqx0.30 0.60 14.70 1.275 4.000 2.78 19.13*
Horiz. load on top (dead) Hgx1.00 1.00 0.00 1.250 4.000 4.00 0.00
Horiz. load on top (live) Hqx0.30 0.60 0.00 1.250 4.000 2.40 0.00
Sum= 106.49 247.74
(*moments of negative seismic vertical loads, are added to the overturning moments)

Sum of overturning moments = 106.49 kNm/m


Sum of moments resisting overturning = 247.74 kNm/m
Overturning check Med=106.49 < Mrd=247.74 kNm/m, Is verified

11.5. Failure check against sliding (with seismic loading) (EC7 §9.7.3, §6.5.3)

H N
Action (P.γ) y1 - y2 Fx+ Fx- Fy
[kN/m] [kN/m] [kN/m]
Active earth pressure Pax1.00 0.00- 4.00 51.52 0.00 0.00
Pa
Backfill surcharge (live) Pqx0.30 0.00- 4.00 4.57 0.00 0.00 Y0

Passive earth pressure Ppx1.00 3.00- 4.00 0.00 31.36 0.00


Wall weight W x1.00 3.00 0.00 73.62
Backfill weight Wsx1.00 2.29 0.00 56.06 Pp X0
Backf. surcharge (dead) Wsgx1.00 0.07 0.00 1.76
Fs =c.B+W.tan() φ
Backf. surcharge (live) Wsqx0.30 0.12 0.00 2.94
Vert. load on top (dead) Ngx1.00 0.80 0.00 19.60
Vert. load on top (live) Nqx0.30 0.60 0.00 14.70
Horiz. load on top (dead) Hgx1.00 1.00 0.00 0.00
Horiz. load on top (live) Hqx0.30 0.60 0.00 0.00
Sum= 64.57 31.36 168.68

Soil friction Rd=Nd·tan(φ/γM)= 168.68xtan(35.00°/1.25)= 89.69 kN/m


Soil cohesion Rd=A·cu/γM = 1000x2.027x0.010/1.25= 16.22 kN/m
(resisting forces from effective cohesion are neglected) (EC7 §6.5.3. 10)
Sum of driving forces = 64.57 kN/m
Sum of resisting forces (31.36+89.69) = 121.05 kN/m
Sliding resistance check Hd=64.57 < Rd/γM=121.05/1.25=96.84 kN/m, Is verified

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Project Beton Pg. 13

12. Design of wall stem (EC2 EN1992-1-1:2004)

12.1. Loading 1.35x(permanent unfavorable)+1.00x(permanent favorable)+1.50x(variable unfav.)

Forces (at cross section centroid) at wall stem


X

y h Fx Fy M
[m] [m] [kN/m] [kN/m] [kNm/m]
0.50 0.371 7.46 24.20 -2.95 Y
1.00 0.443 12.01 29.29 -1.77
x
1.50 0.514 18.03 35.27 1.84 M
y
2.00 0.586 25.51 42.14 8.58 h
2.50 0.657 34.46 49.91 19.22
3.00 0.729 44.87 58.57 34.35
3.50 0.800 56.75 68.12 54.78

12.2. Design of wall stem in bending (EC2 §9.6, §6.1)


Concrete-Steel class: C20/25-S400, Concrete cover: Cnom=30 mm (§3, §4.4.1.1)
Vertical reinforcement minimum:0.26(fctm/fyk)d, 0.0013d, 0.0020Ac, maximum:0.04Ac (EC2 §9.6.2)

y Med Ned d Kd x/d εc/εs Ks As min vyzt.


[m] [kN/m] [kN] [mm] [cm²/m] [cm²/m]
0.50 -2.95 -24.20 336 13.10 0.02 0.4/20.0 2.89 0.00 ( 3.71)
1.00 -1.77 -29.29 408 15.17 0.02 0.4/20.0 2.89 0.00 ( 4.43)
1.50 1.84 -35.27 479 15.41 0.02 0.4/20.0 2.89 0.00 ( 5.14)
2.00 8.58 -42.14 551 12.49 0.02 0.5/20.0 2.90 0.00 ( 5.86)
2.50 19.22 -49.91 622 10.69 0.03 0.5/20.0 2.90 0.14 ( 8.90)
3.00 34.35 -58.57 694 9.47 0.03 0.6/20.0 2.90 0.56 ( 9.92)
3.50 54.78 -68.12 765 8.57 0.03 0.7/20.0 2.91 1.07 ( 10.94)

12.3. Loading 1.00x(permanent unfav.)+1.00x(permanent favor.)+0.30x(variable)+1.00x(seismic)

Forces (at cross section centroid) at wall stem (with seismic loading)

y h Fx Fy M
[m] [m] [kN/m] [kN/m] [kNm/m] X

0.50 0.371 6.70 24.20 0.25


1.00 0.443 11.75 29.29 3.35
1.50 0.514 18.37 35.27 9.16 Y
2.00 0.586 26.55 42.14 18.43
x
2.50 0.657 36.29 49.91 31.96 M
y
3.00 0.729 47.58 58.57 50.42 h
3.50 0.800 60.45 68.12 74.64

12.4. Design of wall stem in bending (with seismic loading) (EC2 §9.6, §6.1)
Concrete-Steel class: C20/25-S400, Concrete cover: Cnom=30 mm (§3, §4.4.1.1)
Vertical reinforcement minimum:0.26(fctm/fyk)d, 0.0013d, 0.0020Ac, maximum:0.04Ac (EC2 §9.6.2)

y Med Ned d Kd x/d εc/εs Ks As min vyzt.


[m] [kN/m] [kN] [mm] [cm²/m] [cm²/m]
0.50 0.25 -24.20 336 17.04 0.02 0.3/20.0 2.89 0.00 ( 3.71)
1.00 3.35 -29.29 408 13.74 0.02 0.4/20.0 2.89 0.00 ( 4.43)
1.50 9.16 -35.27 479 11.63 0.02 0.5/20.0 2.90 0.01 ( 6.85)
2.00 18.43 -42.14 551 10.18 0.03 0.6/20.0 2.90 0.33 ( 7.88)
2.50 31.96 -49.91 622 9.11 0.03 0.7/20.0 2.90 0.74 ( 8.90)
3.00 50.42 -58.57 694 8.31 0.03 0.7/20.0 2.91 1.24 ( 9.92)
3.50 74.64 -68.12 765 7.67 0.04 0.8/20.0 2.91 1.83 ( 10.94)

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Project Beton Pg. 14

12.5. Reinforcement of wall stem

Reinforcement at back stem face Æ16/180 (11.17cm²/m)


Secondary transverse reinforcement Æ 8/400 ( 1.26cm²/m)

Reinforcement at front stem face Æ14/190 ( 8.11cm²/m)


Secondary transverse reinforcement Æ 8/400 ( 1.26cm²/m)

12.6. Anchorage of wall stem reinforcement (EC2 §8.4)

Basic required anchorage length (EC2 Eq.8.3)


lb,rqd= (Æ/4) (σsd/fbd) =(16/4)x(57/1.57)=145mm
σsd=348.00x183/1117=57MPa fbd=2.25x0.70xfctd=1.57 MPa (EC2 §8.4.2)
Design anchorage length lbd=1.00x145=145mm, Cnom=30mm<3x16=48mm =(3Æ) (EC2 §8.4.4, T.8.2)
Minimum anchorage length lb,min=max(0.30lbrqd, 10Æ ,100mm)=160mm
Necessary bend 160mm at lower bar end for anchorage

12.7. Shear check of wall stem (EC2 EN1992-1-1:2004, §6.2.2)

Concrete-Steel class: C20/25-S400, Concrete cover: Cnom=30 mm (§3, §4.4.1.1)


The earth pressure load variation is linear, so the variation of shear
force is parabolic. The variation of stem cross section is linear.
The most unfavorable place for shear check is the base of the stem.

Ved=38.57 kN/m, Ved (+seismic)=40.77 kN/m, Ned=-53.51 kN/m


Shear capacity without shear reinforcement Vrdc (EC2 §6.2.2)
Vrdc=[Crdc·k·(100ρ1·fck) 0.33+k1·σcp]·bw·d (EC2 Eq.6.2.a)
Vrdc>=(vmin+k1·σcp)·bw·d (EC2 Eq.6.2.b)
Crdc=0.18/γc=0.18/1.50=0.120, fck=20MPa ,bw=1000mm, d=765mm
k=1+ Ö (200/d)<=2, k=1.51, k1=0.15
ρ1=As1/(bw·d)=1117/(1000x765)=0.0015
σcp=Ned/Ac=1000x53.51/800000=0.07N/mm²
vmin=0.0350·k 1.50· Ö fck = 0.29N/mm², (EC2 Eq.6.3N)
Vrd,c(min)=0.001x(0.29+0.15x0.07)x1000x765=229.88kN/m
0.33
Vrdc=0.001x[0.120x1.51x(0.15x20) +0.15x0.07]x1000x765=207.95, Vrdc=229.88kN/m
Ved=40.77 kN/m <= Vrdc=229.88 kN/m, shear OK

13. Design of wall footing and reinforcement (EC2 EN1992-1-1:2004)

13.1. Design of front toe x=1.400 m to x=0.800 m


q
Sum of vertical forces = 297.43 kN/m
Sum of moments at middle of base = 50.67 kNm/m M
V
q1= 0.177 N/mm², q2= 0.150 N/mm², w= 0.600 m
pressure from self weight q3= 0.013 N/mm² W
M= 27.88 kNm/m, V= 90.31 kN/m q q
V at distance d=450mm from the face of the stem = 24.10 kN/m
Med= 27.88k Nm/m, Ved= 24.10 kN/m

13.2. Design of back heel x=-1.000 m to x=0.000 m q


Sum of vertical forces = 297.43 kN/m
Sum of moments at middle of base = 50.67 kNm/m
M V
q1= 0.115 N/mm², q2= 0.071 N/mm², w= 1.000 m
pressure from backfill and self weight q3= 0.070 N/mm² W
M= 7.90 kNm/m, V= 23.14 kN/m q q
V at distance d=450mm from the face of the stem = 7.34 kN/m
Med= 7.90k Nm/m, Ved= 7.34 kN/m

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13.3. Design of front toe x=1.400 m to x=0.800 m (with seismic loading)


Sum of vertical forces = 173.96 kN/m
Sum of moments at middle of base = 67.51 kNm/m
q1= 0.143 N/mm², q2= 0.108 N/mm², w= 0.600 m
pressure from self weight q3= 0.013 N/mm²
M= 24.66 kNm/m, V= 67.34 kN/m
V at distance d=450mm from the face of the stem = 18.68 kN/m
Med= 24.66k Nm/m, Ved= 18.68 kN/m

13.4. Design of back heel x=-1.000 m to x=0.000 m (with seismic loading)


Sum of vertical forces = 173.96 kN/m
Sum of moments at middle of base = 67.51 kNm/m
q1= 0.061 N/mm², q2= 0.002 N/mm², w= 1.000 m
pressure from backfill and self weight q3= 0.070 N/mm²
M= -20.88 kNm/m, V= 38.54 kN/m
V at distance d=450mm from the face of the stem = 28.52 kN/m
Med= -20.88k Nm/m, Ved= 28.52 kN/m

13.5. Design of wall footing in bending (EC2 EN1992-1-1:2004, §6.1)

Concrete-Steel class: C20/25-S400, Concrete cover: Cnom=50 mm (§3, §4.4.1.1)


Med= 27.88kNm/m, d=442mm, Kd= 8.37 x/d=0.03 εc2/εs1=-0.7/20.0 ks=2.91, As= 1.83cm²/m
Med=-20.88kNm/m, d=442mm, Kd= 9.67 x/d=0.03 εc2/εs1=-0.6/20.0 ks=2.90, As= 1.37cm²/m
Minimum reinforcement As>=0.26bd·fctm/fyk (As= 6.32cm²/m) (EC2 §9.3.1)
Minimum reinforcement Æ16/315 ( 6.38cm²/m)

13.6. Reinforcement of wall footing

Footing reinforcement at bottom Æ16/315 ( 6.38cm²/m)


Footing reinforcement at top Æ16/315 ( 6.38cm²/m)
Secondary transverse reinforcement Æ16/400 ( 5.02cm²/m)

13.7. Anchorage of footing reinforcement (EC2 §9.8.2.2, §8.4)

ze NEd
x=h/2=0.175m, R=1000x0.177x0.175=30.98 kN/m
b
e=0.15b=0.120m ze=1.033 m, zi=0.900d=0.398m e
Fs=R·ze/zi=30.98x1.033/0.398=80.41 kN/m Fc
σsd=Fs/As=1000x80.41/638=126 MPa
Fs Fs,maxz i d h
Basic required anchorage length (EC2 Eq.8.3)
lb,rqd= (Æ/4) (σsd/fbd) =(16/4)x(126/2.25)=224mm A B
lb
fbd=2.25x1.00xfctd=2.25 MPa (EC2 §8.4.2) x
Design anchorage length (EC2 §8.4.4, T.8.2)
R
lbd=0.70x224=157mm, Cnom=50mm>3x16=48mm =(3Æ)
Minimum anchorage length lb,min=max(0.30lbrqd, 10Æ ,100mm)=160mm
Necessary anchorage length of longitudinal reinforcement Lbd=160mm =0.160m
lbd=160mm>(x-Cnom)=125.00. Necessary bends 80mm at bar ends for anchorage

13.8. Design of wall footing for shear and punching shear (EC2 EN1992-1-1:2004, §6.2.2)

Concrete-Steel class: C20/25-S400, Concrete cover: Cnom=50 mm (§3, §4.4.1.1)


Punching shear capacity without shear reinforcement Vrdc (EC2 §6.4.4)
a=d
Vrdc=[Crdc·k·(100ρ1·fck) 0.33·(2d/a)]·bw·d (EC2 Eq.6.50)
Vrdc>=[vmin·2d/a]·bw·d, d=dm=376mm, a=442mm
Crdc=0.18/γc=0.18/1.50=0.120, fck=20MPa ,bw=1000mm, d=376mm d dm
k=1+ Ö (200/d)<=2, k=1.73 45o
ρ1=As1/(bw·d)=638/(1000x376)=0.0017
vmin=0.0350·k 1.50· Ö fck = 0.36N/mm², (EC2 Eq.6.3N)
Vrd,c(min)=0.001x(0.36x2x376/442)x1000x376=229.93kN/m
0.33
Vrdc=0.001x[0.120x1.73x(0.17x20) x2x376/442]x1000x376=199.38, Vrdc=229.93kN/m
Ved=28.52 kN/m <= Vrdc=229.93 kN/m, shear and punching shear OK

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14. Material estimate

Concrete per meter of wall length 3.005 m³/m


Reinforcing steel per meter of wall 115.502 kg/m
Total concrete of wall 10.000x 3.005= 30.050 m³
Total reinforcing steel of wall 10.000x 115.502= 1155.020 kg

15. Reinforcing bar schedule

Num type reinforcing bar [mm] items g/m length weight


[kg/m] [m] [kg]

3880
1 1 160 160 56 16 1.580 4.200 371.62
3880
2 4 160 140 53 14 1.210 4.180 268.06
10000
3 9 20 8 0.395 10.000 79.00

4 7 80 2280 80 32 16 1.580 2.440 123.37


2280
5 8 80 80 32 16 1.580 2.440 123.37
10000
6 10 12 16 1.580 10.000 189.60

Total weight [kg] 1155.02

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