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Journal of Management Development

The relationship between transformational leadership, task performance and job


characteristics
Eliane Bacha
Article information:
To cite this document:
Eliane Bacha , (2014),"The relationship between transformational leadership, task performance and job
characteristics", Journal of Management Development, Vol. 33 Iss 4 pp. 410 - 420
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JMD
33,4
The relationship between
transformational leadership,
task performance and job
410 characteristics
Received 11 February 2013
Revised 20 March 2013
Eliane Bacha
Accepted 8 April 2013 Department of Human Resource Management and Organizational Behavior,
SKEMA Business School, Euralille, France
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Abstract
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to study the relationship between transformational
leadership, task performance and perceived measures of job characteristics in French firms.
Design/methodology/approach – A questionnaire survey was sent to employees working in the
industry and service sectors. A sample of 100 respondents was collected.
Findings – The results of the study show that there is a partial relationship between transformational
leadership and follower task performance on one hand and, between transformational leadership and
follower perceptions of core job characteristics on another hand.
Research limitations/implications – The majority of the firms are big ones. Hence, we recommend
that our findings be replicated across a sample of firms where small, medium and big ones
are presented proportionally. Also, transformational leadership, job characteristics and task
performance measures exhibited restrictions in that they depend on the perception of employees
and leaders.
Practical implications – This research showed that French leaders based in Northern France and in
Paris and its suburbs cannot be considered as transformational leaders. Second, French firms need
to take into account in the recruitment process the gender of the person especially for positions in
the middle or top management level since the study revealed that the gender plays a role in the
leadership style.
Originality/value – In this study, we took also into account the gender of the leader when studying
the relationship between transformational leadership, task performance and job characteristics.
Keywords Leadership, France, Task performance, Employees behaviour, Job descriptions,
Job characteristics, Transformational leadership
Paper type Research paper

Introduction
Following the work of Piccolo and Colquitt (2006), our purpose in this study is
to show the positive impact of transformational leadership on follower task
performance and on follower perceptions of core job characteristics in France. For the
moment, there is no study that has addressed this subject. Hence we are going to
study whether there is a positive relationship between French transformational
leaders, follower task performance and follower perceptions of core job
characteristics and whether the gender of the leader plays a role in the leadership
style in order to fill up the gap that exists in the literature on this subject. Our study
Journal of Management Development
Vol. 33 No. 4, 2014
has been conducted on a large sample (n ¼ 100) of firms based in Northern France
pp. 410-420 and in Paris and its suburbs and informants were employees occupying positions
r Emerald Group Publishing Limited
0262-1711
representing areas such as marketing, human resource management, finance, audit,
DOI 10.1108/JMD-02-2013-0025 communication, quality, sales and production.
Literature review Transformational
Transformational leadership leadership
Transformational leadership theory is based on the assertion that certain leader
behaviors can arouse followers to a higher level of thinking (Bass, 1985; Burns, 1978).
According to Burns (1978), transformational leadership is a process in which
“leaders and followers help each other to advance to a higher level of morale and
motivation.” Hence for Burns (1978), the transformational style creates significant 411
change in the life of people and organizations. It redesigns perceptions and values,
changes expectations and aspirations of employees.
For Bass (1985), the extent to which a leader is transformational is measured first in
terms of his influence on the followers. Hence, his followers feel trust, admiration,
loyalty and respect to him and they will do more than they expected in the beginning.
The leader transforms and motivates followers by charisma, intellectual arousal and
individual consideration. In addition, this leader seeks for new working ways, while he
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tries to identify new opportunities vs threats and tries to get out of the status quo and
alter the environment.

Transformational leadership and follower task performance


Since its introduction by Burns (1978) and Bass (1985), transformational leadership
theory has evolved to describe four dimensions of leader behavior. Individualized
consideration is the degree to which the leader attends to each follower’s needs, acts as
a mentor or coach to the follower and listens to the follower’s concerns. Intellectual
stimulation is the degree to which the leader challenges assumptions, takes risks and
solicits followers’ ideas. Leaders with this trait stimulate and encourage creativity in
their followers. The followers ask questions, think deeply about things and figure
out better ways to execute their tasks. Inspirational motivation is the degree to which
the leader articulates a vision that is appealing and inspiring to followers. Leaders
with inspirational motivation challenge followers with high standards, communicate
optimism about future goals and provide meaning for the task at hand. Idealized
influence is the highest level of transformational leadership. It refers to the behavior
of leaders that results in their being role-models for their followers. These leaders are
admired, respected and trusted because of their consideration of the needs of others
over their personal needs.
The positive relationship between transformational leadership and task
performance is supported by a great deal of research (Dumdum et al., 2002; Piccolo
and Colquitt, 2006; Judge and Piccolo, 2004; Lowe et al., 1996; Fuller et al., 1996).
According to Bass (1985), transformational leaders provide constructive feedback to
their followers, convince followers to exhibit extra effort, and encourage followers
to think creatively about complex problems. As a result, followers tend to behave in
ways that facilitate high levels of task performance. In addition transformational
leaders persuade followers to go beyond personal interest for the sake of the collective.
When followers associate their own success with that of their organizations’ and
identify with the organizations’ values and goals, they become more willing to make
a positive contribution to the work context (Podsakoff et al., 1990). Hence, we
hypothesize that:

H1. There is a positive relationship between transformational leadership and


follower task performance.
JMD Transformational leadership and core job characteristics
33,4 Hackman and Oldham (1976) introduced job characteristics theory to explain conditions
in which employees would be intrinsically motivated when performing a job. According
to the job characteristics theory, organizations can encourage positive work attitudes and
increase work quality by enhancing jobs along five dimensions. These include variety
(the degree to which a job requires the use of a number of different skills and talents);
412 identity (the degree to which the job requires completion of a “whole” piece of work, or
doing a task from beginning to end with a visible outcome); significance (the degree to
which the job has a substantial impact on the lives of other people); autonomy (the degree
to which the job provides substantial freedom); and feedback (the degree to which the job
provides clear information about performance levels).
Griffin (1981) was among the first to test the notion that leaders can influence job
perceptions without making any adjustments to objective job characteristics. He argued
that individual task perceptions stem from five basic sources of information: technology,
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organizational structure, coworkers, characteristics of a job incumbent and an individual’s


immediate supervisor. In Griffin’s study of leader behaviors and job characteristics,
managers reported the extent to which they exhibited behaviors intended to influence job
perceptions. Three months later, subordinates in an experimental group reported higher
ratings of core job characteristics, even though no tangible changes to their actual jobs had
been made. Griffin (1981) explained these results by suggesting that informational cues
from supervisors may have caused employees to perceive their tasks differently.
Shamir et al. (1993) suggested that leaders who exhibit transformational behaviors
can influence how followers judge a work environment by using verbal persuasion and
by clearly communicating the value of an organization’s mission. Similarly, Bono and
Judge (2003) suggested that transformational leaders help followers view work goals
as congruent with their own values.
Furthermore, many of the behaviors of transformational leaders have a direct impact
on the above mentioned job’s characteristics. Hence, we think that leaders who utilize
intellectual stimulation by stimulating their followers’ efforts to be innovative and
creative by questioning assumptions, reframing problems and approaching old
situations in new ways may boost follower perceptions of variety and autonomy.
Also, we think that leaders who engage in individualized consideration by paying special
attention to each individual follower’s needs and concerns for achievement and growth
should have their followers see more autonomy and feedback in their jobs. Finally, we
believe that leaders, who engage in idealized influence, by emphasizing inspirational
motivation, by communicating an exciting vision of the future and by being admired and
trusted, may encourage followers perceptions to view their job as more significant.
Shamir et al. (1993) provided indirect support for these assertions by suggesting that
leaders who demand ideological values and engage in intellectual stimulation give
meaning to their organization and to their followers’ work. Thus, we think employees of
transformational leaders will perceive positively their jobs. Hence, we hypothesize that:

H2. There is a positive relationship between transformational leadership and


follower perceptions of core job characteristics.

Method
Sample characteristics and questionnaire administration
The current study surveyed 100 employees working in French companies (one
employee per company) based in Northern France and in Paris and its suburbs.
Our target from the beginning was to have a sample of 100 small, medium and Transformational
big companies in the service and industry sectors. Thus, we selected randomly 100 leadership
employees who held positions representing areas such as marketing, human resource
management, finance, audit, communication, quality, sales and production. Also, we
provided in the survey the definitions of small, medium and big companies by
classifying them according to the overall number of employees (a small firm has less
than 50 employees, a medium one has between 50 and 250 employees and a big firm 413
has more than 250 employees). Our survey is composed of two sets of questions: In the
first one, the employees were asked to rate the characteristics of their supervisor and
their job characteristics. And, in the second part, the supervisors were asked to
evaluate the performance of their subordinates. The data were collected by sending an
e-mail to the employees with a link to an online survey. Once, the employees had filled
out the survey, they e-mailed their supervisors the link. The survey took place from
March to December 2011. We encouraged our respondents (the employees and
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their supervisors) in the cover letter to fill out the survey by assuring them the
confidentiality and the anonymity of the information. Hence, our sample is composed
of 100 employees who fully answered the questionnaire out of which 59 are men and 41
are women. The respondents have different positions in the industry (31) and service
sectors (69), in small firms (15), medium ones (17) and big ones (68). Finally, in our
sample, out of the 100 employees, 28 had women leaders and 72 men leaders.

Measures
All measures of our study used a response scale in which 1 was “strongly disagree”
and 5 was “strongly agree.” Confirmatory factor analysis revealed the existence of
coding factors in scales on which minorities of items were worded in an opposite
direction (i.e. were reverse coded). These items are “identity,” “variety,” “feedback from
job itself,” “fails to perform essential duties,” “great deal of time spent with personal
phone conversation” and “complains about insignificant things at work.”
We measured transformational leadership using a 20-item scale developed by Bass
and Avolio (1995), which includes four dimensions: intellectual stimulation (four items),
inspirational motivation (four items), individualized consideration (four items) and
idealized influence (eight items).
Transformational leadership was measured at the individual level because employees
were asked to evaluate their supervisors. Hence, in this study, by transformational leader
we mean the supervisor of the employees. The items used to assess transformational
leadership are shown in Table I. In order to test the scale reliability, we calculated
the a coefficient of the 20-item scale measuring transformational leadership. The
transformational leadership measures displayed an a coefficient of 0.925, which validates
the reliability of the scale.
In total, 12 items were used to measure task performance. The 12 items were developed
by Williams and Anderson (1991). The items used to assess task performance are
as follows:
. adequately completes assigned duties;
. fulfills responsibilities specified in job description;
. performs tasks that are expected of him/her;
. fails to perform essential duties;
. helps others who have been absent;
JMD Varimax-rotated factors Factor loadings
33,4
F1 ¼ inspirational motivation and intellectual stimulation
1. Instills pride 0.637
2. Talks about values and beliefs 0.323
3. Seeks different perspectives 0.518
414 4. Talks optimistically 0.766
5. Gets me to look at problems 0.647
6. Suggests new ways 0.728
7. Emphasizes importance of mission 0.580
8. Expresses confidence 0.715
9. Articulates a compelling sense of vision 0.727
10. Helps me develop strengths 0.574
F2 ¼ idealized influence and Individualized consideration
11. Talks enthusiastically 0.779
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12. Specifies importance of having strong purpose 0.481


13. Spends time teaching 0.522
14. Goes beyond self-interest 0.743
15. Treats me as individual 0.729
16. Acts in respect 0.665
Table I. 17. Considers me as having different needs 0.609
Variables of 18. Displays sense of power 0.623
transformational 19. Re-examines critical assumptions 0.310
leadership 20. Considers moral 0.649

. helps others who have heavy work loads;


. takes time to listen to co-workers’ problems and worries;
. goes out of way to help new employees;
. passes along information to co-workers;
. gives advance notice when unable to come work;
. great deal of time spent with personal phone conversation; and
. complains about insignificant things at work.
In order to test the scale reliability, we calculated the a coefficient for the variables
measuring task performance. The a coefficient for the variables measuring task
performance is 0.879, which validates the reliability of the scale.
Five items were used to measure job characteristics. The five items were taken from
the revised form of the Job Diagnostic Survey (Hackman and Oldham, 1974). In order
to test the scale reliability, we calculated the a coefficient of the five-item measuring job
characteristics. The a coefficient for the variables measuring task performance is 0.552,
which validates the reliability of the scale.
We introduced the gender of the leader and the size of the firm as control
variables in order to see whether they have an impact on the relationship
between transformational leadership and task performance from one hand and, between
transformational leadership and the perceived measures of core job characteristics from
another hand.

Results
The analysis shows that these variables are correlated among each other. We applied
the principal components analysis in order to transform the correlated variables
measuring transformational leadership into a smaller number of uncorrelated Transformational
variables, the principal components. Table I displays the two varimax-rotated factors, leadership
F1 and F2 which emerged from this analysis. F1 presents two aspects of transformational
leadership which are “inspirational motivation” and “intellectual stimulation” while F2
portrays the “individualized consideration” and the “idealized influence” dimensions of
transformational leadership.
Means, standard deviations and correlations among F1, F2, the variables of task 415
performance and the variables of job characteristics are shown in Table II. The results
show that F1 is significantly correlated with the variables “identity” ( pp0.05) and F2
is significantly correlated with “identity” ( pp0.01) and “gives advance notice when
unable to come work” and “complains about insignificant things at work” ( pp0.05).
To test our hypotheses, we applied the multiple regressions in order to see whether
there is a relationship between transformational leadership and follower task
performance on one hand and, between transformational leadership and follower
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perceptions of core job characteristics on another hand.


Hence, to test H1, we regressed the variables of “task performance” on F1 and F2.
The results, exposed in Tables III-VI, suggest that the variable “takes time to listen to
co-workers problems and worries” is associated with F1 and, the variables “goes out
of way to help new employees,” “gives advance notice when unable to come to work”
and “complains about insignificant things at work” are associated with F2.
Thus, the measures of “task performance” are partially associated with the
variables measuring transformational leadership. As a result, H1 is partially supported.
To test H2, we regressed the variable “job characteristics” on F1 and F2. The results
presented in Tables VII and VIII show that the variable “identity” is associated with F1
and F2 and, the variable “feedback from job itself” is associated with F1.
Hence, the measures of job characteristics are partially associated with the variables
measuring transformational leadership. As a result, H2 is partially supported.
In our sample, 28 respondents had women leaders and 72 men leaders. In order to
see whether the gender of the leader plays a role on task performance and on job
characteristics, we have introduced the variable “gender of leader” as a control variable.
Our analysis has revealed that when the leader was a man, the results did not change. We
have a partial relationship between transformational leadership and follower task
performance from one hand, and a partial relationship between transformational
leadership and follower perceptions of core job characteristics from another hand.
In the case, the leader was a woman; there is no relationship between
transformational leadership and follower task performance. On the other hand, our
analysis reveals that there is a partial relationship between transformational
leadership and follower perceptions of core job characteristics.
In addition, we have introduced another control variable “size of firm” in order to
see whether the size of the firm has an impact on the relationship between
transformational leadership and task performance from one hand and,
between transformational leadership and the perceived measures of core job
characteristics from another hand. Results of these analyses showed no substantial
differences. There is always a partial relationship between the variables studied.

Discussion
Theoretical and practical implications
Findings contribute to extend the knowledge in the field of leadership. First of all,
the study empirically proves that there is a partial relationship between French
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33,4

416
JMD

Table II.

and correlations
Descriptive statistics
Mean SD 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

1. F1 0.00 1.00 1 0.01 0.21** 0.37*** 0.06 0.05 0.2* 0.27***0.03 0.1 0.04 0.08 0.11 0.07 0.17* 0.15 0.11 0.05 0 0.07
2. F2 0.00 1.000.01 1 0.31***0.28*** 0.05 0.16 0.15 0.18* 0.01 0.12 0.05 0.21** 0.1 0.08 0.07 0.19* 0.03 0.21** 0.08 0.21**
3. Identity 3.51 1.22 0.21** 0.31*** 1 0.17 0.33*** 0.05 0.31***0.31*** 0.06 0 0.13 0.09 0.02 0.1 0.03 0.09 0.08 0.15 0.07 0.23**
4. Feedback from agent 2.79 1.180.37***0.28***0.17 1 0.11 0.08 0.13 0.08 0.09 0.06 0 0.08 0.08 0.03 0.16 0.14 0.1 0.21** 0.1 0.2*
5. Variety 4.09 1.00 0.06 0.05 0.33***0.11 1 0.05 0.29***0.23** 0.24** 0.21** 0.23** 0.17* 0.1 0.25** 0.07 0.16 0.15 0.17* 0.13 0.21**
6. Task significance 2.33 1.160.05 0.16 0.05 0.08 0.05 1 0.02 0.14 0.14 0.07 0.23** 0.16 0.24** 0.15 0.16 0.21** 0.28***0.28***0.21** 0.16
7. Feedback from job
itself 3.51 1.09 0.2* 0.15 0.31***0.13 0.29***0.02 1 0.33*** 0.11 0.03 0.21** 0.05 0.03 0.17* 0.01 0.12 0.03 0.12 0.1 0.33***
8. Autonomy 2.28 1.040.27***0.18* 0.31*** 0.08 0.23** 0.14 0.33*** 1 0.08 0.01 0.07 0.05 0.06 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.17 0.16 0.06 0.1
9. Adequately completes
assigned duties 3.61 0.750.03 0.01 0.06 0.09 0.24** 0.14 0.11 0.08 1 0.71*** 0.63*** 0.38*** 0.45*** 0.51*** 0.22** 0.55*** 0.43*** 0.33*** 0.23** 0.34***
10. Fulfills responsibilities 3.65 0.71 0.1 0.12 0 0.06 0.21** 0.07 0.03 0.01 0.71*** 1 0.54*** 0.31*** 0.4*** 0.5*** 0.29*** 0.45*** 0.41*** 0.29*** 0.17* 0.26***
11. Performs tasks 3.67 0.70 0.04 0.05 0.13 0 0.23** 0.23** 0.21** 0.07 0.63*** 0.54*** 1 0.37*** 0.39*** 0.48*** 0.36*** 0.5*** 0.35*** 0.42*** 0.18* 0.35***
12. Fails to perform 3.68 0.800.08 0.21** 0.09 0.08 0.17* 0.16 0.05 0.05 0.38*** 0.31*** 0.37*** 1 0.37*** 0.26*** 0.18* 0.32*** 0.35*** 0.28*** 0.17* 0.16
13. Helps others absent 3.47 0.77 0.11 0.1 0.02 0.08 0.1 0.24** 0.03 0.06 0.45*** 0.4*** 0.39*** 0.37*** 1 0.59*** 0.28*** 0.67*** 0.52*** 0.38*** 0.21** 0.23**
14. Helps others work 3.45 0.80 0.07 0.08 0.1 0.03 0.25** 0.15 0.17* 0.11 0.51*** 0.5*** 0.48*** 0.26*** 0.59*** 1 0.33*** 0.64*** 0.46*** 0.44*** 0.23** 0.3***
15. Takes time 3.52 0.75 0.17* 0.07 0.03 0.16 0.07 0.16 0.01 0.11 0.22** 0.29*** 0.36*** 0.18* 0.28*** 0.33*** 1 0.43*** 0.49*** 0.37*** 0.22** 0.18*
16. Goes out of way 3.66 0.75 0.15 0.19* 0.09 0.14 0.16 0.21** 0.12 0.11 0.55*** 0.45*** 0.5*** 0.32*** 0.67*** 0.64*** 0.43*** 1 0.57*** 0.54*** 0.37*** 0.25**
17. Passes information 3.65 0.76 0.11 0.03 0.08 0.1 0.15 0.28*** 0.03 0.17 0.43*** 0.41*** 0.35*** 0.35*** 0.52*** 0.46*** 0.49*** 0.57*** 1 0.47*** 0.36*** 0.24**
18. Gives advance notice 3.52 0.84 0.05 0.21** 0.15 0.21** 0.17* 0.28*** 0.12 0.16 0.33*** 0.29*** 0.42*** 0.28*** 0.38*** 0.44*** 0.37*** 0.54*** 0.47*** 1 0.22** 0.27***
19. Great deal of time 3.46 1.02 0 0.08 0.07 0.1 0.13 0.21** 0.1 0.06 0.23** 0.17* 0.18* 0.17* 0.21** 0.23** 0.22** 0.37*** 0.36*** 0.22** 1 0.42***
20. Complains about
insignificant work 3.29 0.99 0.07 0.21** 0.23** 0.2* 0.21** 0.16 0.33***0.1 0.34*** 0.26*** 0.35*** 0.16 0.23** 0.3*** 0.18* 0.25** 0.24** 0.27*** 0.42*** 1

Notes: * pp0.1; ** pp0.05; *** pp0.01


transformational leaders in Northern France and in Paris and its suburbs and Transformational
perceived measures of task performance and between French transformational leaders leadership
in Northern France and in Paris and its suburbs and perceived measures of job
characteristics. Hence, a leader behavior does have an impact on the leadership style.

Coefficients SE 417
Constant 3.52*** 0.076
F1 0.133* 0.076
F2 0.053 0.076 Table III.
Regression of the variable
Notes: n ¼ 100, R2 ¼ 0.037, adjusted R2 ¼ 0.016. * pp0.1; *** pp0.01 takes time on F1, F2
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Coefficients SE

Constant 3.666*** 0.076


F1 0.117 0.076
F2 0.151** 0.076 Table IV.
Regression of the variable
Notes: n ¼ 100, R2 ¼ 0.064, adjusted R2 ¼ 0.043. ** pp0.05; *** pp0.01 goes out of way on F1, F2

Coefficients SE

Constant 3.52*** 0.085


F1 0.049 0.085 Table V.
F2 0.184** 0.085 Regression of the
variable gives advance
Notes: n ¼ 100, R2 ¼ 0.051, adjusted R2 ¼ 0.031. ** pp0.05; *** pp0.01 notice on F1, F2

Coefficients SE

Constant 3.291*** 0.101 Table VI.


F1 0.076 0.101 Regression of the
F2 0.216** 0.101 variable complains about
insignificant things
Notes: n ¼ 100, R2 ¼ 0.053, adjusted R2 ¼ 0.032. ** pp0.05; *** pp0.01 on F1, F2

Coefficients SE

Constant 3.51*** 0.117


F1 0.264** 0.117
F2 0.391*** 0.117 Table VII.
Regression of the
Notes: n ¼ 100, R2 ¼ 0.149, adjusted R2 ¼ 0.131. ** pp0.05; *** pp0.01 variable identity on F1, F2
JMD Thus, leaders could influence perceived core characteristics by changing the
33,4 language used to communicate with their employees. Second, the study shows
that there is a partial relationship between transformational leadership and perceived
measures of job characteristics in firms where the leader is a woman or a man.
Third, the study reveals that there is no relationship between transformational
leadership and task performance when the leader is a woman which is not the
418 case when the leader is a man (we cannot generalize this point since in the sample
we have only 28 women leaders). Fourth, the study illustrates that when the leader
is a woman the employees feel that they are autonomous to accomplish the task
which is not the case when the leader is a man who is going to give his employees
the opportunity to feel that their job is significant to them. Hence, we can notice that
the leadership style of a man and a woman is not completely the same and the
gender has an important impact on the leadership style. Finally, the study utilizes
a sample of private and public French firms (n ¼ 100) in various sectors (industry
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and service).
Also, our results have important practical implications for organizations. First, we
demonstrated that leaders can impact the way followers view their jobs. Hence,
we showed that French leaders in Northern France and in Paris and its suburbs cannot
be considered as transformational leaders. That is why, French leaders in Northern
France and in Paris and its suburbs need to adopt more a transformational leadership
style in order to influence positively the way followers view their jobs. Hence, French
leaders in Northern France and in Paris and its suburbs can have leadership training
courses in order to know how to create meaningful jobs for their employees and to train
them to increase the degree of variety, autonomy, feedback and identity they provide to
their subordinates. Dvir et al. (2002) demonstrated that transformational leadership
training could improve follower outcomes.
Second, French firms need to take into account in the recruitment process the
gender of the person especially for positions in the middle or top management level
since the study revealed that the gender plays a role in the leadership style. As we have
seen, a French women leader in Northern France and in Paris and its suburb is going to
give her employees more autonomy in their work whereas a French man leader is going
to give his employees the opportunity that his work is significant and important
for him.
In conclusion, our study shows that French transformational leaders in Northern
France and in Paris and its suburbs need to be more transformational since their
leadership style influence directly the way their employees view their jobs.

Limitations and conclusion


This research is not without its limitations. The first one is related to the nature of the
sample. Although the range of the sample is diversified and contains small, medium

Coefficients SE

Constant 3.51*** 0.110


Table VIII. F1 0.22 0.110
Regression of the F2 0.165 0.110
variable feedback from
job itself on F1, F2 Notes: n ¼ 100, R2 ¼ 0.063, adjusted R2 ¼ 0.043. *** pp0.01
and big firms, the majority of them are big ones. Hence, we recommend that our Transformational
findings be replicated across a sample of firms in future research where small, medium leadership
and big ones are presented proportionally. Also, the majority of the firms are in the
service sector. We recommend that our findings be replicated across a sample of
firms in future research where the industry and the service sectors are presented
proportionally. Furthermore, transformational leadership, job characteristics and task
performance measures exhibited restrictions in that they depend on the perception 419
of employees and leaders. Finally, the sample is composed of French firms based in
Northern France and in Paris and its suburbs. Thus, we recommend that our findings
be replicated across a sample of firms in future research where other French regions
are represented.
In summary, this study provides empirical evidence linking French leader behaviors
in Northern France and in Paris and its suburbs and employees’ perceptions of their
jobs. In addition, the study provides practical information related to perceptions of job
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characteristics that can be used by organizations wishing to design leadership training


courses for their leaders. Finally, the study shows evidence that transformational
leaders have direct impact on employees’ perceptions and attitudes.

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About the author


Dr Eliane Bacha is a Professor of Management and Organizational Behavior at SKEMA Business
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School, France. She received her PhD degree from IAE Aix-en-Provence, France a DEA from IAE
Aix-en-Provence and an MBA from the Lebanese American University, Lebanon. Her research
focusses on the performance of the firms and on leadership and she writes articles on these
topics. Dr Eliane Bacha can be contacted at: eliane.bacha@skema.edu

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