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Tugas Bahasa Inggris Hukum

Nama: Mochamad Sahid

NPM : 201129014

TERORISM

Terrorism is coordinated attacks aimed at generating feelings of terror against a group of


people. Unlike the war, acts of terrorism are not subject to the procedures of warfare such as
execution time is always a sudden and random targets and casualties are often civilians.

The term counter-terrorist experts said referring to the perpetrators who are not members of
the armed forces who are known or does not comply with the regulations of the armed forces.
Acts of terrorism also implies that attack terrorist attacks carried out inhumane and has no
justification, and therefore the perpetrators ("terrorists") deserve a cruel revenge.

Due to the negative meanings contained by the words "terrorist" and "terrorism", the
terrorists generally refer to themselves as separatist, freedom fighters, Crusaders, militant,
militants, and others. But the justification in the eyes of terrorism: "The real meaning of
jihad, mujahideen is far from acts of terrorism that attacked civilians when not engaged in
war". Though terrorism itself often appears with the name of religion.

In addition to the individual perpetrators, terrorism can be done by the state or country is
known by terrorism (state crime there). For example, as suggested by Noam Chomsky who
call the United States into that category. The issue of double standards has always colored the
various mentions that initially originated from the West. Such as the United States many calls
to various terrorist groups in the world, on the other hand media coverage pointed to the fact
that the United States doing horrible acts of terrorism to violate the conventions that have
been agreed.

Terrorism in the world is not a new thing, but it becomes particularly since the events of the
actual World Trade Center (WTC) in New York, United States on September 11, 2001,
known as the "September Grey", which took 3000 casualties. Attacks carried out by air, not
using combat aircraft, but uses a commercial plane owned by U.S. company itself, so it is not
caught by radar the United States. Three belong to the United States commercial aircraft
hijacked, two of which crashed into the twin towers of the World Trade Center Twin Towers
and the Pentagon.

News journalism as showing the World Trade Center and Pentagon as the main victims of
this attack. In fact, more than that, the main victims within two hours of the expense of
approximately 3,000 men, women and children are terrorized, killed, burned, killed and
buried under tons of rubble debris due to a planned mass murder. As a result of terrorist
attacks, according to the Orphans Fund Twin Towers, an estimated 1500 children lost their
parents. At the Pentagon, Washington, 189 people were killed, including the passengers on
the plane, 45 people were killed in a fourth plane that crashed in rural Pennsylvania. The
terrorists thought that the attacks are carried into the World Trade Center is an attack on
"Symbols of America". However, they attack the building is not another international
institution that represents the world's economic prosperity. There are representatives from
various countries, ie there are 430 companies from 28 countries. So, actually they do not just
attack the United States but also the world [1]. United States suspect Osama bin Laden as the
prime suspect perpetrators attack.

This incident is a global issue that affects the entire political policy in the countries of the
world, so it becomes the starting point of perception to combat terrorism as an international
enemy. Mass murder has been to unite the world against international terrorism [2].
Moreover followed the Bali tragedy, dated October 12, 2002 which is an act of terror, causing
civilian casualties in the world [3], which killed 184 people and injured more than 300
people. War on Terrorism, led by America, were first received from its allies in Europe. Tony
Blair's government were among the first issued the Anti Terrorism, Crime and Security Act,
December 2001, followed by the actions of other countries which in essence is a war for acts
of terrorism in the world, such as the Philippines by issuing Anti Terrorism Bill [4].

Many of the opinion that trying to define terrorism, one of which is the meaning of the article
14 paragraph 1 of the Prevention of Terrorism (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1984, as follows:
"Terrorism means the use of violence for political ends and includes any use of violence for
the purpose putting the public or any section of the public in fear [5]. "terrorism activity has
the objective to make others feel frightened and thus can attract people's attention, a group or
a nation. Usually the act of terror is used when no other way that can be taken to carry out his
will. Terrorism is used as a psychological weapon to create an atmosphere of panic,
uncertainty and create public distrust of the ability of the government and force a particular
community or group to obey the will of the terrorists [6]. Terrorism is not addressed directly
to the opponent, but the act of terror actually done anywhere and against anyone. And more
importantly, the intent is to be conveyed by the terrorists is that terrorist acts are getting
special attention or more can be said as a psy-war.

So far there has been no restriction standard to define what is meant by terrorism. According
to Prof. M. Cherif Bassiouni, International Criminal Law expert, that is not easy to hold an
identical understanding that can be universally accepted, so difficult to conduct supervision
over the meaning of terrorism. While according to Prof. Brian Jenkins, Phd., Terrorism is a
subjective view of [7], where it is based on who is to give limits on time and under certain
conditions.

Not to reach an agreement on what the definition of terrorism, terrorism is not allowed to
make out of the reach of the law. Efforts to combat terrorism has been conducted since the
middle of the 20th century. Born in 1937 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of
Terrorism (Convention for the Prevention and Suppression of Terrorism), which this
Convention defines terrorism as Crimes against State. Through the European Convention on
the suppression of Terrorism (ECST) in 1977 in Europe, meaning Terrorism experiencing a
paradigm shift and expansion, ie as an act which was originally categorized as Crimes against
State (including murder and attempted murder of Heads of State or members of his family),
becomes Crimes against Humanity, in which the victims are civilians [8]. Crimes against
Humanity in the category Gross Violation of Human Rights (Serious Violations of Human
Rights) conducted as part of a widespread / systematic mind that the attacks directed against
civilians, more focused on the souls of the innocent (Public by innocent), as happened in Bali
[9].

Terrorism is increasingly clear is a scourge for modern civilization. Nature of the action,
actors, strategic goals, motivations, and achieved expected results, targets and methods of
terrorism is now more widespread and varied. So it became clear that terror is not an ordinary
form of destructive violent crime, but is already a crime against peace and human security
(crimes against peace and security of mankind) [10]. According to Muladi, Criminal Acts of
Terrorism can be categorized as mala per se or mala in se [11], classified as a crime against
the conscience (Crimes against conscience), it becomes something that is evil not because of
regulated or prohibited by the Act, but because basically classified acts as a natural wrong or
not wrong in themselves classified as crimes mala prohibita as such regulated by the Act [12].

In order to prevent and combat terrorism, since long before the rise of the events are
classified as a form of terrorism happening in the world, the international community and
regional particularities and various states have tried to do the criminal policies (criminal
policy) accompanied by a systematic and comprehensive criminalization of acts that are
categorized as Terrorism [13].

Aware of such a magnitude of losses caused by an act of terrorism, and the impact is felt
directly by Indonesia as a result of the Bali tragedy, is the obligation of governments to
immediately conduct a thorough investigation by the Crime of Terrorism convict perpetrators
and intellectual actors behind the event.