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Hydraulic Structures –Sharda Type II Fall April 19, 2011

Sharda Type II Fall Design Example

u.s.
Full supply discharge  50 cumec
d .s.
u.s. 101.5m
Full supply level 
d .s. 101.0m
u.s. 2 m
Full supply depth 
d .s. 2 m
u.s. 30 m
Bed width 
d .s. 30 m
u.s. 99.5 m
Bed level 
d .s. 98.0 m
Drop 1.5m
Side slope 1:1
Soil Good loam
1
Safe exit gradient
4.5
Design the floor with Khosla’s theory.

Solution
1. Length of the crest
Length of the crest shall be kept equal to the bed width of the channel.
Length of crest = 30 m
2. Crest level
For falls more than 15 cumec, trapezoidal crest is provided and the discharge is given by:
16
3
D
Q  2.26  Lt  D   
2

 Bt 
Assuming crest width (Bt) = 1 m we get:
16
D
3
50  2.26  30  D   
2

1
or D  0.833 say 0.9 m
50
Velocity Approach Va   0.782 m sec. ( with 1:1 side slope)
 30  2   2
Va 2
Velocity head (ha ) 
2  9.81
 0.031 m
UpstreamT .E.L.  u.s. F .S .L.  ha 105.5  0.031  101.531
El of crest  u.s.T .E.L.  D 101.531  0.9 100.631 m
Adopt crest level  100.640 m

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Hydraulic Structures –Sharda Type II Fall April 19, 2011

3. Shape of crest
Thickness at top ( Bt )  0.55 D  D1
where D  0.9 m and D1  height of crest above d .s. bed
100.64  98.0  2.64 m
Thickness at top ( Bt )  0.55 0.9  2.64
Thickness at top ( Bt ) 1.03 say 1.05 m
Keep crest width 1.05 m with u.s. slope 1: 3 and d .s. slope 1: 8.
4. Approach
Radius of wing should be 6 times the head over the crest .
Radius of wings = 6×D = 6×0.9 = 5.40say 5.5 m.
Wing walls shall be madesegmental with 5.5 m radius subtending an angle of 60o at center and then
carried tangentially in to the berm.
5. Downstream wings
The downstream wing walls shall be kept vertical upto a distance of 5 D×H L = 5 0.9×1.50 = 5.80 m.
There after the wings shall be warped from vertical to1:1slopein remaining length of the floor.
6. Upstream protection
Brick pitching equal to u .s.water depth should be laid on the u .s.bed towards the crest at1:10slope.
Provide 20 cm drain holes in the entire length @3m c c to drain out the u .s.bed during the closure of
the channel.
7. Curtain walls
a. Downstream curtain wall
water depth
Depth = + 0.6 =1.6 m
4
Provide 0.4 m thick1.4 m deep toe wall (upto deepest floor) over 0.3m foundation concrete, comprising
total depth of 1.7 m.
b. Upstream curtain wall
water depth
Depth = + 0.6 = 0.67  0.6 1.27 msay1.3m.
3
Provide 0.4 m thick1m deep toe wall over 0.3m foundation concrete, comprising total depth of 1.3m.
8. Cistern
dc  =  q2 g
13
Depth of cistern = d c 3 ; Critical depth

d c = 1.67 2 9.81 = 0.658 m say 0.65 m


13
q = 50 30 =1.67 cumec m ;
Depth of cistern = 0.65 3= 0.22 m
R .L.of cistern = 98.0 - 0.22 = 97.78 m say 97.70 m.
Length of cistern = 3.8d c + 0.45 +1.50 = 3.8×0.65 + 0.415 +1.5 = 4.385 m
Adopt cistern length as 5.80 m.

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Hydraulic Structures –Sharda Type II Fall April 19, 2011

9. Total floor length and exit gradient


From exit gradient considerations the length of impervoius floor should besufficient .
H = height of crest above d.s.bed
=100.64 -98.0 = 2.64 m
d =1.7 m (depth of downstream curtain wall)
H  1   1   2.64   1 
Exit gradient G E =   ×          4.948
 d      4.5   1.7     
0.5 0.5
   2 1 1     2  4.948 1 1    8.839
2 2
   
b =  ×d  b = 8.839×1.7  b  15.03m say 16 m.

Maximum floor length required in the downstream =10.53d c + 4.877 -1.5 H L


= 10.53×0.65 + 4.877 -1.5×1.5
= 9.471m say 10 m.
Provide10 m in the downstream and balance 6 m under and upstream of the crest .

10. Pressure calculations


For calculating pressures, thickness at key points has to be assumed.
Assume upstream floor = 0.5 m thick
Thickness of floor at the toe of crest =1.3m
Thickness of floor at downstream end = 0.6 m
a. Upstream wall
d =1.3m ; b =16 m ; 1   d b 1.3 16  0.081
 D 100 17.5  82.50 % ;  C 100  26  74%
t 0.5
Correction in  C for depth =  ( D   C) =  (82.5  74)  3.269% 3%   ve 
d 1.3
Corrected  C  74  3  77 %
b. Toe of crest
d  97.7  96.3 1.4 m ; b1  6 m ; b 16 m
  b d 16 1.4 11.4 ; b1 b  6 16  0.375 ; 1  b1 b  0.625
 D 100  54  46%
c. Downstream toe wall
d =1.7 m ; b =16 m ; 1   d b 1.7 16  0.106
 D1  20 % ;  E1  28%
t 0.6
Correction in  E1 for depth =  ( E1   D1 ) =  (28  20)  2.823% 3  ve 
d 1.7
Corrected  E1  28  3  25%

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Hydraulic Structures –Sharda Type II Fall April 19, 2011

11. Impervious floor thickness


a. u.s. floor
The uplift pressurein the upstreamis counterbalanced by the weight of water itself and therefore
no thickness is required.However 0.5m thick concreteshall be provided.
b. Toe of crest
% pressure = 46%
Maximum static head =100.64 -98.00 = 2.64 m w .r . t .R .L.98.00
 Absolute uplift pressure = 2.64×0.46 +  98.0 -97.70  =1.515
1.515
Thickness required = =1.20 m
1.25
Provide1.2 m thick C.C.overlaid by 0.2 m thick brick pitching.
c. At the end of floor
% pressure = 25%
Absolute pressure = 2.64×0.25 = 0.66
0.66
Thickness required = = 0.53m
1.25
Provide 0.6 m thick C.C.overlaid by 0.2 m thick brick pitching.
Floor thickness shall beprovided varying1.4 m at the toe of crest to 0.8 m at the d.s.and of floor as
per requirement of uplift pressure.
12. Energy Dissipaters
a. Cistern
Depth and length of cistern have been already worked out.
b. Size and position of friction blocks
Critical depth dc = 0.65 m.
i. Length of block = 2 × dc = 2 × 0.65 = 1.3 m.
ii. Width of block = dc = 0.65 m.
iii. Height of block = dc = 0.65 m.
iv. Distance from toe of crest = 1.5 × dc = 1.5 × 0.65 = 0.975 m say 1 m.
Provide two rows of blocks of size 1.3 m × 0.65 × 0.65 m staggered, at a distance of 1 m
from toe of crest.
c. Cube blocks
water depth 2
i. Length = = = 0.2 m say 0.25m.
10 10
ii. Width = 0.25 m.
iii. Height = 0.25 m.
Provide two rows of cube blocks of size 0.25 m × 0.25 × 0.25 m staggered, at the end of
floor.

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Hydraulic Structures –Sharda Type II Fall April 19, 2011

13. Downstream pitching


a. Bed pitching
Length = 3 × d3 = 3 × 2 = 6 m. Thickness = 0.2 m of brick over 0.1 m of dry brick ballast.
b. Toe wall
Provide 0.4 m × 1 m deep toe wall at end of pitching.
c. Side pitching
Length = 3 × d3 = 3 × 2 = 6 m. Thickness = 0.2 m.
The end should be protected with toe wall in continuation of the bed curtain wall at the end of
pitching.