Sie sind auf Seite 1von 19

Contents

INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................ 2
STRESS ........................................................................................................................................... 3
STRESS MANAGEMENT AT WORKPLACE.................................................................................. 4
TYPES OF STRESS ......................................................................................................................... 4
TYPES OF STRESSOR .................................................................................................................... 6
Internal Sources of Stress and Anxiety ............................................................................................7
Cognitive Aspects of Stress and Anxiety ......................................................................................... 8
Benefit of Stress .............................................................................................................................. 9
Side Effects of Stress ......................................................................................................................10
SOURCES OF STRESS ..................................................................................................................10
EFFECTS OF STRESS ON OUR BODY ......................................................................................... 11
50 Common Symptoms of Stress ................................................................................................... 12
RECOMMENDATIONS ................................................................................................................. 13
Conclusion .....................................................................................................................................18

1
INTRODUCTION

We were asked to choose a topic for our Organizational Behavior Course on any aspect that
relates to our dad t day life or work in our workplace or the aspects that one faces in their
workplaces. Now focusing on that aspect I have chosen something that every people on their day
to day work at least face once. Few are able of handling it well and the rest hold it that eventually
hampers or badly effects their work. The topic I have chosen is “STRESS MANAGEMENT AT
WORKPLACE”. This is something that does not notify us rather it comes from our activities
creates in our mind and disturbs our work. So in this term paper I’ll be discussing all about
stress. How that comes to human mind? What can be the main reasons behind this? How one can
tackle this? How will a person understand that he/she is stressed out? And many more aspects of
stress.

Now if I talk about y I have chosen this topic then I must say that “procrastination is the
foundation of all disasters” because the secret of crisis management is not good or bad its all
about preventing the bad from getting worse. It is often difficult to distinguish between work
stress and the stress of daily life, which is why it is important to identify the factors that are
causing stress and have the tools to eradicate them. Stress is a fact of everyday life. When people
reach out for help, they are often dealing with circumstances, situations, and stressors in their
lives that leave them feeling emotionally and physically overwhelmed. Many people feel that
they have very little resources or skills to deal with the high levels of stress they are
experiencing. Whatever reason you have for not using stress management techniques is a big
mistake. Stress in life today is widespread and has no boundaries. We all deal with stress daily,
at work and at home. Stress comes in all forms and can affect emotions and physical abilities.

The information in this manual has been compiled to provide information and education about
stress, the effects of stress, and the most popular stress management and relaxation techniques
that are being used today. This information could be helpful for people who want to learn how to
react to stress in a more constructive, proactive way. The basic premise of this manual is that the
benefits of stress reduction and relaxation techniques can be best noticed after they have been
practiced regularly over a period of time.

2
STRESS

Although we all talk about stress, it often isn’t clear what stress is really about. Many people
consider stress to be something that happens to them, an event such as an injury or a job loss.
Others think that stress is what happens to our body, mind, and behavior in response to an event
(E.g. heart pounding, anxiety, or nail biting). While stress does involve events and our response
to then, these are not the most important factors. Our thoughts about the situations in which we
find ourselves are the critical factor.

When something happens to us, we automatically evaluate the situation mentally. We decide if it
is threatening to us, how we need to deal with the situation, and what skills we can use. If we
decide that the demands of the situation outweigh the skills we have, then we label the situation
as “stressful” and react with the classic “stress response.” If we decide that our coping skills
outweigh the demands of the situation, then we don’t see it as “stressful.”

Stress can come from any situation or thought that makes you feel frustrated, angry, or anxious.
Everyone sees situations differently and has different coping skills. For this reason, no two
people will respond exactly the same way to a given situation.

Additionally, not all situations that are labeled “stressful” are negative. The birth of a child,
being promoted at work, or moving to a new home may not be perceived as threatening.
However, we may feel that situations are “stressful” because we don’t feel fully prepared to deal
with them.

Stress is a normal part of life. In small quantities, stress is good; it can motivate you and help you
become more productive. However, too much stress, or a strong response to stress can be
harmful. How we perceive a stress provoking event and how we react to it determines its impact
on our health. We may be motivated and invigorated by the events in our lives, or we may see
some as “stressful” and respond in a manner that may have a negative effect on our physical,
mental, and social well-being.

If we always respond in a negative way, our health and happiness may suffer. By understanding
ourselves and our reaction to stress-provoking situations, we can learn to handle stress more
effectively. In the most accurate meaning, stress management is not about learning how to avoid
or escape the pressures and turbulence of modern living; it is about learning to appreciate how
the body reacts to these pressures, and about learning how to develop skills which enhance the
body’s adjustment. To learn stress management is to learn about the mind-body connection and
to the degree to which we can control our health in a positive sense.

3
STRESS MANAGEMENT AT WORKPLACE

Stress management comprises a wide range of approaches to help you better deal with stress.
Stress management strategies can be classified into three time frames Long Term, Medium
Term, Short Term.
Stress management in the workplace is a useful skill that many dont take advantage of. Many
of us and leaders alike, get caught up in day to day tasks. To many job responsibilites might keep
you busy. The result is that stress management is often overlooked or ignored as a solution to
business problems. In the workplace, stress can cause all kinds of business issues and concerns.
These issues and concerns left unaddressed will ultimately hurt morale and profits. One simple
solution to managing stress is to understand what is stress management and how to handle
workplace stress. In many countries, employers have a legal responsibility to recognise and deal
with stress in the workplace so that employees do not become physically or mentally ill.
It is important to tackle the causes of stress in the workplace as stress at work can lead to
problems for the individual, working relationships and the overall working environment. These
issues may include lowered self-esteem and poor concentration skills for the employee. The
employer may suffer from increasing customer complaints, staff turnover and days lost to
sickness. Managing stress in the workplace is therefore an essential part of both individual and
corporate responsibility.

TYPES OF STRESS

Stress can be classified in 3 ways :

1. Acute stress
Acute stress is the most common type of stress. It’s your body's immediate reaction to a new challenge,
event, or demand, and it triggers your fight-or-flight response. As the pressures of a near-miss automobile
accident, an argument with a family member, or a costly mistake at work sink in, your body turns on this
biological response.
Acute stress isn't always negative. It's also the experience you have when riding a rollercoaster or having
a person jump out at you in a haunted house. Isolated episodes of acute stress should not have any
lingering health effects. In fact, they might actually be healthy for you, as these stressful situations give
your body and brain practice in developing the best response to future stressful situations.

4
Severe acute stress such as stress suffered as the victim of a crime or life-threatening situation can lead
to mental health problems, such as post-traumatic stress disorder or acute stress disorder.

2. Episodic acute stress


When acute stress happens frequently, it’s called episodic acute stress. People who always seem
to be having a crisis tend to have episodic acute stress. They are often short-tempered, irritable,
and anxious. People who are “worry warts” or pessimistic or who tend to see the negative side of
everything also tend to have episodic acute stress.
Negative health effects are persistent in people with episodic acute stress. It may be hard for
people with this type of stress to change their lifestyle, as they accept stress as a part of life.

3. Chronic stress
If acute stress isn't resolved and begins to increase or lasts for long periods of time, it becomes
chronic stress. This stress is constant and doesn’t go away. It can stem from such things as:
 poverty
 a dysfunctional family
 an unhappy marriage
 a bad job
Chronic stress can be detrimental to your health, as it can contribute to several serious diseases
or health risks, such as:
 heart disease
 cancer
 lung disease
 accidents
 cirrhosis of the liver
 suicide

5
TYPES OF STRESSOR

Situations that are considered stress provoking are known as stressors. Stress is not always a bad
thing. Stress is simply the body’s response to changes that create taxing demands. Many
professionals suggest that there is a difference between what we perceive as positive stress, and
distress, which refers to negative stress. In daily life, we often use the term “stress” to describe
negative situations. This leads many people to believe that all stress is bad for you, which is not
true.
Positive stress has the following characteristics:
• Motivates, focuses energy
• Is short-term
• Is perceived as within our coping abilities
• Feels exciting
• Improves performance

In contrast, negative stress has the following characteristics:


• Causes anxiety or concern
• Can be short or long-term
• Is perceived as outside of our coping abilities
• Feels unpleasant
• Decreases performance
• Can lead to mental and physical problems

It is somewhat hard to categorize stressors into objective lists of those that cause positive stress
and those that cause negative stress, because different people will have different perceptions and
reactions to particular situations. However, by generalizing, we can compile a list of stressors
that are typically experienced as negative or positive to most people, most of the time.
Examples of positive personal stressors might include:
• Receiving a promotion at work
• Starting a new job
• Marriage or commitment ceremony
• Buying a home
• Having a child

6
• Moving
• Taking or planning a vacation
• Holiday seasons
• Retiring
• Taking educational classes or learning a new hobby
Examples of negative personal stressors can include:

 Losing contact with loved ones


 Injury or illness
 Being abused or neglected
 Conflict in interpersonal relationships
 Excessive job demands
 Unemployment
 Sleep problems
 Job insecurity
 Conflicts with team mates and supervisors
 Lack of training necessary to do a job

Internal Sources of Stress and Anxiety

Stressors are not always limited to situations where some external situation is creating a problem.
Internal events such as feelings, thoughts, and habitual behaviors can also cause negative stress.
Common internal sources of distress include:
• Fears (e.g., fears of flying, heights, public speaking, chatting with strangers at a
party)
• Repetitive thought patterns
• Worrying about future events (e.g., waiting for medical test results or job
restructuring)
• Unrealistic or perfectionist expectations

Habitual behavior patterns that can lead to stress include:


• Over scheduling
• Failing to be assertive
• Failing to set and maintain healthy boundaries

7
• Procrastination and/or failing to plan ahead

Cognitive Aspects of Stress and Anxiety

Anxiety is a feeling that we commonly experience when faced with stressful life events. Anxiety
can be one of the most distressing emotions that people feel. It is sometimes called “fear or
nervousness”. Common reactions to anxiety include:

Physical Symptoms:
• Sweaty palms
• Muscle tension
• Racing heart
• Flushed cheeks
• Light headedness

Behaviors:
• Avoiding situations where experiencing anxiety might occur
• Leaving situations when feelings of anxiety begins to occur
• Trying to do things perfectly or trying to control events to prevent danger

Moods:
• Nervous
• Irritable
• Anxious
• Panicky

Thoughts:
• Overestimation of danger
• Underestimation of your ability to cope
• Underestimation of help available
• Worries and catastrophic thoughts

8
Stressors can contribute to our feelings of anxiety. Examples of stressors that contribute to
feelings of anxiety might include trauma (being abused, being in an accident, war); illness or
death, things we are taught (“snakes will bite you”); things we observe (an article in the
newspaper about a plane crash); and experiences that seem too much to handle (giving a speech,
job promotion or termination, having a baby).
The thoughts that accompany anxiety involve the perception that we are in danger or that we are
threatened or vulnerable in some way. A threat of danger can be physical, mental, or social. A
physical threat occurs when you believe that you will be physically hurt (e.g., a snake bite, a
heart attack, being hit). A social threat occurs when you believe you will be rejected, humiliated,
embarrassed, or put down. A mental threat occurs when something makes you worry that you are
going crazy or losing your mind.

The perception of the threats varies from person to person. Some people, because of their life
experiences, may feel threatened very easily and will often feel anxious. Other people may feel a
greater sense of safety or security. Certain life experiences such as growing up in a chaotic home
with volatile surroundings may lead a person to conclude that the world and other people are
dangerous.

The perception of danger and sense of vulnerability may have helped a person survive as a child.
Being able to recognize danger and its early warning signs are critical to one’s emotional and
physical survival. Some may have developed a very fine ability to spot and respond to dangerous
situations.

As an adult, it may become important to evaluate whether or not is possible that one is over-
responding to danger and threat. Perhaps the people in their adult life are not as threatening as
the people in their childhood. One might consider whether or not their resources and abilities to
cope as an adult open new and creative ways of responding to threat and anxiety.

Benefit of Stress

According to experts, stress is a burst of energy that basically advises you on what to do. In small doses,
stress has many advantages. For instance, stress can help you meet daily challenges and motivates you
to reach your goals. In fact, stress can help you accomplish tasks more efficiently. It can even boost
memory.

Stress is also a vital warning system, producing the fight-or-flight response. When the brain perceives
some kind of stress, it starts flooding the body with chemicals like epinephrine, norepinephrine and
cortisol. This creates a variety of reactions such as an increase in blood pressure and heart rate. Plus, the

9
senses suddenly have a laser-like focus so you can avoid physically stressful situations — such as
jumping away from a moving car — and be safe.

In addition, there are various health benefits with a little bit of stress. Researchers believe that some
stress can help to fortify the immune system. For instance, stress can improve how your heart works and
protect your body from infection. In one study, individuals who experienced moderate levels of stress
before surgery were able to recover faster than individuals who had low or high levels.

Side Effects of Stress

Stress is key for survival, but too much stress can be detrimental. Emotional stress that stays around for
weeks or months can weaken the immune system and cause high blood pressure, fatigue, depression,
anxiety and even heart disease. In particular, too much epinephrine can be harmful to your heart. It can
change the arteries and how their cells are able to regenerate.

SOURCES OF STRESS

There might be one big thing causing usstress, but stress can also be caused by a build-up of
small challenges. This might make it harder for you to identify what's making you feel stressed,
or to explain it to other people.

“Lots of things stress me at the moment, mainly worries about my memory, as I'm
a pensioner with nothing to do all day. Trying to fill my day is hard as I have
arthritis so can’t walk too far”.
We can experience stress from four basic sources:

1. The Environment – the environment can bombard you with intense and competing
demands to adjust. Examples of environmental stressors include weather, noise,
crowding, pollution, traffic, unsafe and substandard housing, and crime.

2. Social Stressors – we can experience multiple stressors arising from the demands of the
different social roles we occupy, such as parent, spouse, caregiver, and employee. Some
examples of social stressors include deadlines, financial problems, job interviews,
presentations, disagreements, demands for your time and attention, loss of a loved one,
divorce, and co-parenting.

10
3. Physiological – Situations and circumstances affecting our body can be experienced as
physiological stressors. Examples of physiological stressors include rapid growth of
adolescence, menopause, illness, aging, giving birth, accidents, lack of exercise, poor
nutrition, and sleep disturbances.

4. Thoughts – Your brain interprets and perceives situations as stressful, difficult, painful,
or pleasant. Some situations in life are stress provoking, but it is our thoughts that
determine whether they are a problem for us.

EFFECTS OF STRESS ON OUR BODY

11
Stress is difficult for professionals to define because it is a highly subjective phenomenon that
differs for each of us. Things that are distressful for some individuals can be pleasurable for
others. We also respond to stress differently. Some people blush, some eat more while others
grow pale or eat less. There are numerous physical as well as emotional responses as illustrated
by the following list of 50 common signs and symptoms of stress.

50 Common Symptoms of Stress

These are the common symptoms that are seen in people very fequently who take stress on work
or their personal life od daily basis.

12
RECOMMENDATIONS

13
Reducing stress in your everyday life is vital for maintaining your overall health, as it can
improve your mood, boost immune function, promote longevity and allow you to be more
productive. When you let your stress get the best of you, you put yourself at risk of developing a
range of illnesses – from the common cold to severe heart disease. Stress has such a powerful
impact on your well being because it is a natural response that is activated in the brain.
In jobs that involve a high level of stress, staff training is important for teaching employees the
best way to manage stress. Employee stress can cause with apathy or a bad attitude towards
work, hence the importance teaching staff how best to cope with workplace stress.
When stress is not managed well and it is left untreated, it can present itself in physical
symptoms and many other ways. So this is very importance to know the major ways to release
one’s stress.
Now through a thorough analysis of my resercher’s styatements, many studies, the below
mentioned ways have been figured out to get relief of the stress. There are innumerable ways but
this major ways are most helpful in redusing and managing stress.

The frist and foremost technique which the reserchers had figured out was The ABC Strategy .

A – Awareness: This is the knack of discerning what causes one’s


stress. Take the time to realise at what point you are stressed and the
factors that push you to this point.
B – Balance: There is a fine line between positive stress, known
as eustress, and negative stress known as distress. Eustress
motivates and focuses energy, while distress causes anxiety
and decreases performance. Employees need to attain a
balance. Know how much of the eustress you can cope
with before it turns into distress.
C – Control: Ask yourself: “What can be done to
combat the negative causes of stress?” Research ways
of dealing with your stress. Speak to your HR office.

Now the few commons procedures through which one can completely grab control over their
stress or even avoid stress at work and daily life.

14
#1: Avoid unnecessary stress
Not all stress can be avoided, and it’s not healthy to avoid a situation that needs to be addressed.
You may be surprised, however, by the number of stressors in your life that you can eliminate.
 Learn how to say “no” – Know your limits and stick to them. Whether in your personal
or professional life, refuse to accept added responsibilities when you’re close to reaching
them. Taking on more than you can handle is a surefire recipe for stress.
 Avoid people who stress you out – If someone consistently causes stress in your life and
you can’t turn the relationship around, limit the amount of time you spend with that
person or end the relationship entirely.
 Take control of your environment – If the evening news makes you anxious, turn the
TV off. If traffic’s got you tense, take a longer but less-traveled route. If going to the
market is an unpleasant chore, do your grocery shopping online.
 Avoid hot-button topics – If you get upset over religion or politics, cross them off your
conversation list. If you repeatedly argue about the same subject with the same people,
stop bringing it up or excuse yourself when it’s the topic of discussion.
 Pare down your to-do list – Analyze your schedule, responsibilities, and daily tasks. If
you’ve got too much on your plate, distinguish between the “should” and the “musts.”
Drop tasks that aren’t truly necessary to the bottom of the list or eliminate them entirely.

#2: Alter the situation


If you can’t avoid a stressful situation, try to alter it. Figure out what you can do to change things
so the problem doesn’t present itself in the future. Often, this involves changing the way you
communicate and operate in your daily life.
 Express your feelings instead of bottling them up. If something or someone is
bothering you, communicate your concerns in an open and respectful way. If you don’t
voice your feelings, resentment will build and the situation will likely remain the same.
 Be willing to compromise. When you ask someone to change their behavior, be willing
to do the same. If you both are willing to bend at least a little, you’ll have a good chance
of finding a happy middle ground.
 Be more assertive. Don’t take a backseat in your own life. Deal with problems head on,
doing your best to anticipate and prevent them. If you’ve got an exam to study for and
your chatty roommate just got home, say up front that you only have five minutes to talk.
 Manage your time better. Poor time management can cause a lot of stress. When you’re
stretched too thin and running behind, it’s hard to stay calm and focused. But if you plan
ahead and make sure you don’t overextend yourself, you can alter the amount of stress
you’re under.
#3: Adapt to the stressor

15
If you can’t change the stressor, change yourself. You can adapt to stressful situations and regain
your sense of control by changing your expectations and attitude.
 Reframe problems. Try to view stressful situations from a more positive perspective.
Rather than fuming about a traffic jam, look at it as an opportunity to pause and regroup,
listen to your favorite radio station, or enjoy some alone time.
 Look at the big picture. Take perspective of the stressful situation. Ask yourself how
important it will be in the long run. Will it matter in a month? A year? Is it really worth
getting upset over? If the answer is no, focus your time and energy elsewhere.
 Adjust your standards. Perfectionism is a major source of avoidable stress. Stop setting
yourself up for failure by demanding perfection. Set reasonable standards for yourself
and others, and learn to be okay with “good enough.”
 Focus on the positive. When stress is getting you down, take a moment to reflect on all
the things you appreciate in your life, including your own positive qualities and gifts.
This simple strategy can help you keep things in perspective.

#4: Accept the things you can’t change

Some sources of stress are unavoidable. You can’t prevent or change stressors such as the death
of a loved one, a serious illness, or a national recession. In such cases, the best way to cope with
stress is to accept things as they are. Acceptance may be difficult, but in the long run, it’s easier
than railing against a situation you can’t change.
 Don’t try to control the uncontrollable. Many things in life are beyond our control—
particularly the behavior of other people. Rather than stressing out over them, focus on
the things you can control such as the way you choose to react to problems.
 Look for the upside. As the saying goes, “What doesn’t kill us makes us stronger.”
When facing major challenges, try to look at them as opportunities for personal growth. If
your own poor choices contributed to a stressful situation, reflect on them and learn from
your mistakes.
 Share your feelings. Talk to a trusted friend or make an appointment with a therapist.
Expressing what you’re going through can be very cathartic, even if there’s nothing you
can do to alter the stressful situation.
 Learn to forgive. Accept the fact that we live in an imperfect world and that people
make mistakes. Let go of anger and resentments. Free yourself from negative energy by
forgiving and moving on.

#5: Make time for fun and relaxation

16
Beyond a take-charge approach and a positive attitude, you can reduce stress in your life by
nurturing yourself. If you regularly make time for fun and relaxation, you’ll be in a better place
to handle life’s stressors when they inevitably come.
 Set aside relaxation time. Include rest and relaxation in your daily schedule. Don’t
allow other obligations to encroach. This is your time to take a break from all
responsibilities and recharge your batteries.
 Connect with others. Spend time with positive people who enhance your life. A strong
support system will buffer you from the negative effects of stress.
 Do something you enjoy every day. Make time for leisure activities that bring you joy,
whether it be stargazing, playing the piano, or working on your bike.
 Keep your sense of humor. This includes the ability to laugh at yourself. The act of
laughing helps your body fight stress in a number of ways.

Healthy ways to relax and recharge:


 Go for a walk.  Curl up with a good book.
 Spend time in nature.  Light scented candles.
 Call a good friend.  Take a long bath.
 Have a good workout.  Listen to music.
 Write in your journal.  Watch a comedy.
 Savor a cup of coffee or tea.  Get a massage.
 Play with a pet.
 Work in your garden.

#6: Adopt a healthy lifestyle


You can increase your resistance to stress by strengthening your physical health.
 Exercise regularly. Physical activity plays a key role in reducing and preventing the
effects of stress. Make time for at least 30 minutes of exercise, three times per week.
Nothing beats aerobic exercise for releasing pent-up stress and tension.
 Eat a healthy diet. Well-nourished bodies are better prepared to cope with stress, so be
mindful of what you eat. Start your day right with breakfast, and keep your energy up and
your mind clear with balanced, nutritious meals throughout the day.
 Reduce caffeine and sugar. The temporary "highs" caffeine and sugar provide often end
in with a crash in mood and energy. By reducing the amount of coffee, soft drinks,
chocolate, and sugar snacks in your diet, you’ll feel more relaxed and you’ll sleep better.
 Avoid alcohol, cigarettes, and drugs. Self-medicating with alcohol or drugs may
provide an easy escape from stress, but the relief is only temporary. Don’t avoid or mask
the issue at hand; deal with problems head on and with a clear mind.
 Get enough sleep. Adequate sleep fuels your mind, as well as your body. Feeling tired
will increase your stress because it may cause you to think irrationally.

17
Conclusion

To be optimistic, you must change what you believe about yourself, and the situation, when you
encounter adversity. Positive beliefs will, in turn, lead to more positive consequences, and a
more positive outlook. Great scholars stated

“Much of the stress that people feel doesn’t come from having too much to do.
It comes from not finishing what they’ve started.”
– David Allen

“In times of great stress or adversity, it’s always best to keep busy, to plow your
anger and your energy into something positive.”
– Lee Iacocca

Labor organizations must be interested and invested in reducing the stress of workers.
Undoubtedly, finding a balance in all aspects of life will better prepare us to meet the challenges
of every day. Stress affects people differently. Some people seem to thrive on extremely stressful
lifestyles, while others struggle to cope with everyday life. Everyone has an optimum level of
stress. Too little excitement and too few challenges may lead to an extremely dull life, yet too
much stress can lead to health problems. Nevertheless, a certain amount of stress can actually
prove to be good for individuals. Positive stress can act as a spur to achieve better results than
would otherwise be attained, and no-one would wish to avoid such potentially stressful but
enjoyable events as the birth of a child, forming new relationships or undertaking new
challenges. Stress is also extremely useful in acting as an enabler to avoid problems and
dangers. It is a motivator to solve problems and is an important warning signal that something is
wrong with an individual’s life, thereby allowing him or her to take some action.

THE END

18
19