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Reflection on Leadership
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Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................ 3

PART A: FIVE PIECES OF REFLECTIVE WRITING .................................................................................................... 3

1. A LEADER’S EFFECTIVENESS AS A LEADER AND THEIR ABILITY TO INFLUENCE THEIR SITUATION.................................................3


Introduction: .........................................................................................................................................................3
Analysis: ................................................................................................................................................................3
Conclusion:............................................................................................................................................................4
2. THE CHALLENGES OF ETHICAL AND UNETHICAL LEADERSHIP TODAY. ..................................................................................4
Introduction: .........................................................................................................................................................4
Analysis: ................................................................................................................................................................5
Conclusion:............................................................................................................................................................6
3. REFLECTIVE PIECE1: WHEN LEADERSHIP IS COMPLETELY DIFFERENT FROM MANAGEMENT. ...................................................6
Introduction: .........................................................................................................................................................6
Analysis: ................................................................................................................................................................6
Conclusion:............................................................................................................................................................7
4. REFLECTIVE PIECE2: ‘DARK SIDE’ OF LEADERSHIP .........................................................................................................7
Introduction: .........................................................................................................................................................7
Analysis: ................................................................................................................................................................7
Conclusion:............................................................................................................................................................8
5. REFLECTIVE PRACTICE 3: FACILITATING RATHER THAN LEADING – WHEN CAN THE TEAM LEAD THEMSELVES?............................8
Introduction: .........................................................................................................................................................8
Analysis: ................................................................................................................................................................8
Conclusion:............................................................................................................................................................9

PAR B- PERSONAL STATEMENT ............................................................................................................................ 10

REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................................... 12

APPENDIX – PART C PRESENTATION .................................................................. ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.


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Introduction
The purpose of this study is to provide reflection on leadership experiences in view of the
empirical literature found within leadership. The personal experiences of leadership and
management during the job at Ashford Hospital, Ashford, UK hospital are discussed in this
paper. This temporary job provided a personal leadership experience as this admin job deals
with supervision of ward staff. The administration functions include looking after the cleaning,
supplies, and staff management. Therefore, the technical and janitorial staff was answerable to
the author. The personal learning from this job involved punctuality, homogeneous treatment of
all subordinates, and negotiation skills to deal with conflicts about job distribution and
management of crisis situations in the department. The floor manager found cooperative in
guiding accordingly, this qualitative study has developed a Learning and Development function
to study leadership in Ashford Hospital, Ashford, UK healthcare organisation.

Part A: five pieces of reflective writing

1. A leader’s effectiveness as a leader and their ability to influence their


situation.

Introduction:
The effectiveness of leader discussed in literature with multiple aspects. Mascall, (2007), stated
that a behavioural approach dominated the next wave of leadership research. Leadership ‘can be
something that an individual does’. This topic has a major importance as the key leaders in
business use various approaches to gain influence on followers. Richard Branson of Virgin group
pf companies is my major inspiration due to his diverse leadership traits and behaviour.

Analysis:

Richard Branson, despite his informal attitude and adventurous life style, always considered as a
leading visionary founder and top executive of virgin group. The companies extended t every
walk of life from airline to shipping industry and Renowned for their robust and friendly
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working environment,. The personality traits and leadership style of Branson is visionary in
management practices of each of the company in virgin group. The personality traits and
behavioural patterns of Branson portrayed him as an imaginative, amusing, fast moving,
adventurer, risk taker, competitive, and friendly leader. However, he proved himself as a tough
negotiator and high achiever in all endevours due to extreme commitment and tryst on his
employees. According to Pearce, Conger & Locke, (2007), two major contributions emerged
from this line of research. Firstly, there was identification of people-focused and task-focused
dimensions of leader behaviour. Secondly, the behavioural school developed well-refined and
detailed lists of behaviours in each dimension. The main leadership characteristics of Branson
proved himself to be a successful leader as the head of more than 500 companies of the Virgin
group are either Branson friends, relatives, or employees,. They believe in the abilities of best
performing employees lead Branson to make the employees top executives in a new company.
The employee’s unbroken trust on Branson reflected from the informal but strong organizational
culture of Virgin group of companies. The honest and integral delivery of tasks is a default
requirement in these companies

Conclusion:
In conclusion, personality and transformational leadership of Branson found to be the leading
edge of the success of companies in Virgin Group. The visionary approaches of Branson made
him millionaire in just 24 years of age. Though, the weaknesses of Branson such as shrewd
attitude and tough decisions some time create problems for followers but overall the success of
this leader shows the influence and power on the subjects in all companies. Thus, the
extraordinary leadership of Branson is a valid example of individual style and visionary
approaches.

2. The challenges of ethical and unethical leadership today.

Introduction:
Focusing on the leadership and management practice at Ashford Hospital, organisational
leaders are confronted by the challenge of rapidly gaining emergence of the traditional
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perspective of leadership. According to the Harris & Spillane, (2008), the dominant culture of
leader centric approach has outdated. Thus, the issues of ethical and unethical leadership are also
surfaced in recent years. This topic was selected due to its relevance in recent incidents of
bribery and gaining unnecessary benefits but top leadership in large organizations.

Analysis:
Jing & Avery, (2008) suggests that in “the traditional and dominant industrial view of healthcare
leadership a leader practices leadership when the leader does good management and there is no
room for followers’ in this definition”. The Ashford Hospital, healthcare organisation followers
are important when considering leadership, and that the line between the leaders and the
followers is blurring. So-called followers are thus exercising at least some leadership behaviour
and are therefore also exercising leadership, even if perhaps not leading and following at
precisely the same moment in time. Further, more than one follower-become-leader may exercise
leadership behaviours simultaneously, resulting in multiple leaders within the same team.
Challenged by the limitations of extant leadership theory, there is a growing view that a
hospital leader-centred approach is only limited perspective of leadership. Thus, the unethical
behaviours observed at top leadership positions such as the gaining of perks and benefits desire
rhea poor performance of the company, ion encouraging misleading practices of employees as
observed in the case of Enron and Lehman Brothers Bank. These malicious practices raised
questions on the ethical conduct of the top leadership as it affected the norms and practices of
followers as well. During my job at Ashford Hospital, I have witnessed many instances of ethical
and unethical conduct by seniors. Providing privileges to relatives and affluent patients and lack
of attention to the many needy and deserving patients also observed at some instance.
Discrimination and tough duty hours for minorities and sexual harassment to female staff are sol
some issues that were raised on senior management from time to time. The Organisations would
benefit not only from avoiding distinction between leaders and followers, but the accountability
at the end of leaders is also necessary.
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Conclusion:
In conclusion, unethical behaviour from leaders in health care sector is also important as in any
other sector. The malicious practices or undue favours should be identified and the leaders
should have the same monitoring procedures as it is working for employees in organizations.

3. Reflective Piece1: When leadership is completely different from


management.

Introduction:
The theory of leadership is very complex and a large number of researchers tried to seek to
explain it in different manners, either it is an equation or a formula. According to the Dunne,
Pryor, & Yates, (2005) and Mascall, (2007), this conceptualisation recognises that a
comprehensive view of leadership requires recognition of elements other than the leader alone.
The difference of management and leadership is important to understand as it determines the
preference of organization and employees to gain success.

Analysis:
Grint (2015), states that the relationship between leadership and management is an important
consideration and one which is increasingly being made. An appointment to a management
position provides an individual with the basis for a formal, authority-based relationship with any
subordinates who might fall within the scope of the manager’s role description. The extent to
which an influence-based relationship develops will determine whether or not that manager
could also be regarded as a leader. According to the Ulrich & Smallwood (2007), the second
consideration the second major consideration is that managers act as ‘conservators and
regulators’, while leaders seek change opportunities. Zaccaro, Heinen & Shuffler, (2008)
examined that the managers sought to narrow options, compromising amongst conflicting values
to arrive at acceptable solutions. Leaders, on the other hand, sought different approaches to
problems, generating fresh solutions via excitement in the workplace through the images (vision)
they projected. Dunne, Pryor & Yates (2005), viewed that the managers are more conservative,
leaders adopt high risk positions. Managers relate to people in a more process-oriented manner,
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in contrast to leaders who relate more intuitively and empathetically. Essentially, managers focus
on process while leaders focus on meaning. In experiences of my job, the behaviour of ward
superintendent is of a manager., more authoritative and task oriented, whereas the floor manager
behaves as an ideal leader, He facilitated the employees and looked carefully in to the issues with
employees. The difference in management style of both reflected from their understanding and
popularity among the staff. The employees happily participate in the tasks authenticated from
floor manager as compared to those by superintendent. The major difference was the
consideration and detail oriented behaviour and visionary approach of floor manager as
compared to the strictly and rigid behaviour of superintendent.

Conclusion:
In conclusion, the leadership practices are found different from that of management; therefore,
the results in both approaches also differ in organizations. A leader can better understand the
situation and work accordingly, but managers need their assigned tasks from employees without
considering the long term, implications of their behaviours.

4. Reflective Piece2: ‘Dark Side’ of Leadership

Introduction:
The leadership approaches and theories are based on various perspectives of traits, contingency,
Behaviour, and situational leadership. However, these theories also elaborated the dark side of
leadership wham authority and power are misused amend created issue for organizations and
employees. This topic is important to identify the dark sides of a leader that can confirm the e
theories of ideal leadership.

Analysis:
The emphasis on the ranks in organizations leads the leaders to exercise their power and
implement their mandate on the employees. The over use of powers indicates a specific style of
leadership, termed as “kiss up/kick down” in literature (_). The fiery directives, interest in details
of the tasks, lack of mentoring and directions, and commanding attitude are basic characteristics
of this style. In this case, the leaders are obedient to their top authorities but cruel and demanding
their followers. Therefore, this biased attitude lead to rigid and bureaucratic styles of
management. In another example of dark side of leadership, the passive-aggressive leaders are
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important to discuss. Some leaders become mistrusting, cynical, and finally stealthily unwilling,
principally under stress. The aim of carrying out a task without winning the hearts of involved
stakeholders is basic indication of this style. Howell & Mendez, (2008) demonstrate that one
consistent theme in the leadership literature is a common definition facilitating the understanding
of leadership but rather a ‘lack of effort toward integration’. A second problem was the inter-
relationship between traits and situation, that is, some were situation ally dependent. Dunne, et al
(2015) also points out that most studies compared formally appointed leaders against followers,
assuming that the best leader had been appointed in the first instance.

Conclusion:
According to Zaccaro, (2014), in the current aggressive work market, the merely
differentiator between contenders is employees’ quality operation in the organisation. To keep
and build up Ashford healthcare human resources in order to achieve competitive advantage is
amongst the main objectives in public service organisations. An organized Ashford healthcare
can retain and inspire its employees more, and hence can avail the advantages of decreased
employees’ turnover; enhanced productivity; reduced absences; improved profits; and enhanced
overall performance of the hospital.

5. Reflective Practice 3: Facilitating rather than leading – when can the


team lead themselves?

Introduction:
Effective teamwork of a healthcare organisation has been a key factor in social and public
service industry success. Today, a lot of managers use teams to solve problems, generate ideas
and complete jobs. This topic is important in dynamic organization with flat strict urea and work
on team based environments.

Analysis:
Analysis of Reeves, et al (2008) shown that teamwork put forward openings for job
enhancement, gives independence to healthcare workforce, reduces the supervisors’ workload
and can also develops performance on complicated responsibilities. Team is defined by Grint,
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(2015) as “a group of people with a high degree of interdependence geared toward the
achievement of a goal or the completion of a task” (p. 115). Therefore, facilitation is required
more at advanced stages of team development.
Ashford Hospital employees working in teams help to increase flexibility in their healthcare
organisation. Ashford Hospital, Ashford employees lose sight of the big picture when they are
divided into departments and get directions from leaders only. On the other hand, as a result of
facilitating, healthcare employees work in teams, both horizontal and vertical hierarchical
barriers are broken down, allowing the organisation to respond sooner to environmental changes
and authorize enhanced synchronization of activities among all departments. In Ashford
Hospital, transformational leaders must rely on performance-oriented philosophy to facilitate
their administration to complete the service at high standards. The development of teams should
be done to improve employee performance and efficiency through permanent development and
expansion. According to Daft (2015) informants repeatedly highlighted that individual team
members had a primary aim of being able to contribute in some way to the team that is valued by
other team members in order also to derive a sense of belonging. Ashford Hospital team
members expected members to contribute which, in turn, fostered a sense of belonging. Influence
was one contribution that team members could contribute to the team. Zaccaro et al (2008)
pointed out that teams needed to perform in uncertain, and at times extremely physically
challenging, conditions within a competitive and challenging environment engineered on the
course. Risking behaviour increased in importance as the risk level increased, given that teams
need to take the high risk action in order to progress.

Conclusion:
In conclusion, the result of participative leadership style facilitated Ashford healthcare
organisation realised that some action was needed to move forward, few demonstrated a
willingness to assume all of the risk for the healthcare team. Risking provided Ashford
healthcare individuals with an opportunity to increase their influence in the team and also derive
a sense of personal achievement and the motivation. Ashford healthcare teams are usually
appreciative and supportive when individuals undertake risking on behalf of the team and this
enhanced their capacity to influence the team.
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Par B- Personal Statement


The research of leadership and management provides a large number of distinctive
theories. An overview of leadership and management research, from the early 1930s through to
the present day, suggests four main theories that thinking has turned full circle. However,
following a major review of leadership theory and research, Daft (2015) suggests that little is to
be gained from seeing the paradigms as competing. After review of literature, I noted that despite
their lack of an unequivocal explanation of leadership and their limitations, each approach
nevertheless enjoys some empirical support, and all contribute to a better understanding of a
complex subject.
The leadership traits are important in deterring the nature of leaders working practices
and styles. According to the Zaccaro (2014), the trait approach assumes that leaders possess a
certain constellation of personal attributes that differentiates them from non-leaders. Research
literature focuses on measuring and quantifying traits associated with leadership, and also
establishing their relationship to leader effectiveness. The trait approach focuses strongly on the
individual and is reliant on both personality theory and test-measurement theory. The analysis of
Richard Branson leadership traits and influence on employees provided evidence for application
of this approach. However, neither field was sufficiently developed at the time to support the
type of research required. A second problem arises that related with the inter-relationship
between traits and situation, that is, some were situation ally dependent. The above discussion
also points out that most studies compared formally appointed leaders against followers,
assuming that the best leader had been appointed in the first instance.
Moreover, Ulrich & Smallwood (2007) stated that the contingency approach was
developed in a bid to overcome the problem for a single leader type, a single set of leadership
behaviours that fitted all situations could not be found. R In relation with this Baker, (2007)
noted that Fiedler’s Contingency Theory, despite its limitations, advanced the understanding of
leadership by challenging assumptions that there was ‘a one-best-way-to-lead’ (p. 189).
Following diminished interest in early contingency theories, researchers Lord, and
Brown, and (2014) focussed on other elements of the new leadership such as Transformational
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leadership and relational approach phenomenon. Earlier, Ulrich & Smallwood, (2007) pointed
out that though relation-orientation is one of the two classic dimensions of leadership behaviour,
‘relational leadership’ is a relatively new term. Relational leadership approaches developed from
an ‘entity perspective’, focusing on interpersonal relationships between individuals. Thus, health
sector leadership base can be extended by the use of relational and transformational leadership
styles. The personal experience at Ashford Hospital provided useful insight to verify the
application of these leadership theories on practical situations.
Another important determinant from this reflective writing practice is the understanding
of ethical leadership principals. This area is gaining attention after many instances of huge losses
in financial and other sectors due to unethical leadership. The review of unethical practices at the
Ashford management, it was realised tam more monitoring and strict accountability is required at
the senior management levels.
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