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2014 International Conference on Electronic Systems, Signal Processing and Computing Technologies

Image Resolution Enhancementusing Lifting Wavelet and Stationary Wavelet Transform

Mayank Agrawal*, Ratnakar Dash

Department of Computer Science & Engineering National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Odisha, India *Corresponding Author (mayanksv12@gmail.com) ratnakar@nitrkl.ac.in

AbstractThis paper presents a technique for enhancing resolution of images by interpolating high frequency sub-bands generated using lifting wavelet transform (LWT) and spatial information of input low resolution (LR) image. Stationary wavelet transform (SWT) is used at intermediate stage for edge enhancement. The input image is decomposed using LWT in order to generate high frequency (HF) sub-bands. The generated HF sub- bands are interpolated further. Different high frequency sub-bands obtained through SWT are added to correct the estimated HF sub- bands. The input LR image is interpolated in parallel. All these sub-bands and estimated LR image are reconstructed by inverse lifting wavelet transformation (ILWT) to produce high resolution image. The qualitative, quantitative and visual images of the described technique show the superiority of the proposed method over conventional and state-of-the-art methods.

KeywordsLifting

wavelet

transform,

Stationary

wavelet

transform, Surface Fitting, Inverse Lifting wavelet transform.

I.

INTRODUCTION

Wavelets are efficient and computationally fast representations for data sets or general functions. The properties of wavelets results in fact that for compression, estimating and recovering functions wavelets is optimal bases [1]. Wavelets are being used for image processing for last few decades. Many wavelets have been used for resolution enhancement of images. Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) [2] and Stationary wavelet transform (SWT) [3] are wavelet transforms that are recently used for resolution enhancement. DWT uses down-sampling and generates various frequency sub-bands less than the size of input image, while SWT generates frequency sub-band images of same resolution as the input LR image. Lifting scheme uses the idea of lazy wavelet”. Lazy wavelet is a function having the formal property of wavelets. A new basis function is added by lifting scheme in order to build a new wavelet, with improved properties [1]. Lifting scheme allows building of second generation wavelets which are more general than first generation wavelets.

Resolution is crucial factor for an image. Images with higher resolution contain more information than that of low resolution.

Now-a-days high resolution images are used in many applications. Resolution of an image stands for number of pixels in image. Image with more number of pixels has higher resolution. There are various techniques to increase the resolution of the images and interpolation is one of them. To increase the resolution of images various interpolation methods are there, such as bilinear, bicubic and b-spline interpolation.

A new resolution enhancement technique for digital images has been proposed in this work using LWT. The HF sub-bands are generated by decomposing input LR image using LWT. These high frequency components contain vertical, diagonal and horizontal detail coefficients of the input image. These coefficients are interpolated using the idea of surface fitting [4]. The estimated coefficients then adjusted by adding the coefficients that are generated by decomposing input LR image using SWT. The input LR image interpolated using surface fitting in parallel. The interpolated input image and the adjusted high frequency components are agglomerated by ILWT in order to generate input LR image.

The proposed method is compared to various conventional and state-of-the-art methods. The comparison of quantitative, qualitative metrics and images’ results shows the eminence of proposed method over traditional and existing methods.

II. PROPOSED TECHNIQUE

In the proposed method interpolation of high frequency components is done using surface fitting. Conventional interpolation method increases smoothness of picture result in loss of sharp detail such as edges and curves. Reason for using surface fitting as interpolation method is that, it uses two dimensional Taylor series of second order. The first order derivative retains edges and second order derivative retains curves of the image. The idea of map estimation retains smooth details of the image.

The input LR image is decomposed using one level LWT (with Cohen-Daubechies-Feauveau 4.4 as liftwave) into different sub-bands. Three high frequency sub-bands contain horizontal,

978-1-4799-2102-7/14 $31.00 © 2014 IEEE DOI 10.1109/ICESC.2014.61

322

Three high frequency sub-bands contain horizontal, 978-1-4799-2102-7/14 $31.00 © 2014 IEEE DOI 10.1109/ICESC.2014.61 322
Three high frequency sub-bands contain horizontal, 978-1-4799-2102-7/14 $31.00 © 2014 IEEE DOI 10.1109/ICESC.2014.61 322
Three high frequency sub-bands contain horizontal, 978-1-4799-2102-7/14 $31.00 © 2014 IEEE DOI 10.1109/ICESC.2014.61 322

vertical and diagonal details of image and one low frequency sub-band contain approximation coefficients. The high frequency components interpolated by factor 2 before adjusted by adding high frequency components generated by SWT to make equal in size. LWT uses down-sampling to generate high frequency components cause loss of information that’s why high frequency components generated using SWT are being added to retain the loss of information.

The adjusted high frequency components further interpolated by factor γ. Instead of providing low frequency components to generate high resolution (HR) image, we have provided interpolated input LR image. This input LR image has been interpolated in parallel by factor γ.

High resolution image is generated by applying ILWT on further interpolated HF sub-bands and interpolated input LR image represented in Fig. 1. The HR image is 2γ times greater in size that of the input LR image. The output image contains sharp edges and more details then that of directly interpolated image.

III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

The proposed method was applied on well known images taken from USC-SIPI image database [7]. Images Lena, Baboon, Elaine, Peppers, Pentagon and Wall were used in experiment. All programs were written in MATLAB. The resolution factor was 4 for all images. For Lena, Baboon, Elaine and Peppers images resolution was enhanced from 128×128 to 512×512. Pentagon and wall images were super-resolved from 256×256 to

1024×1024.

For the quantitative comparison of results PSNR matric is used. PSNR values of the outputs of proposed technique were compared to PSNR values of the outputs of various traditional and existing methods. PSNR value is given by (1).

= 10 × log (

)

(1)

The comparison of PSNR for Lena, Elaine, Baboon and Peppers images is shown in TABLE I.

TABLE I.

PSNR (DB) RESULTS FOR RESOLUTION INCREMENT FROM

128×128 TO 512×512 OF SUGGESTED METHOD CONFRONTED TRADITIONAL AND

EXISTING METHODS.

Methods/

 

PSNR(DB)

 

Images

Lena

Elaine

Baboon

Peppers

Bilinear

26.34

25.38

20.51

25.16

Bicubic

26.86

28.93

20.61

25.66

NEDI [5]

28.81

29.97

21.18

28.52

HMM [6]

28.86

30.51

21.47

29.58

DWT SR [2]

34.79

32.73

23.29

32.19

DWT&SWT

SR

       

[3]

34.82

35.01

23.87

33.06

Proposed

34.91

34.95

28.92

36.10

L (m×n)/2 Interpolation by Interpolation by factor 2 factor γ LWT H + Input LR
L
(m×n)/2
Interpolation by
Interpolation by
factor 2
factor γ
LWT
H
+
Input LR
(m×n)/2
Interpolation by
Interpolation by
Image
ILWT
factor 2
factor γ
Output HR
(m×n)
V
+
Image
(m×n)/2
Interpolation by
Interpolation by
2γ (m×n)
factor 2
factor γ
D
+
(m×n)/2
L
(m×n)
H
SWT
(m×n)
V
(m×n)
Interpolation by
D
factor γ
(m×n)

Fig. 1.

Diagram of Proposed Method.

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The PSNR comparison for resolution enhancement from 256×256 to 1024×1024 is shown in Table II. Resolution enhancement from 256×256 to 1024×1024 is done on Pentagon and Wall images.

TABLE II.

PSNR (DB) RESULTS FOR RESOLUTION INCREMENT BY FACTOR

OF 4 (256×256 - 1024×1024) OF PROPOSED METHOD COMPARED WITH TRADITIONAL AND EXISTING METHODS.

Methods/Images

Bilinear

Bicubic

DWT SR

DWT&SWT SR

Proposed Method

PSNR(DB)

PSNR(DB)

Pentagon

28.61

28.99

29.67

31.05

32.01

Wall

29.27

30.24

32.45

33.18

36.98

Blind image quality index BIQI [8] is used to compare the superiority of the proposed method results to DWT&SWT SR method shown in Table III. BIQI is also called no reference image quality index. It is subjective to the perception of the human vision without any knowledge of reference image. Images with no blur and noise gives higher BIQI value.

Visual image fidelity (VIF) [9] index in another matric recently proposed subjective to the visual quality of the image. The quality of test image in this matric is evaluated by a reference image. Higher the VIF index, better the quality of test image. If VIF reaches to 1 that means test image is “Perfect”. VIF is given by (2).

=

( ) ( )

(2)

Where I (Test) is amount of information extracted by brain from test image and I (reference) the amount of information extracted by brain from reference image. The comparison of VIF index of results of proposed to the results of DWT&SWT SR is shown in Table III.

TABLE III.

DWT&SWT SR METHOD.

 
   

BIQI

   

VIF

Images /

       

Methods

Proposed

DWT&SWT

Proposed

DWT&SWT

 

SR

SR

Lena

48.67

28.21

0.57

0.14

Baboon

55.67

46

9

0.49

0.17

Elaine

49.06

34

02

0.72

0.19

Peppers

39.65

34.37

0.83

0.19

Pantagon

77.82

40.30

0.57

0.16

Wall

51.75

59.77

0.55

0.15

BIQI AND VIF INEDX COMPARISON OF PROPOSED METHOD AND

The visual results of proposed method, bicubic and DWT&SWT SR is shown in Fig. 2. Fig. 3 shows the visual results of all images.

in Fig. 2. Fig. 3 shows the visual results of all images. Fig. 2. Visual results

Fig. 2. Visual results for Lena image (512×512) (a) original image (b) bicubic interpolated (c) DWT&SWT interpolated and (d) proposed method

IV.

CONCLUSION

The proposed work of resolution enhancement of images interpolates the high frequency sub-bands of input LR image generated by decomposition of image using LWT. The interpolated high frequency sub-bands are modified by adding high frequency sub-bands generated by decomposing input LR images using SWT. These adjusted frequency sub-bands and interpolated image put together by ILWT to generated high resolution images. This method was applied on six well known images. The qualitative quantitative and image results proved the eminence of proposed method over traditional and existing methods of resolution increment.

image results proved the eminence of proposed method over traditional and existing methods of resolution increment.

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Fig. 3. Outputs of proposed method (a) Baboon (512×512) (b) Elaine (512×512) (c)

Fig. 3.

Outputs

of

proposed

method

(a)

Baboon

(512×512)

(b)

Elaine

(512×512)

(c)

Peppers

(512×512)

(d)

Pentagon

(1024×1024)

(e)

Wall

(1024×1024).

REFERENCES

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Journal ZAMM Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik, vol. 76 no. 2, pp. 41-44 , 1996. [2] G. Anbarjafari and H. Demirel, “Image super resolution based on interpolation of wavelet domain high frequency subbands and the spatial domain input image,” ETRI J., vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 390394,Jun. 2010. [3] Hasan Demirel and Gholamreza Anbarjafari, “IMAGE Resolution

[1]

[4]

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[5]

X. Li and M. T. Orchard, “New edge-directed interpolation,” IEEE Trans.

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[7]

A.

Weber,

USC-SIPI

Image

Database.

[Online]

Available:

[8]

http://sipi.usc.edu/database/database.php A K Moorthy and A C Bovik, ”A two-step framework for constructing

[9]

blind image quality indices,” IEEE Signal Process. Lett. vol. 17 no. 5, pp. 513516, 2010. H. R. Sheikh and A. C. Bovik, “Image information and visual quality,” IEEE Trans. Image Process., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 430444, Feb. 2006.

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