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# m picno kosong (gr) = 15.755 1.

## MENGHITUNG PIPA LURUS

m picno + air (gr) = 41.031 a. Pipa Lurus Horizontal
V picno air (ml) = 25 �= ∆𝑃/𝜌=𝑅(𝜌_𝐻−𝜌_𝐿 )𝑔/𝜌𝑅�=(𝜌∙𝐷𝑖∙𝑣)/�
ρ air (gr/cm^3) = ((𝑚 𝑝𝑖𝑐𝑛𝑜+𝑎𝑖𝑟)−(� ����� ������) )/(𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚� 𝑝𝑖𝑐𝑛𝑜)
Q (ml/s) v (cm/s) Re pipa besar
= 1.01104 1.8 0.91865982 183.884138
ρ raksa (gr/cm^3) = 13.6 3.3 1.68420967 337.12092
4.1 2.09250292 418.847204
L pipa vertikal (cm) = 116 4.8 2.44975952 490.357702
L pipa besar (cm) = 172 5.2 2.65390614 531.220844
L pipa kecil (cm) = 172 21.5 10.9728812 2196.39387
23 11.738431 2349.63066
Do pipa besar (cm) = 1.9 25 12.7591641 2553.94637
Do pipa kecil (cm) = 0.7 27 13.7798973 2758.26207
Di pipa besar (cm) = 1.57988 28 14.2902638 2860.41993
Di pipa kecil (cm) = 0.68326 30.5 15.5661803 3115.81457
34.5 17.6076465 3524.44598
µ air (gr/cm s) = 0.00798 37 18.8835629 3779.84062
40 20.4146626 4086.31418
A pipa besar (cm^2) = 1/4 𝜋∙ 〖𝐷𝑖〗 ^2 47.5 24.2424119 4852.49809

= 1.959376
A pipa kecil (cm^2) = 1/4 𝜋∙ 〖𝐷𝑖〗 ^2 b. Pipa Kecil Horizontal
�= ∆𝑃/𝜌=𝑅(𝜌_𝐻−𝜌_𝐿 )𝑔/𝜌𝑅�=(𝜌∙𝐷𝑖∙𝑣)/�
= 0.366473
Q (ml/s) v (cm/s) Re pipa kecil
1.8 4.91168517 425.188946
3.3 9.00476306 779.513666
4.1 11.1877359 968.486675
4.8 13.0978372 1133.83806
5.2 14.1893236 1228.32456
21.5 58.6673957 5078.64964
23 62.7604698 5432.97403
25 68.217902 5905.40656
27 73.6753341 6377.83908
28 76.4040502 6614.05534
30.5 83.2258404 7204.596
34.5 94.1407047 8149.46105
37 100.962495 8740.00171
40 109.148643 9448.65049
47.5 129.614014 11220.2725

## c. Pipa Kecil Vertikal

�= ∆𝑃/𝜌=((𝑅(𝜌_𝐻−𝜌_𝐿 )𝑔)−∆𝑧)/𝜌
𝑅�=(𝜌∙𝐷𝑖∙𝑣)/�

## Q (ml/s) v (cm/s) Re pipa kecil

1.8 4.91168894 425.189272
3.3 9.00476306 779.513666
4.1 11.1877359 968.486675
4.8 13.0978372 1133.83806
5.2 14.1893236 1228.32456
21.5 58.6673957 5078.64964
23 62.7604698 5432.97403
25 68.217902 5905.40656
27 73.6753341 6377.83908
28 76.4040502 6614.05534
30.5 83.2258404 7204.596
34.5 94.1407047 8149.46105
37 100.962495 8740.00171
40 109.148643 9448.65049
47.5 129.614014 11220.2725

## d. Pipa Kecil Horizontal Atas

Q (ml/s) v (cm/s) Re pipa kecil
1.8 4.91168894 425.189272
3.3 9.00476306 779.513666
4.1 11.1877359 968.486675
4.8 13.0978372 1133.83806
5.2 14.1893236 1228.32456
21.5 58.6673957 5078.64964
23 62.7604698 5432.97403
25 68.217902 5905.40656
27 73.6753341 6377.83908
28 76.4040502 6614.05534
30.5 83.2258404 7204.596
34.5 94.1407047 8149.46105
37 100.962495 8740.00171
40 109.148643 9448.65049
47.5 129.614014 11220.2725

## e. Rata-Rata Faktor Friksi Pipa Kecil

f = (b+c+d)/3
Faktor Friksi
Q b c
1.8 0.92920641 1.77104173
3.3 0.27645768 0.25046382
4.1 0.17909721 0.34135486
4.8 0.13066945 0.24905274
5.2 0.11133965 0.21221062
21.5 0.09769467 0.10359527
23 0.1024409 0.0848323
25 0.09633997 0.08143606
27 0.103245 0.0780779
28 0.10752229 0.08028066
30.5 0.11003625 0.08384107
34.5 0.09864679 0.07311491
37 0.08796564 0.06576746
40 0.09784528 0.07697032
47.5 0.09473875 0.07192937

## Hubungan Laju Alir dan Pressure Drop

∆𝑃=�(�_�−�_� )�

Manometer 1
Q v (cm/s)
R
1.8 0.91865982 1.1
3.3 1.68420967 0.9
4.1 2.09250292 0.8
4.8 2.44975952 0.6
5.2 2.65390614 0.5
21.5 10.9728812 1.1
23 11.738431 1.9
25 12.7591641 3
27 13.7798973 2.6
28 14.2902638 2.9
30.5 15.5661803 2.6
34.5 17.6076465 2.3
37 18.8835629 2.3
40 20.4146626 2
47.5 24.2424119 1.3

## Laju Alir vs Pressure Dr

120000
100000
Pressure Drop

80000
60000
40000
20000
0
0 5 10 15
Laju Alir

Val ve Pembe
Pi pa l urus hori zonta l Sambu
=(𝜌∙𝐷𝑖∙𝑣)/�
𝑣=𝑄/� �=(�∙2𝑔𝑐∙𝐷)/(𝐿∙𝑣^2 ) Re (pipa besar) vs f
R F f 1800
5.9 71994.55 1567.169 1600

## 5.8 70774.3 296.9403 1200

Faktor Friksi
1000
5.8 70774.3 216.6478
800
5.8 70774.3 184.5993
600
5.6 68333.81 10.42605
400
6.1 74435.04 9.923914
200
6.3 76875.53 8.674997
0
5.9 71994.55 6.965195 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
5.1 62232.57 5.598387 Bilangan Reynold
4.2 51250.36 3.885603
2.1 25625.18 1.518413
0.2 2440.493 0.125729 Re (pipa kecil) vs f
0.2 2440.493 0.107577
1
0.7 8541.726 0.267005
0.9
0.8
0.7
Faktor Friksi

0.6
=(𝜌∙𝐷𝑖∙𝑣)/�
𝑣=𝑄/� �=(�∙2𝑔𝑐∙𝐷)/(𝐿∙𝑣^2 ) 0.5
0.4
0.3
R F f
0.2
0.1 1220.247 0.929206 0.1
0.1 1220.247 0.276458 0
0.1 1220.247 0.179097 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000

## 0.1 1220.247 0.130669 Bilangan Reynold

0.1 1220.247 0.11134
1.5 18303.7 0.097695
1.8 21964.44 0.102441 v vs Re (Pipa besar)
2 24404.93 0.09634
6000
2.5 30506.16 0.103245
2.8 34166.9 0.107522 5000
3.4 41488.38 0.110036
Bilangan Reynold

4000
3.9 47589.62 0.098647
4 48809.86 0.087966 3000

## 5.2 63452.82 0.097845 2000

7.1 86637.51 0.094739
1000

0
0 5 10 15 20 25

## 𝑅�=(𝜌∙𝐷𝑖∙𝑣)/� Laju Alir

𝑣=𝑄/� �=(�∙2𝑔𝑐∙𝐷)/(𝐿∙𝑣^2 )

R F f
0.2 2325.76 1.771042 v vs Re (pipa kecil)
12000

10000
old

8000
v vs Re (pipa kecil)
0.1 1105.513 0.250464
12000
0.2 2325.76 0.341355
0.2 2325.76 0.249053 10000
0.2 2325.76 0.212211

Bilangan Reynold
8000
1.6 19409.21 0.103595
1.5 18188.97 0.084832 6000
1.7 20629.46 0.081436 4000
1.9 23069.95 0.078078
2.1 25510.44 0.080281 2000

## 2.6 31611.68 0.083841 0

2.9 35272.42 0.073115 0 20 40 60 80 100 120

## 3 36492.66 0.065767 Laju Alir

4.1 49915.38 0.07697
5.4 65778.58 0.071929

R F f
0.2 2325.76 1.771042
0.1 1105.513 0.250464
0.1 1105.513 0.162258
0.1 1105.513 0.118383
0.1 1105.513 0.100871
1.3 15748.47 0.084056
1.5 18188.97 0.084832
1.9 23069.95 0.09107
2.2 26730.69 0.090467
2.6 31611.68 0.099481
3.3 40153.4 0.106496
3.5 42593.9 0.088291
3.7 45034.39 0.081161
5 60897.59 0.093905
7 85302.53 0.093279

Faktor Friksi
d rata-rata
1.77104173 1.49043
0.25046382 0.259128
0.16225765 0.22757
0.11838329 0.166035
0.10087097 0.141474
0.08405634 0.095115
0.0848323 0.090702
0.09107006 0.089615
0.0904673 0.090597
0.09948106 0.095761
0.10649559 0.100124
0.08829134 0.086684
0.08116145 0.078298
0.09390508 0.089574
0.09327894 0.086649

## Manometer 1 Manometer 2 Manometer 3 Manometer 4 Manometer 5 Manometer 6

∆P R ∆P R ∆P R ∆P R ∆P R
13570.8989 2.1 25908.08 0.4 4934.872 5.9 72789.37 0.1 1233.718 1.6
11103.4627 2.1 25908.08 0.4 4934.872 5.8 71555.65 0.1 1233.718 1.5
9869.74464 2.1 25908.08 0.4 4934.872 5.8 71555.65 0.1 1233.718 1.5
7402.30848 2.1 25908.08 0.4 4934.872 5.8 71555.65 0.1 1233.718 1.5
6168.5904 2 24674.36 0.4 4934.872 5.8 71555.65 0.1 1233.718 1.5
13570.8989 1.4 17272.05 0.3 3701.154 5.6 69088.21 0.3 3701.154 2.2
23440.6435 2.6 32076.67 0.5 6168.59 6.1 75256.8 0.2 2467.436 2.8
37011.5424 4.6 56751.03 1.1 13570.9 6.3 77724.24 0.2 2467.436 2.6
32076.6701 6.9 85126.55 0.1 1233.718 5.9 72789.37 0.3 3701.154 3
35777.8243 8.2 101164.9 0.1 1233.718 5.1 62919.62 1 12337.18 4.2
32076.6701 8.3 102398.6 0.1 1233.718 4.2 51816.16 0.6 7402.308 5.6
28375.5158 8.2 101164.9 0.1 1233.718 2.1 25908.08 0.5 6168.59 6.5
28375.5158 8.3 102398.6 0.1 1233.718 0.2 2467.436 0.4 4934.872 7
24674.3616 8.2 101164.9 0.1 1233.718 0.2 2467.436 0.2 2467.436 7.9
16038.335 7 86360.27 0.6 7402.308 0.7 8636.027 0.8 9869.745 8.3

## Alir vs Pressure Drop (Besar) Laju Alir vs Presscure Drop (Kecil)

120000

100000

80000 Pengeci la n
Pressure Drop

Pi pa keci l hori z
60000 bawah
Pi pa keci l vertik
40000 Pi pa keci l hori z
10 15 20 25 30 20000
Laju Alir
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Pembesa ra n Bengkokan
Laju Alir
s hori zonta l Sambungan
r) vs f

eynold

) vs f

n Reynold

besar)

15 20 25 30
Alir

kecil)
kecil)

## 80 100 120 140

Alir
Manometer 6 Manometer 7 Manometer 8 Manometer 9
∆P R ∆P R ∆P R ∆P
19739.49 0.1 1233.718 0.2 2467.436 0.2 2467.436
18505.77 0.1 1233.718 0.1 1233.718 0.1 1233.718
18505.77 0.1 1233.718 0.2 2467.436 0.1 1233.718
18505.77 0.1 1233.718 0.2 2467.436 0.1 1233.718
18505.77 0.1 1233.718 0.2 2467.436 0.1 1233.718
27141.8 1.5 18505.77 1.6 19739.49 1.3 16038.34
34544.11 1.8 22206.93 1.5 18505.77 1.5 18505.77
32076.67 2 24674.36 1.7 20973.21 1.9 23440.64
37011.54 2.5 30842.95 1.9 23440.64 2.2 27141.8
51816.16 2.8 34544.11 2.1 25908.08 2.6 32076.67
69088.21 3.4 41946.41 2.6 32076.67 3.3 40712.7
80191.68 3.9 48115.01 2.9 35777.82 3.5 43180.13
86360.27 4 49348.72 3 37011.54 3.7 45647.57
97463.73 5.2 64153.34 4.1 50582.44 5 61685.9
102398.6 7.1 87593.98 5.4 66620.78 7 86360.27

re Drop (Kecil)

Pengeci la n
Pi pa keci l hori zonta l
bawah
Pi pa keci l vertika l
Pi pa keci l hori zonta l ata s

30
m picno kosong (gr) = 15.755 2. MENGHITUNG PANJANG EKIVALEN PRAKTIS
m picno + air (gr) = 41.031 a. Valve
V picno air (ml) = 25 𝑅�=(𝜌∙𝐷𝑖∙𝑣)/� �= ∆𝑃/𝜌=𝑅(𝜌_𝐻−𝜌_𝐿 )𝑔
𝑣=𝑄/�
ρ air (gr/cm^3) = ((𝑚 𝑝𝑖𝑐𝑛𝑜+𝑎𝑖𝑟)−(� ����� ������) )/(𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚� 𝑝𝑖𝑐𝑛𝑜)
Q (ml/s) v (cm/s) Re pipa besaR
= 1.01104 1.8 0.91866 183.884138 1.1
ρ raksa (gr/cm^3) = 13.6 3.3 1.68421 337.12092 0.9
4.1 2.092503 418.847204 0.8
L pipa vertikal (cm) = 116 4.8 2.44976 490.357702 0.6
L pipa besar (cm) = 172 5.2 2.653906 531.220844 0.5
L pipa kecil (cm) = 172 21.5 10.97288 2196.39387 1.1
23 11.73843 2349.63066 1.9
Do pipa besar (cm) = 1.9 25 12.75916 2553.94637 3
Do pipa kecil (cm) = 0.7 27 13.7799 2758.26207 2.6
Di pipa besar (cm) = 1.57988 28 14.29026 2860.41993 2.9
Di pipa besar (inch) = 0.622 30.5 15.56618 3115.81457 2.6
Di pipa kecil (cm) = 0.68326 34.5 17.60765 3524.44598 2.3
Di pipa kecil (inch) = 0.269 37 18.88356 3779.84062 2.3
40 20.41466 4086.31418 2
µ air (gr/cm s) = 0.00798 47.5 24.24241 4852.49809 1.3

## A pipa besar (cm^2) = 1/4 𝜋∙ 〖𝐷𝑖〗 ^2 b. Pembesaran

𝑅�=(𝜌∙𝐷𝑖∙𝑣)/� �= ∆𝑃/𝜌=𝑅(𝜌_𝐻−𝜌_𝐿 )𝑔
𝑣=𝑄/�
= 1.959376
A pipa kecil (cm^2) = 1/4 𝜋∙ 〖𝐷𝑖〗 ^2 Q (ml/s) v (cm/s) Re pipa besaR
1.8 0.91866 183.884138 2.1
= 0.366473 3.3 1.68421 337.12092 2.1
4.1 2.092503 418.847204 2.1
4.8 2.44976 490.357702 2.1
5.2 2.653906 531.220844 2
21.5 10.97288 2196.39387 1.4
23 11.73843 2349.63066 2.6
25 12.75916 2553.94637 4.6
27 13.7799 2758.26207 6.9
28 14.29026 2860.41993 8.2
30.5 15.56618 3115.81457 8.3
34.5 17.60765 3524.44598 8.2
37 18.88356 3779.84062 8.3
40 20.41466 4086.31418 8.2
47.5 24.24241 4852.49809 7

c. Bengkokan
𝑅�=(𝜌∙𝐷𝑖∙𝑣)/� �= ∆𝑃/𝜌=𝑅(𝜌_𝐻−𝜌_𝐿 )𝑔
𝑣=𝑄/�

Q v Re pipa besaR
1.8 0.91866 183.884138 0.4
3.3 1.68421 337.12092 0.4
4.1 2.092503 418.847204 0.4
4.8 2.44976 490.357702 0.4
5.2 2.653906 531.220844 0.4
21.5 10.97288 2196.39387 0.3
23 11.73843 2349.63066 0.5
25 12.75916 2553.94637 1.1
27 13.7799 2758.26207 0.1
28 14.29026 2860.41993 0.1
30.5 15.56618 3115.81457 0.1
34.5 17.60765 3524.44598 0.1
37 18.88356 3779.84062 0.1
40 20.41466 4086.31418 0.1
47.5 24.24241 4852.49809 0.6

d. Sambungan
Q v Re pipa besaR
1.8 0.91866 183.884138 0.1
3.3 1.68421 337.12092 0.1
4.1 2.092503 418.847204 0.1
4.8 2.44976 490.357702 0.1
5.2 2.653906 531.220844 0.1
21.5 10.97288 2196.39387 0.3
23 11.73843 2349.63066 0.2
25 12.75916 2553.94637 0.2
27 13.7799 2758.26207 0.3
28 14.29026 2860.41993 1
30.5 15.56618 3115.81457 0.6
34.5 17.60765 3524.44598 0.5
37 18.88356 3779.84062 0.4
40 20.41466 4086.31418 0.2
47.5 24.24241 4852.49809 0.8

e. Pengecilan
Q v Re pipa kecilR
1.8 0.91866 425.188946 1.6
3.3 1.68421 779.513067 1.5
4.1 2.092503 968.485932 1.5
4.8 2.44976 1133.83719 1.5
5.2 2.653906 1228.32362 1.5
21.5 10.97288 5078.64574 2.2
23 11.73843 5432.96986 2.8
25 12.75916 5905.40202 2.6
27 13.7799 6377.83419 3
28 14.29026 6614.05027 4.2
30.5 15.56618 7204.59047 5.6
34.5 17.60765 8149.45479 6.5
37 18.88356 8739.995 7
40 20.41466 9448.64324 7.9
47.5 24.24241 11220.2638 8.3
EN PRAKTIS %ERROR
%𝐸𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑟= ( 𝐿/𝐷 𝑇�𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑠−𝐿/𝐷 𝑃𝑟𝑎𝑘𝑡𝑖𝑠)/(𝐿/𝐷 𝑇�𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑠)×100
= ∆𝑃/𝜌=𝑅(𝜌_𝐻−𝜌_𝐿 )𝑔/𝜌 𝐿�=(�∙2𝑔𝑐∙𝐷)/(�∙𝑣^2
�=(�∙2𝑔𝑐∙𝐷)/(𝐿∙𝑣^2 ) )

F f Le Le/D a. Valve
13422.71 1567.169 32.0678 20.29762 L/D Teoritis 340
10982.22 458.3623 26.68966 16.89347 L/D Praktis 201.2918
9761.972 296.9403 23.72414 15.01642 %Error 40.79654
7321.479 216.6478 17.7931 11.26231
6101.233 184.5993 14.82759 9.385261 b. Pembesaran
13422.71 10.42605 33.78571 21.38499 �=(1− 〖𝐷 1 〗 ^2/ 〖𝐷 2 〗 ^2 )^2
23184.68 9.923914 53.57377 33.91003
36607.4 8.674997 81.90476 51.84239 0.965018
31726.41 6.965195 75.79661 47.97618 L/D Teoritis 36
35387.15 5.598387 97.80392 61.90592 L/D Praktis 757.3775
31726.41 3.885603 106.4762 67.39511 %Error 2003.826
28065.67 1.518413 188.381 119.2375
28065.67 0.125729 1978 1251.994 c. Bengkokan
24404.93 0.107577 1720 1088.69 L/D Teoritis 30
15863.21 0.267005 319.4286 202.1853 L/D Praktis 19.00802
%Error 36.63995

## = ∆𝑃/𝜌=𝑅(𝜌_𝐻−𝜌_𝐿 )𝑔/𝜌 𝐿�=(�∙2𝑔𝑐∙𝐷)/(�∙𝑣^2

�=(�∙2𝑔𝑐∙𝐷)/(𝐿∙𝑣^2 ) ) d. Sambungan
L/D Teoritis 20
F f Le Le/D L/D Praktis 36.10645
25625.18 1567.169 61.22034 38.74999 %Error 80.53223
25625.18 458.3623 62.27586 39.4181
25625.18 296.9403 62.27586 39.4181 e. Pengecilan
25625.18 216.6478 62.27586 39.4181 �=0,4(1− 〖𝐷 2 〗 ^2/ 〖𝐷 1 〗 ^2 )
24404.93 184.5993 59.31034 37.54104
17083.45 10.42605 43 27.21726 0.325186
31726.41 9.923914 73.31148 46.40319 L/D Teoritis 13
56131.34 8.674997 125.5873 79.49167 L/D Praktis 37283.45
84197.01 6.965195 201.1525 127.3214 %Error 286695.7
100060.2 5.598387 276.549 175.0443
101280.5 3.885603 339.9048 215.1459
100060.2 1.518413 671.619 425.1076
101280.5 0.125729 7138 4518.065
100060.2 0.107577 7052 4463.63
85417.26 0.267005 1720 1088.69

## = ∆𝑃/𝜌=𝑅(𝜌_𝐻−𝜌_𝐿 )𝑔/𝜌 𝐿�=(�∙2𝑔𝑐∙𝐷)/(�∙𝑣^2

�=(�∙2𝑔𝑐∙𝐷)/(𝐿∙𝑣^2 ) )

F f Le Le/D
4880.986 1567.169 11.66102 7.380951
4880.986 458.3623 11.86207 7.508209
4880.986 296.9403 11.86207 7.508209
4880.986 216.6478 11.86207 7.508209
4880.986 184.5993 11.86207 7.508209
3660.74 10.42605 9.214286 5.832269
6101.233 9.923914 14.09836 8.923691
13422.71 8.674997 30.03175 19.00888
1220.247 6.965195 2.915254 1.845238
1220.247 5.598387 3.372549 2.134687
1220.247 3.885603 4.095238 2.59212
1220.247 1.518413 8.190476 5.184239
1220.247 0.125729 86 54.43451
1220.247 0.107577 86 54.43451
7321.479 0.267005 147.4286 93.31631

F f Le Le/D
1220.247 1567.169 2.915254 1.845238
1220.247 458.3623 2.965517 1.877052
1220.247 296.9403 2.965517 1.877052
1220.247 216.6478 2.965517 1.877052
1220.247 184.5993 2.965517 1.877052
3660.74 10.42605 9.214286 5.832269
2440.493 9.923914 5.639344 3.569476
2440.493 8.674997 5.460317 3.45616
3660.74 6.965195 8.745763 5.535713
12202.47 5.598387 33.72549 21.34687
7321.479 3.885603 24.57143 15.55272
6101.233 1.518413 40.95238 25.9212
4880.986 0.125729 344 217.7381
2440.493 0.107577 172 108.869
9761.972 0.267005 196.5714 124.4217

F f Le Le/D
19523.94 1.49043 49045.67 71781.85
18303.7 0.259128 78683.84 115159.4
18303.7 0.22757 58042.48 84949.33
18303.7 0.166035 58042.48 84949.33
18303.7 0.141474 58042.48 84949.33
26845.42 0.095115 7406.825 10840.42
34166.9 0.090702 8638.206 12642.63
31726.41 0.089615 6871.446 10056.85
36607.4 0.090597 6723.857 9840.847
51250.36 0.095761 8280.952 12119.77
68333.81 0.100124 8899.92 13025.67
79316.03 0.086684 9325.491 13648.53
85417.26 0.078298 9666.743 14147.97
96399.48 0.089574 8159.518 11942.04
101280.5 0.086649 6284.409 9197.684
(𝐿/𝐷 𝑇�𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑠)×100