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Course: General Methods of Teaching


Code: 8601 Level: B.Ed SPRING 2018
Assignment No: 02
Q No: 1 Identify advantage and disadvantage of discussion method. Analyze the rule to organize
classroom discussion.
Discussion Method
Opposite of the Lecture method, method enables the instructor to query the student on a certain topic, there
by evaluating what the student knows, and what he does not know.
Use of Question in a Discussion –
Types
• Overhead/How/Why – Directed to the entire group
• Rhetorical – Spurs group thought
• Direct – Asked of a specific student
• Reverse – In response to a question, ask another question.
• Relay – Relay the question to the group if asked by a student
Effective Questions
• Select a suitable subject
• Establish objective
• Research the subject
• Organize main and subordinate points logically
• Plan a lead-off question for each desired outcome
• Guide students in their preparation
Structure of Discussion – The instructor must have a set of goals and or ideas that he wants to convey to
the student.
Introduction – This should something that poses a question or a telling of a story to help get the discussion
off the ground.
Discussion – The instructor should keep the discussion on topic. The instructor should listen attentively and
try to continually evaluate the knowledge of the student
Summary – The instructor should summarize each section before moving on.
Conclusion – The instructor should take a couple of minutes to review and recap what was covered in the
discussion. This will help the student grasp the “larger picture.” The instructor should clarify any questions.

ENCOURAGING STUDENT PARTICIPATION IN DISCUSSION

• General Strategies
Arrange seating to promote discussion
Limit your own comments
• Tactics to Increase Student Participation
Plan an icebreaker activity early in the semester
Ask students to identify characteristics of an effective discussion
Periodically divide students into small groups
Assign roles to students
Use poker chips or “comment cards” to encourage discussion
Use electronic mail to start a discussion

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• Tactics to Keep Students Talking


Build rapport with students
Bring students’ outside comments into class
Use nonverbal cues to encourage participation
Draw all students into the discussion
Give quiet students special encouragement
Arrange small group (two to four students) discussions
• Discourage students who monopolize the discussion
Break the class into small groups or assign tasks to pairs of students
Tactfully correct wrong answers
Reward but do not grade student participation
• Encourage students to learn each other’s names and interests.
• Students are more likely to participate in class if they feel they are among friends rather than
strangers; so at the beginning of the term, ask students to introduce themselves and describe their
primary interests or background in the subject (Tiberius, 1990). These introductions may also give
you some clues about framing discussion questions that address students’ interests. See “The First
Day of Class” for ideas on helping students get to know one another.
• Get to know as many of your students as class size permits.
• In classes of thirty or less, learn all your students’ names. (“The First Day of Class” lists several
ways to do this.) If you require students to come to your office once during the first few weeks of
class, you can also learn about their interests. Class participation often improves after students have
had an opportunity to talk informally with their instructor.
Arrange seating to promote discussion.
• If your room has movable chairs, ask students to sit in a semicircle so that they can see one another.
At a long seminar table, seat yourself along the side rather than at the head. If appropriate, ask
students to print their names on name cards and display them on their desk or the table. Research
reported by Beard and Hartley (1984) shows that people tend to talk to the person sitting
opposite them, that people sitting next to each other tend not to talk to one another, that the most
centrally placed member of a group tends to emerge as leader, and that leaders tend to sit in the least
crowded parts of a room.
• Allow the class time to warm up before you launch into the discussion.
• Consider arriving two to three minutes early to talk informally with students. Or open class with a
few minutes of conversation about relevant current events, campus activities, or administrative
matters. (Sources: Billson, 1986; Welty, 1989)
Limit your own comments.
Some teachers talk too much and turn a discussion into a lecture or a series of instructor-student dialogues.
Brown and Atkins (1988) report a series of studies by various researchers that found that most discussion
classes are dominated by instructors. In one study (p. 53) faculty talked 86 percent of the time. Avoid the
temptation to respond to every student’s contribution. Instead, allow students to develop their ideas and
respond to one another.
Tactics to Increase Student Participation
Make certain each student has an opportunity to talk in class during the first two or three weeks. The longer
a student goes without speaking in class, the more difficult it will be for him or her to contribute.
Devise small group or pair work early in the term so that all students can participate and hear their own
voices in nonthreatening circumstances.
Plan an icebreaker activity early in the semester.
For example, a professor teaching plant domestication in cultural geography asks students to bring to class a
fruit or vegetable from another culture or region. The discussion focuses on the countries of origin and the

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relationship between food and culture. At the end of class students eat what they brought. See “The First
Day of Class” for other suggestions.
Ask students to identify characteristics of an effective discussion.
Ask students individually or in small groups to recall discussions and seminars in which they have
participated and to list the characteristics of those that were worthwhile. Then ask students to list the
characteristics of poor discussions. Write the items on the board, tallying those items mentioned by more
than one student or group. With the entire class, explore ways in which class members can maximize those
aspects that make for a good discussion and minimize those aspects that make for a poor discussion.
Periodically divide students into small groups.
Students find it easier to speak to groups of three or four than to an entire class. Divide students into small
groups, have them discuss a question or issue for five or ten minutes, and then return to a plenary format.
Choose topics that are focused and straightforward: “What are the two most important characteristics of
goal-free evaluation?” or “Why did the experiment fail?” Have each group report orally and record the
results on the board. Once students have spoken in small groups, they may be less reluctant to speak to the
class as a whole.
Assign roles to students.
Ask two or three students to lead a discussion session sometime during the term. Meet with the student
discussion leaders beforehand to go over their questions and proposed format. Have the leaders distribute
three to six discussion questions to the class a week before the discussion. During class the leaders assume
responsibility for generating and facilitating the discussion. For discussions you lead, assign one or two
students per session to be observers responsible for commenting on the discussion. Other student
roles include periodic summarizer (to summarize the main substantive points two or three times during the
session), recorder (to serve as the group’s memory), timekeeper (to keep the class on schedule), and
designated first speaker. (Source: Hyman, 1980)
Use poker chips or “comment cards” to encourage discussion.
One faculty member distributes three poker chips to each student in her class. Each time a student speaks, a
chip is turned over to the instructor. Students must spend all their chips by the end of the period. The
professor reports that this strategy limits students who dominate the discussion and encourages quiet
students to speak up. Another professor hand out a “comment card” each time a student provides a strong
response or insightful comment. Students turn back the cards at the end of the period, and the professor
notes on the course roster the number of cards each student received.
Use electronic mail to start a discussion.
One faculty member in the biological sciences poses a question through electronic mail and asks the students
to write in their responses and comments. He then hands out copies of all the responses to initiate the class
discussion.
Tactics to Keep Students Talking
Build rapport with students.
Simply saying that you are interested in what your students think and that you value their opinions may not
be enough. In addition, comment positively about a student’s contribution and reinforce good points by
paraphrasing or summarizing them. If a student makes a good observation that is ignored by the class, point
this out: “Thank you, Steve. Karen also raised that issue earlier, but we didn’t pick up on it. Perhaps now is
the time to address it. Thank you for your patience, Karen” (Tiberius, 1990). Clarke (1988) suggests tagging
important assertions or questions with the student’s name: the Amy argument or the Haruko hypothesis.
Tiberius (1990) warns against overdoing this, however, because a class may get tired of being reminded that
they are discussing so-and-so’s point.
Bring students’ outside comments into class.
Talk to students during office hours, in hallways, and around campus. If they make a good comment, check
with them first to see whether they are willing to raise the idea in class, then say: “Jana, you were saying
something about that in the hall yesterday Would you repeat it for the rest of the class.”
Use nonverbal cues to encourage participation.
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For example, smile expectantly and nod as students talk. Maintain eye contact with students. Look relaxed
and interested.

Draw all students into the discussion.


You can involve more students by asking whether they agree with what has just been said or whether
someone can provide another example to support or contradict a point: “How do the rest of you feel about
that?” or “Does anyone who hasn’t spoken care to comment on the plans for People’s Park?” Moreover, if
you move away from – rather than toward – a student who makes a comment, the student will speak up and
outward, drawing everyone into the conversation. The comment will be “on the floor,” open for students to
respond to.

Give quiet students special encouragement.


Quiet students are not necessarily uninvolved, so avoid excessive efforts to draw them out. Some quiet
students, though, are just waiting for a nonthreatening opportunity to speak. To help these students, consider
the following strategies:
Arrange small group (two to four students) discussions.
Pose casual questions that don’t call for a detailed correct response: “What are some reasons why people
may not vote?” or “What do you remember most from the reading?” or “Which of the articles did you find
most difficult?” (McKeachie 1986). Assign a small specific task to a quiet student: “Carrie, would you find
out for next class session what Chile’s GNP was last year?” Reward infrequent contributors with a smile.
Bolster students’ self-confidence by writing their comments on the board (Welty, 1989). Stand or sit next to
someone who has not contributed; your proximity may draw a hesitant student into the discussion.
Discourage students who monopolize the discussion.
As reported in “The One or Two Who Talk Too Much” (1988), researchers Karp and Yoels found that in
classes with fewer than forty students, four or five students accounted for 75 percent of the total interactions
per session. In classes with more than forty students, two or three students accounted for 51 percent of the
exchanges. Here are some ways to handle dominating students.
Break the class into small groups or assign tasks to pairs of students.
Ask everyone to jot down a response to your question and then choose someone to speak. If only the
dominant students raise their hand, restate your desire for greater student participation: “I’d like to hear from
others in the class.” Avoid making eye contact with the talkative. If one student has been dominating the
discussion, ask other students whether they agree or disagree with that student. Explain that the discussion
has become too one-sided and ask the monopolizer to help by remaining silent: “Larry, since we must move
on, would you briefly summarize your remarks, and then we’ll hear the reactions of other group members.”
Assign a specific role to the dominant student that limits participation (for example, periodic summarizer).
Acknowledge the time constraints: “Jon, I notice that our time is running out. Let’s set a thirty-second limit
on everybody’s comments from now on.” If the monopolizer is a serious problem, speak to him or her after
class or during office hours. Tell the student that you value his or her participation and wish more students
contributed. If this student’s comments are good, say so; but point out that learning results from give-and-
take and that everyone benefits from hearing a range of opinions and views.
Tactfully correct wrong answers.
Any type of put-down or disapproval will inhibit students from speaking up and from learning. Say
something positive about those aspects of the response that are insightful or creative and point out those
aspects that are off base. Provide hints, suggestions, or follow-up questions that will enable students to
understand and correct their own errors. Billson (1986) suggests prompts such as “Good–now let’s take. It a
step further”; “Keep going”; “Not quite, but keep thinking about it.”
Reward but do not grade student participation.
Some faculty members assign grades based on participation or reward student participation with bonus
points when assigning final grades. Melvin (1988) describes a grading scheme based on peer and professor
evaluation: Students are asked to rate the class participation of each of their classmates as high, medium, or
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low if the median peer rating is higher than the instructor’s rating of that student, the two ratings are
averaged. If the peer rating is lower, the student receives the instructor’s rating. Other faculty members
believe that grading based on participation is inappropriate, that is, subjective and not defensible
if challenged. They also note that such a policy may discourage free and open discussion, making students
hesitant to talk for fear of revealing their ignorance or being perceived as trying to gain grade points. In
addition, faculty argues, thoughtful silence is not unproductive, and shy students should not be placed at a
disadvantage simply because they are shy.
There are means other than grades to encourage and reward participation: verbal praise of good
points, acknowledgment of valued contributions, or even written notes to students who have added
significantly to the discussion. One faculty member uses lottery tickets to recognize excellent student
responses or questions when they occur. He doesn’t announce this in advance but distributes the first ticket
as a surprise. Tickets can be given to individuals or to small groups. Over the term, he may hand out fifteen
to twenty lottery tickets. In a small class, you may be able to keep notes on students’ participation and
devote some office hours to helping students develop their skills in presenting their points of view and
listening to their classmates (Hertenstein, 1991).
Q No: 2 a) Explain cooperative learning principals.
b) Discuss different stages of cooperative learning

(Part A)
Explain cooperative learning principals.

There are five fundamental elements involved in cooperative learning. In fact, these five elements
distinguish cooperative learning from other forms of group learning. These elements can be thought of as
pieces in a puzzle. When all of these elements are present in a learning situation, the result is a cooperative
learning group. The five basic elements of cooperative learning are:
• Positive interdependence
• Individual and group accountability
• Interpersonal and small group skills
• Face-to-face promotive interaction
• Group processing

Positive Interdependence
This means the group has a clear task or goal so everyone knows they sink or swim together. The efforts of
each person benefit not only the individual, but also everyone else in the group. The key to positive
interdependence is committing to personal success as well as the success of every member of the group.

Individual and Group Accountability


The group is accountable for achieving its goals, and each member must be accountable for contributing a
fair share of the work toward the group goal. No one can "hitchhike" on the work of others. The
performance of each individual must be assessed and the results given back to the group.

Interpersonal and Small Group Skills


Interpersonal and small group skills are required to function as part of a group. These are basic teamwork
skills. Group members must know how to - and be motivated to - provide effective leadership, make
decisions, build trust, communicate, and manage conflict.
• Completing tasks
• Communicating
• Decision making
• Managing conflict

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• Appreciating group members

Face-to-Face Promotive Interaction


This means that students promote each other's success by sharing resources. They help, support, encourage,
and praise each other's efforts to learn. Both academic and personal supports are part of this mutual goal.

Group Processing
Group members need to feel free to communicate openly with each other to express concerns as well as to
celebrate accomplishments. They should discuss how well they are achieving their goals and maintaining
effective working relationships.
To help you understand cooperative learning a little better, here are some ideas and activities that could help
team members develop better skills in each of the areas listed above.

Ways to Ensure Positive Interdependence:


• The group has only one pencil, paper, book, or other resource.
• One paper is written by the group.
• A task is divided into jobs and can't be finished unless all help.
• Pass one paper around the group on which each member must write a section.
• Each person learns a topic and then teaches it to the group (Jigsaw method).
• Offer a reward (e.g. bonus points) if everyone in the group succeeds.

Ways to Ensure Individual and Group Accountability:


• Students do the work before bringing it to the group.
• One student is chosen at random and questioned on the material the group has studied.
• Everyone writes a paper; the group certifies the accuracy of all their papers; the instructor chooses
only one paper to grade.
• Students receive bonus points if all do well individually.
• Instructor observes students taking turns orally rehearsing information.

Ways to Ensure Interpersonal and Small Group Skills:


• Be on time for group meetings and start them on time.
• Listen to others. Don't be so busy rehearsing what you are going to say that you miss other group
members' points and ideas.
• Don't close the road to mutual learning by interrupting or using language that can be regarded as a
personal attack.
• Make sure everyone has the opportunity to speak.
• Don't suppress conflict, but do control and discipline it.

Ways to Ensure Face-to-Face Promotive Interaction:


• A student orally explains how to solve a problem.
• One group member discusses a concept with others.
• A group member teaches classmates about a topic.
• Students help each other connect present and past learning.

Ways To Ensure Group Processing:

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• Group members describe each other's helpful and unhelpful behaviors and actions.
• As a group, make decisions about which behaviors to continue and which behaviors to change.

Additional Elements of Effective Groups


Although team dynamics (how the individual team members work together) can differ from team to team,
effective teams share the following characteristics (modified from Bodwell 1996, 1999):

Full participation - All team members contribute their time and energy to the project. More importantly, all
team members participate in the decision making process.

Trust - Members trust that each member will add value to the project, and members work to ensure that
everybody contributes and that appreciation is expressed for different contributions.

Open communication - Communication is the glue that holds a team together. Communication is effective
when all members:
• Contribute ideas.
• Provide feedback constructively.
• Ask for clarification on anything that might be confusing.
• Provide frequent updates.
• Listen to each other carefully.

Social/business balance - Although teams shouldn't socialize 100% of the time, it shouldn't be all business
either. Casual conversation allows members to know each other better, leading to better working relations.

(Part B)
Discuss different stages of cooperative learning.

Cooperative learning
Cooperative learning is an educational approach which aims to organize classroom activities into academic
and social learning experiences. There is much more to cooperative learning than merely arranging students
into groups, and it has been described as "structuring positive interdependence. Students must work in
groups to complete tasks collectively toward academic goals. Unlike individual learning, which can be
competitive in nature, students learning cooperatively can capitalize on one another's resources and skills
(asking one another for information, evaluating one another's ideas, monitoring one another's work,
etc.). Furthermore, the teacher's role changes from giving information to facilitating students' learning.
Everyone succeeds when the group succeeds. Ross and Smyth (1995) describe successful cooperative
learning tasks as intellectually demanding, creative, open-ended, and involve higher order thinking
tasks. Cooperative learning has also been linked to increased levels of student satisfaction.
Five essential elements are identified for the successful incorporation of cooperative learning in the
classroom.

• Positive interdependence
• Individual and group accountability
• Promotive interaction (face to face)
• Teaching the students the required interpersonal and small group skills
• Group processing.

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According to Johnson and Johnson's meta-analysis, students in cooperative learning settings compared to
those in individualistic or competitive learning settings, achieve more, reason better, gain higher self-esteem,
like classmates and the learning tasks more and have more perceived social support. The concept of
cooperative learning is an attempt of western educators to develop a group learning method for increased
learning efficiency. Slavin (1995) and Strommen (1995) stated that cooperative learning can be employed
effectively to all levels of teaching and learning facilitation. This included mathematics subject, reading,
writing, and Science subject as well as subjects which need computer to help solve complex problems and
facilitate convenience in cooperative learning. Uslik and Walker (1994) and Serra (1997) claimed that
cooperative learning can be managed in various forms in which it comprises 2-6 learners depending on types
of learning activities. However, one research finds that a group of 4-5 learners is the most appropriate.
Johnson and Johnson (1987) proposed the method of cooperative learning as follows:
• Assigning Appropriate Tasks Coordination is an appropriate method for the facilitation of teaching
and learning. Cooperative learning is employed in case of the following: problem solving skills are
needed, creative thinking, high quality achievement, complex tasks, and social development of
learners.
• Teacher – Student Interaction In cooperative learning, there is a tight relationship between the
teacher and students. The teacher introduces learning content to students, explains learning
objectives, constructs learning conditions, observes classroom activities, and assists students when
needed. Meanwhile, students take part in learning activities as introduced and they must do assigned
tasks successfully.
• Student – Student Interaction Each student must perceive that his group members can help, support,
and enhance him in learning.
• Student – Materials Interaction There is the difference in the preparation of learning materials based
on form and objectives of learning content. Students will receive a set of learning materials for
studying. The learning materials may be used for group tasks or individual tasks and obtained
knowledge will be shared among group members.
• Students Role Expectation Cooperative learning aims to make students have interaction among
group members. This includes idea and learning material sharing as well as support. Each students
group must have clear goals and each group member must take part in group activities in order to
achieve the goals.
Once you’ve decided to use small groups in your class, you need to make sure you are adequately prepared
in order to be successful using this teaching method. When preparing, keep these five steps in mind:
1. Plan
Obviously you want to have goals and objectives for the academic task at hand, but there’s another element
of planning that needs to happen with cooperative learning. You also need to consider objectives for social
skills, such as team work or peer accountability. Other things to think about include group size and
composition. Think about how long your groups will be formed and how many students will make up each
group. (See this post for more information on types of groups.) Will you have a group leader? Will all the
work be evenly distributed? Plan for all of these elements are beforehand. You also need to consider which
types of assessment are most appropriate for the assignment and how the students will help with that aspect.
2. Introduce
Clearly communicating your goals and objectives to your students is vital. You will need to explain criteria
for the academic task, as well as behavioral expectations for working with peers. Time limits, accountability,
and decision making within the group all need to be discussed before the project even starts. It may be
helpful to develop an assessment rubric and go over it with your students so they know exactly what to
expect. Allow time for questions from your students to ensure that everything is clearly understood. This
step is very important, for if your students do not know what is expected of them academically and
behaviorally, their cooperative learning experience may not be successful.

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3. Monitor
Once students have begun to work in their groups, it is your job to monitor and observe. You should be
available to answer questions and provide clarification as needed but you should also be spending some
amount of time in each group listening and monitoring. Observe how the students are working together and
ask questions to stimulate thinking if necessary. Make notes about each group to assist you in the assessment
step.
4. Assess
With cooperative learning, assessment can be tricky at times. You want to hold both individuals and the
group accountable for the academic work and possibly even the social objectives. Using a mixture of self
assessment, group assessment and your own judgment usually works well to determine a final grade.
5. Process
Allow time for your students to reflect upon their cooperative learning experience and give feedback on the
academic assignment and the group structure. Hear what worked well and look for ways to improve upon
next time.
Q No: 3 a) Explain the importance and different types of set induction.
b) Discuss the process of identifying learning difficulties of students.
(Part A)
Explain the importance and different types of set induction.
Educational technology is a systematic and organized process of applying modern technology to improve the
quality of education (efficiency, optimal, true, etc.). It is a systematic way of conceptualizing the execution
and evaluation of the educational process, i. e. learning and teaching and help with the application of modern
educational teaching techniques. It includes instructional materials, methods and organization of work and
relationships, i.e. the behavior of all participants in the educational process. The term “teaching resources” is
commonly used, although they are not synonymous. The word technology is derived from the Greek word
“techno” which means the willingness, skills, knowledge of the way, rule, skill, tools and “logos” which
means science, word, learning, mental state. There is no single term for educational technology. Different
countries use different terms and synonyms as educational technology, educational equipment and AV
resources.
As we know set induction is the important part that teacher always does at the beginning of teaching and
learning process. The objective of set induction is to induce the pupils to attract them and make them
concentrate their attention towards teacher's presentation. The most effective ways to present set induction
by using teaching aids, related situation with the lesson, motivation, questioning technique, revision of
related topic and much more. For example if you want to teach lesson about Mathematic subject like topic of
volume of liquid you can bring one bottle of water and a bowl of water that in red color and same volume
and ask them what you bring and ask them also question like " Which volume of water is more? This is
some questioning technique that you can do so. Maybe some pupils will answer it wrong because they see at
the shape of container in determine the volume of water but it is okay because you want they to focus on
your teaching.
In determine good set induction you must know it is suitable with their ability and also experience. Also the
activity taught to relate closely to the lesson contents that follow. Many teachers spend outrageously little
time preparing their students for classroom activities. Often this preparation consists only of telling their
students to read some story by the next class session or to watch some demonstration carefully. With such a
limited introduction, could any teacher truly expect students to be attentive and eager to learn the material?
The purpose of this microteaching is to stimulate you to think of better ways of preparing your students for
learning.
Several psychological experiments
Several psychological experiments have demonstrated the importance of set induction in learning. Research
indicates that activities preceding a learning task influence the performance of the task. The research also
indicates that the effectiveness of a set depends somewhat on the situation to which it is applied. Hence,
teachers must find those kinds of sets most appropriate to their purposes and must modify these sets to fit the
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specific classroom situation. In most cases, the initial instructional move of the teacher should be to establish
a set. The set focuses students' attention on some familiar person, object, event, condition, or idea. The
established set functions as a point of reference around which the students and the teacher communicate.
The teacher uses this point of reference as a link between familiar and new or difficult material.
Furthermore, an effective set encourages student interest and involvement in the main body of the lesson.
The establishment of a set usually occurs at the beginning of a class period, but it may occur during the
session. Set induction is appropriate whenever the activity, the goal of the content of the lesson is changed
so that a new or modified frame of reference is needed. Set induction is also used to build continuity from
lesson to lesson and from unit to unit. Thus, a new set may be linked to an established set off to a series of
sets.
Influence of set induction
All of us have experienced the influence of set induction on our responses to a situation. If we have been
told that some person is a brilliant scientist, we respond differently than we would if we had been told he or
she was a star athlete. What we "learn" during our conversation with this person will depend in part on what
we have been told. Similarly, whatever information a teacher gives students about the degree of difficulty
and format of a test will probably affect the way they study for it. Suppose that a teacher wants the students
to read Chapter Six in their textbooks as homework. Produce the most learning for the next day? The teacher
could say, "Now class, for tomorrow I want all of you to read chapter six in the text." Such a weak set would
normally produce a weak response. The next day the teacher might discover that half the class had not read
the assignment, and that the other half, although claiming to have read it, was unable to discuss it in any
depth.
The teacher could take a completely different approach to the Constitutional Convention of 1787. A
different set, one more likely to motivate the students, might be something like the following:

Teacher: Suppose you were setting up a colony on a distant planet. Since this colony will be self governing,
the colonists have to draw up some kind of rules for governing themselves. For tonight I want each of you to
pretend that you are a colonist on that planet, and that tomorrow you will begin discussions to draw up some
sort of constitution. Think about who will do the ruling, how the ruler will be chosen, and what kinds of
rights each individual will be guaranteed. Also consider what the colony will do when its population
expands to over a million people. Each one of you should answer these questions and be prepared to discuss
them tomorrow.
After spending a subsequent class period discussing these and related questions, the teacher could assign
appropriate reading and conduct discussions about the problems that confronted the Constitutional
Convention in 1787. The teacher would have established a sufficient set, one that both stimulated the
students and prepared them for the learning activity. Sets are appropriate for almost any learning activity.
For example, a set is appropriate:
• At the start of a unit
• Before a discussion
• Before a question-and-answer period,
• When assigning homework,
• Before hearing a panel discussion,
• Before student reports,
• When assigning student reports,
• Before a film or other media event,
• Before a discussion,
• Before a homework assignment based on a discussion that followed a filmstrip.
(Part B)
Discuss the process of identifying learning difficulties of students.

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Parents and teachers are often guided on ways to help their child with a learning difficulty, but providing
teachers with the necessary guidance towards enhancing the teaching and learning process is just as
important.
Children with special educational needs (SEN) have learning difficulties or disabilities that make it harder
for them to learn than most people of the same age. Figures released by the Department for Education show
that there are 1.49 million pupils (17.9 per cent) in the UK with SEN. This forms part of a progressive
decline from 2010, when 21.1 per cent of school children were identified as having the condition.
But despite the statistics revealing fewer people have SEN today than some years ago, those with the
condition still require additional help and support.
As a teacher, providing the best help to children with learning difficulties can be challenging, particularly in
mainstream education where there are heterogeneous learners. Alongside the guidance you will receive from
the government and your school's curriculum, here are some of the best tips towards creating an all-round
positive learning experience - both in mainstream and special schools.
Cumulative Record Review
The cumulative record of a high school student provides a factual framework of patterns of behavior and
trends in academic performance. Teacher comments on previous report cards offer insight into student
progress during various stages of skill development. Essential personal information involving attendance,
health, family situation, history and extent of support services are contributing factors, which should be
considered. A checklist has been included to assist in summarizing pertinent information.
Work Samples
Samples of student work can be an indication of the level of success the student has achieved in a variety of
written areas. It can be useful looking at class notes, written assignments, and unit tests in several subject
areas. Difficulties can be noted in how the student copies, interprets, processes and retains information.
Observations
An observation checklist has been included to help the teacher analyze a student’s strengths and weaknesses
in six skill areas. This is intended to be used as a general indicator of patterns of differences in learning
behavior.
i) Receptive language includes vocabulary, reading decoding, and comprehension. Teachers can examine the
student’s listening skills, such as the ability to understand directions and explanations presented in the
classroom.
ii) Expressive language includes both oral and written expression. Frequently the student’s oral expressive
language will be stronger than their written expressive language. Some students may have difficulty with the
expression and sequencing of thoughts, the structure of sentences and paragraphs, the mechanics of writing,
and also with word order and verb agreement. Written responses may often be brief in comparison to oral
responses.
iii) Note-taking skills may indicate weaknesses in visual-motor integration. Some students will demonstrate
difficulty with writing, copying from near or far point, and with organizing visual-spatial information on the
page. Problems may surface with accuracy and fluency in writing. Taking notes by dictation can be more
difficult for those who are less able to listen and write at the same time. In math, students may have
difficulty with computation and/or math concepts. Computation skills may be affected by weaknesses in
long-term memory, sequencing, organizing or lining up numbers, and in estimating. Math concepts may be
weak because of difficulties with math terminology and related language. Applying previously learned skills
to a new concept might be difficult and need to be explicitly reinforced and practiced. Multi-step problems
may cause confusion with steps being out of sequence or omitted. Using a calculator effectively may be
affected by difficulties with motor skills, visual-spatial abilities and sequencing.
iv) In the area of social skills and peer relationships, teachers can observe the level of social awareness of
the students in their classroom. If students have difficulty interpreting their external environment, they may
miss or misperceive the social cues around them. Students with Specific Learning Disability may show
dominant/aggressive characteristics with their peers or may appear passive/submissive in the school
environment. A lack of social skills should not be confused with immaturity. In the area of general
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classroom skills, specific school skills can be observed and areas of difficulty identified. Students having
difficulty with organization of work, time management, homework completion, focus of attention and test
taking, may require instruction and structure.
Non-standardized Tests
Classroom teachers may be able to provide more specific academic information. The teacher can examine
the accuracy of the student’s notes in relation to what was actually provided in class as well as note the level
of success in the learning tasks in their course. An initial meeting between the resource teacher and the
student may provide an opportunity to assess their oral communication skills and to develop an
understanding of their perception of their school situation. It is important to distinguish between a Specific
Learning Disability and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder as a primary concern. The resource teacher
would also note any concerns in the areas of attendance, nutritional and sleep patterns, hearing and vision,
health, emotional well-being, personal/family situation, and substance abuse. Based on the results of this
meeting and other background information, the resource teacher may decide to follow-up with non-
standardized tests as appropriate.
Informal Reading Inventories
An inventory is administered by having the student complete a reading decoding and comprehension
exercise. A listening comprehension passage may be used depending on the reading limitations of the
student. An inventory can give an approximate grade level for reading. These levels are referred to as the
Independent Level, the Instructional Level, and the Frustration Level. These levels can be determined for
both isolated decoding skills and for reading in context. Informal reading inventories are available in
published materials, but classroom materials may provide information more specific to the reading demands
of the course.
Q No: 4 Define the term “Evaluation” and “Student Evaluation”. Critically discuss different
techniques of student evaluation.
Evaluation
"Evaluation is the collection of, analysis and interpretation of information about any aspect of a programme
of education or training as part of a recognized process of judging its effectiveness, its efficiency and any
other outcomes it may have." Management: Rigorous analysis of completed or ongoing activities that
determine or support management accountability, effectiveness, and efficiency. Evaluation of completed
activities is called ex-post evaluation, post-hoc evaluation, or summative evaluation. Evaluation of current or
ongoing activities is called in-term evaluation. See also effectiveness evaluation.
Concept of Educational Evaluation
Educational Evaluation is broader in scope and more objective than educational measurement. It is the
process of carefully appraising the individual form a variety of information giving device. Resides testing
and other tools of measurement, evaluation seeks additional evidences from various sources of information
supplementing each other: like interviews, questionnaires, anecdotal records, cumulative records, case
conferences, mechanical or electronic recorders, case studies or projective techniques, etc. and the selection,
through careful analysis of data, most pertinent to a wise just and comprehensive interpretation to make
value judgment of the individual, or group under study.
Definitions of Educational Evaluation
Evaluation is a process that includes measurement and possibly testing but it also contains the notion of
value judgment. If a teacher administers a test to a class and computes the percentage of correct responses, it
is said that measurement and testing has taken place. The scores must be interpreted which may mean
converting them to values like As Bs Cs and so on or judging them to be excellent, good, fair or poor. This
process is called evaluation.
So we can say, evaluation is concerned with making judgments about things. When we act as evaluators, we
attribute 'value' or 'worth to behavior, objects and processes. In the wider community, for example, one may
make evaluative comments about a play, clothes, a restaurant, a book or someone's behavior. We may enjoy
a play; admire someone's clothes, rave about a restaurant and so on and so forth. Invariably these are rather
simple, straightforward comments of value or worth.
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Educational evaluation is the continuous inspection of all available information concerning the student,
teacher, educational programme and the teaching-learning process to ascertain the degree of change in
students and form valid judgment about the students and the effectiveness of the programme. Value
judgment on an observation, performance test or and data whether directly measured or inferred is called
evaluation.
What is the student evaluation of teaching?
Teaching quality is extremely important for the KU Leuven. Therefore, several initiatives, among which the
student evaluation of teaching, are undertaken to check the quality of teaching. Via the online student
evaluation students are given the opportunity to voice their opinions of the teaching and courses they have
received during the semester.

What is the goal of the student evaluation of teaching?


Through the online student evaluation of teaching, good practices can be acknowledged and problems can be
tackled. Furthermore, the results from the student evaluation are added to the lecturers’ personnel files.

How often is the course units evaluated?


The online student evaluation of teaching is organized twice a year (at the end of each semester), but the
evaluation of the course units is spread over a period of three year. This implies that each semester only one
third of the courses are being evaluated and that students will be asked to evaluate only a fraction of the
courses they were enrolled for. However, a number of course units are re-evaluated quicker:
Course units that were evaluated as “adjustment needed” must be re-evaluated the subsequent academic
year.
New course units or course units of new lecturers must be evaluated during the academic year in which they
were taught for the first time.
Furthermore, faculties are allowed to apply a higher evaluation rate for specific types of course units.

Which course units and programmes can be evaluated?


• All bachelor and master’s programmes, advanced master’s programmes, preparatory and bridging
programmes, and shortened trajectories.
• All course units of these KU Leuven programmes for which at least 5 students were enrolled (except
the master’s thesis and internships)
• In exceptional situations it can be decided to exclude a particular course unit (When there is no clear
connection between the course unit, the lecturer, and the student. E.g., in course units with several
lecturers) or a programme (e.g., interuniversity programmes) from the evaluation
Which lecturers are being evaluated?
• In theory, students will be asked to evaluate the lecturer who taught the course (so that the evaluation
results can be added to the personnel file of the lecturer).
• Depending on the specific circumstances, a faculty can decide to evaluate a course unit at the level of
the supervisor (e.g. in course units with several lecturers).
No one spends more time with a teacher and participating in a course than its students, making
systematically collected student feedback a unique and powerful source of information about how students
feel about their learning experiences and the quality of UA instruction.
Beyond Arizona Board of Regents requirements and college or departmental requirements that student
evaluations of instruction be collected as evidence of teaching effectiveness, student feedback can offer
usable knowledge to deans, department heads, faculty, instructional developers, teaching assistants and
students. More than five decades of research consistently demonstrate that, given well-constructed
questions, students can provide valid, reliable, and useful data concerning their experiences as learners. The
same research shows how student ratings of instruction, such as UA's TCEs, can be used to improve
teaching and learning and as evidence of teaching effectiveness for faculty performance appraisal.

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The OIA TCE team aims to provide the UA community with resources to help make student ratings data a
source of valuable (and valued) information about the quality of UA instruction. We accomplish this by:
• asking students the right questions for a given evaluative purpose - e.g. improving teaching versus
performance appraisal
• getting responses from a representative sample of students within each course
• using appropriate analysis and interpretation methods for non-randomly sampled survey data
• taking into account both the strengths and limitations of student ratings as shown by replicated
research findings and evidence-based best practices for faculty and course evaluation
• using best practices for faculty evaluation that ensure that TCE data are used in conjunction with
other appropriate sources of data consistent with the multifaceted, multidimensional nature of
teaching and learning (e.g. peer observation, focus groups, reviews of course materials, and input
from instructional specialists, etc.)
Q No: 5 a) Discuss the use of different kinds of projected and non projected aids during lecture.
b) Write down the advantages and disadvantages of multimedia.

(Part A)
Discuss the use of different kinds of projected and non projected aids during lecture.

Using Projected Visuals


• Easy to create and use
• Not projected for you and your students: It helps you on track
Supports inclusion of multimedia
• Supports interactivity: it easy to go to any slide in the presentation
Or link one to included multimedia files
• Fields multiple formats: Using the mouse to create handouts,
• Notes pages, and outlines.

Limitation
• Just words: Many students are visual learners, so they may not learn if there are not any visuals.
• Too much on one slide: Limit the number of words on each slide up to 36 words.
• Too many “bells and whistles”: Irrelevant sounds can be distracting.

Educational technology is often considered, erroneously, as synonymous with instructional innovation.


Technology, by definition, applies current knowledge for some useful purpose. Therefore, technology uses
evolving knowledge (whether about a kitchen or a classroom) to adapt and improve the system to which the
knowledge applies (such as a kitchen’s microwave oven or educational computing). In contrast, innovations
represent only change for change sake. Given this distinction, it is easy to argue that educators are correct to
resist mere innovation, but they should welcome educational technology. Unfortunately, the history of
educational technology does not support this hypothesis.
Finally, non-projected media and materials is this time is very useful into the rural area which is not been
reach into the advancement of our technology and it is very important indeed only seldom uses the
projected media and materials.
On the other hand, projected media and material very often uses by rich and advance in technology countries
it’s important to them.
These two materials both are useful for both learners and teachers indeed.
Using Non-Projected Visuals
Teachers can use these for learners of all ages. They can involve groups to work collaboratively to prepare a
presentation, with drawings and charts. There are many types of different charts: Organization charts,
Classification charts, Time lines, Tabular charts, and Flowcharts.
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There are many types of graphs: Bar graphs, Pictorial graphs, Circle graphs, Line graphs.
Posters
Posters are easy to produce .They are used to catch and hold the viewer’s attention at least long enough to
communicate a brief message quickly for a new topic or a special event.
Cartoons
Cartoons are very popular and familiar visual design. Cartoons are also easily and quickly read and appeal to
learners of all ages. You can use cartoons to reinforce a point of instruction.
Limitation
-Durability: It is easy to damage with regular learner use it.
There is a problem to keep non-projected visuals- Storage.
-May be too small for group viewing: non-projected visuals are not suitable for use for group because they
are small.
Using non projected visuals in the classroom
1. Use visuals whenever possible to demonstrate ideas.
2. Present a single idea in each visual. Break down complex visuals into simpler ones or build them up step-
by-step.
3. Minimize text on each visual; maximum of six words per line and six lines per visual.
4. Cover irrelevant material with plain paper.
5. Use just one visual at time.
6. Teach your learners to understand visuals
7. Provide written cues to highlighted important information contained in the visuals.
Advantages
• Readily available
• Inexpensive
• No equipment required
• Easy to use
• Available for all levels of instruction
• Available for all disciplines
• Simplification of complex ideas.
Non-projected media can make your instruction more realistic and engaging Posters, cartoons, charts,
pictures and graphs and what students produced by them can provide powerful visual support for learning
abstract ideas. The non-projected media can be presented in the classroom or used as part of classroom
activity. No need to use equipment for observation so non-projected visual are easy to use.
Projected visual are detained as media design in which still images are enlarged and displayed on a screen
.The types of projected visuals that we can use in the classroom are software, digital visuals and document
cameras.
• Some general guidelines for using projected visuals
• Use visual variety.
• Rehearse your narration.
• Keep it moving and limit your discussion.
• Pause for discussion.
• Avoid irrelevant images.
• Test it visually.
(Part B)
Write down the advantages and disadvantages of multimedia.
Practical Advantages of Multimedia
A major advantage to using multimedia sources in the classroom is the ability to bring in images, sounds and
videos without leaving the room. Computer programs and internet sites can also give students experiences
that might ordinarily be unsafe, such as views from scaling mountains in a geography lesson or a dissection
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of a rare animal. Additionally, using a projector or individual computers gives students the opportunity to
view information or materials up close.
Educational Advantages of Multimedia
Students who learned from materials containing both text and graphics produced 55 percent to 121 percent
more accurate solutions to problems, according to David Taylor at the University of Maryland. The use of
images, along with words, diminishes the overwhelming nature of text and helps the student to manage the
cognitive load, which increases retention. Specifically, graphics are found to support retention because
important elements are focused on via placement, layout and color. Activation of prior knowledge is
engaged quickly with visual analogy, and mental models are created easily as diagrams can enhance
understanding of how a concept works. Additionally, learning is made easier because simulations allow
students to visualize real-life situations, and motivation is increased as students are able to see the relevance
of skills.
Practical Disadvantages of Multimedia
Multimedia lessons or components of lessons delivered via video or image require computers, projectors and
other electronic devices depending upon the subject and the amount of original material a teacher creates.
The expense associated with quality projectors or computers for every student can be quite high, and the
amount of images and videos in a lesson can slow down the delivery and pace of the class as a result.
Student access to computers at home may also cause problems, and varying quality of student electronic
devices can create inequity in projects and presentations.
Educational Disadvantages of Multimedia
When designing a multimedia learning experience, the role of the teacher shifts from instructor to facilitator.
If a lesson allows students to complete learning at their own pace as they move through stages of learning,
classroom management becomes increasingly difficult. This is particularly true if students work in groups to
view multimedia sources or share computers. Additionally, students who are not as proficient with
technology may have to spend more time learning computer skills to access information than focusing on
course materials.
ADVANTAGES
• Creativity
it brings more life to discussions.
• Variety
it caters all types of learners.
• Cost-effective
multimedia mostly requires only a one-time purchase of devices and software, which can be used
unlimited times thereafter.
• Evaluation
it offers ideal learning assessment tools which are also entertaining for the students.
• Realistic Approach
it provides approaches which make learning more realistic.
• Wide Variety of Support

Multiple media formats are available for use, with different models being able to create multimedia trendy.
The current trend of culture leans toward technology, and a great number of resources are being made
available for different media formats.
DISADVANTAGES
• Accessibility
Multimedia requires electricity to be operated, which may not be available in some rural areas or
may not be consistently available due to shortages and blackouts.
• Distracting
Multimedia may take away the focus from the lesson due to its attention-grabbing formats.

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• Production of multimedia is more expensive than others because it is made up of more than one
medium.
• Production of multimedia requires an electronic device, which may be relatively expensive.
• Multimedia requires electricity to run, which adds to the cost of its use.
• Time Consuming
• Creating multimedia requires more time.
• Requires Mastery
• Multimedia requires consistent and long practice to master, which may take a lot of time and energy
from the user.
• Limited Support/Compatibility

There is a wide variety of gadget models which arouses incompatibilities of media formats fragile. The
device used for multimedia must be used with care; exposure to moisture or other elements could cause
expensive, irreparable damage which would require another purchase of a device.

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