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ISSMGE - TC 211 International Symposium on Ground Improvement IS-GI Brussels 31 May & 1 June 2012

Sand Compaction Pile Technology and its Performance in both Sandy


and Clayey Grounds
Hiroki Kinoshita (Fudo Tetra Corp., Japan, E-mail: hiroki.kinoshita@fudotetra.co.jp )
Kenji Harada (Fudo Tetra Corp., Japan, E-mail: kenji.harada@fudotetra.co.jp )
Mitsuo Nozu (Fudo Tetra Corp., Japan, E-mail: mitsuo.nozu@fudotetra.co.jp )
Jun Ohbayashi (Fudo Tetra Corp., Japan, E-mail: jun.ohbayashi@fudotetra.co.jp )

ABSTRACT

Sand Compaction Pile (SCP) technology has been developed in Japan since the 1950s and has been
widely applied to various structures on both clayey and sandy grounds (as liquefaction mitigation). In
this paper, various projects that verify the effectiveness of the SCP method in past intense earthquakes
including the 2011 huge earthquake are discussed and the following observations are made: (1) strong
sand pile with consistent diameter is possible to be installed even with using top vibrator and vertical
vibration sequence; (2) SL-gauge system which has been developed in Japan is able to secure uniform
diameter sand pile installation; (3) top vibrator system has many advantages, such as sand and other
materials can be used, and addition of water is not necessary for installation; and (4) SCP method has
also non-vibratory system using forced lifting/driving device.

1. INTRODUCTION
The sand compaction pile (SCP) method is a method of improving soft ground by means of installing
well-compacted sand piles in the ground. It combines such fundamental principles of ground
improvement as densification and drainage. It can be applied to all soil types, from sandy to clayey soils,
and it has therefore been widely used in Japan for improvement of soft ground. In sandy ground, the SCP
method is often used as a countermeasure against liquefaction and the effectiveness of compaction to
prevent liquefaction has been confirmed in past intense earthquakes, showing this to be one of the most
reliable improvement methods.
This paper describes the outline, classification and history of SCP method and concludes by discussing its
features through comparison with the stone column method, which is used worldwide as vibratory gravel
pile method. The paper also demonstrates the improvement effectiveness of the SCP method for both
sandy and clayey ground. Furthermore, some cases that demonstrate the difference in the degree of
damage suffered through past intense earthquakes between unimproved ground and ground compacted by
the SCP method are shown.

2. OUTLINE OF SCP METHOD


Figure 1 shows the classification and history of the SCP method, including some relevant geotechnical
issues. The SCP method has both vibratory system with vibro-hammer and non-vibratory system with
forced lifting/driving device. It also can be implemented both on land and off-shore using an exclusive
barge. Although the vibratory SCP was developed more over 50 years ago and has been implemented in
more than 380,000 km of improved ground, the vibro-hammer used has a negative effect in the form of
vibration and noise on the surrounding environment, making it difficult to utilize the method in urban
sites or at locations close up to existing structures. To address this issue, a non-vibratory SCP method
(with the commercial name ‘SAVE Compozer’) was therefore developed, which does not require impact
or vibration on the driving device to penetrate the ground. The implementation volume of the non-
vibratory SCP has reached more over 7,000 km to date.
The equipment consists mainly of an SCP driving device used as a base machine and a forced
lifting/driving device with a rotary drive motor or hydraulic-powered geared motor to rotate the casing
pipe as shown in Figure 2. Two types of forced lifting/driving device are used: the pin rack-sprocket type
and the rack-pinion type. In both cases, the necessary reaction force for the forced lifting/driving device
comes from the total equipment weight, and the sprocket or pinion gear is rotated by a hydraulic motor.
The operating procedure for the non-vibratory SCP method, shown in Figure 3, is discussed below and is
identical to that adopted in the conventional SCP method. A 400~500 mm diameter casing pipe is used to
create well compacted sand piles of 700 mm diameter and as a result, the surrounding ground is densified.
(1) Set the casing pipe to the predetermined place.

Kinoshita, H. et al. - Sand Compaction Pile Technology and its Performance in both Sandy and Clayey Grounds
ISSMGE - TC 211 International Symposium on Ground Improvement IS-GI Brussels 31 May & 1 June 2012

1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s


development period(1955-1969)
spread period(1970-1989) turning period(1990-)
Items related to
sand compaction ‘56 ▼Beginning of On-shore Work ’95 ▼Development of
pile method Non-vibratory SCP(On-shore)
‘65▼Beginning of ’02▼Development
Off-shore Work of Non-vibratory SCP (Off shore)
implementation
volume (thousand 12 80 180 330 380
km)

Average sea depth30 Tokyo Bay Trans Road


of ◆ Kansai International Airport (PhaseⅡ)
artificial islands Kansai International Airport (PhaseⅠ)
for 20
off-shore work Nagasaki Airport
10 Kobe Port Island Ohgi Island
(m) Port Southern Osaka

Tohoku Pacific Earthquake


Geotechnical Stability Settlement(Deformation)
issues ’11 ▼
’95 ▼Hyogo-ken Nambu earthquake
Earthquake resistance

’64 ▼Niigata Earthquake Environment

Figure 1: Geotechnical issues and history of SCP method


(2) By operating the forced lifting/driving device, install the casing pipe into the ground while rotating.
(3) After the casing pipe reached the required depth, feed sand through the upper hopper.
(4) By drawing up the casing pipe, the sand in the casing pipe is pressed out to the void by compressed
air.
(5) Extract the casing while compacting the pressed out sand pile to enlarge it.
(6) Form the sand pile to the ground surface by repeating the above procedure.
Table 1 compares the features between the SCP method and the stone column method. The main point of
difference is the location of vibrator and this gives the SCP method an increase in penetration ability and
can penetrate without water.
Recordings of vibration associated with the vibratory methods (vibratory SCP method and stone column
method) and non-vibratory SCP method are shown in Figure 4. As clearly seen from the figure, vibrations
are greatly reduced in the non-vibratory method compared with the vibratory methods, making it suitable
for applications in urban areas and close to existing structures.

A Base m achine
B Base m achine Leader part
C Forced lifting/driving device
D Rotary drive mot or
M
E
F
Casing pipe
Hopper
F (a) (b)
G Bucket
H Compresser
C pin rack rack
I Receving tank D
J Swivel
K Power g enerator J
L Wheel loader
M Noise suppressor

L
E
B Sprocket pinion gear
(a) Pin rack and sprocket type (b) Rack and pinion type
K A
H I G

Figure 2: Non-vibratory SCP equipment and main components of forced lifting/driving device

Kinoshita, H. et al. - Sand Compaction Pile Technology and its Performance in both Sandy and Clayey Grounds
ISSMGE - TC 211 International Symposium on Ground Improvement IS-GI Brussels 31 May & 1 June 2012

pulling out redrive

compaction compaction

enlarging
diameter

Sand Pile

Mechanism of compaction
Mechanism of compaction

Figure 3: Operating procedure of non-vibratory SCP method

Table 1: Comparison between SCP method and stone column method

Sand Compaction Pile Stone Column method


method (dry-bottom feed)
Location of vibrator Upper part lower part
Vibration direction vertical horizontal
Supply way of material lower part lower part
air
Use of air/water no water air/water
Infilling material sand/gravel gravel only
Quality control sand/gravel volume Intensify of electric current

10 Human
Vibratory SCP Perception
Stone Column Lukas '86
Non-vibratory SCP
Very
Disturbing
1
PPV (in/sec)

Disturbing
0.3
Strongly
0.1 Perceptible

Distinctly
Perceptibl
Slightly
0.01 Perceptibl
1 10 100 1000

Distance from Source (ft)

Figure 4: Decrease over distance of vibration of vibratory and non-vibratory SCP methods

To summarize, the features of the SCP method are as follows:


(1) Strong sand pile with consistent diameter is possible to be installed even with using top vibrator and
vertical vibration sequence.
(2) SL-gauge system which has been developed in Japan is able to secure uniform diameter sand pile
installation.
(3) Top vibrator system has lot of advantages, such as sand and other material can be used, and addition
of water is not necessary during installation.
(4) SCP method has also a non-vibratory system using forced lifting/driving device.

Kinoshita, H. et al. - Sand Compaction Pile Technology and its Performance in both Sandy and Clayey Grounds
ISSMGE - TC 211 International Symposium on Ground Improvement IS-GI Brussels 31 May & 1 June 2012

3. IMPROVEMENT EFFCTIVENESS BY SCP METHOD

3.1. Improvement effectiveness for clayey ground


An example of application to embankment on clayey ground is discussed. Figure 5 indicates the cross-
section of the embankment with the SCP improvement specification and soil boring log. From the
properties of the area, the top 5 meters consist of peat layer with natural water content of wn = 400 -
1000%. Figure 6 shows the construction process along with the amount of settlement in the central
portion of the embankment over time. In the figure, the unconfined compressive strengths qu are also
plotted. The embankments were completed up to 8m in height with no failure in the SCP section. The
unconfined compressive strength increased as the settlement progressed.

ph=14.700m
5.0% 5.0%

.8 1: 1
1: 1 .8
2.0% 2.0% 2.0% 2.0%
5
1.
1:

γ γ
γ
2 γ γ
γ
GL=8.200
11.5m

4 γ
γ
γ

SCP 6
8
10
12
(m)
Figure 5: Cross-section of embankment
Embankment

8
height (m)

6
4
2
0
'77/7/1 '78/1/1 '79/1/1
0 12

Unconfined compressive strength


0.5 10

1.0 8
qu(km/m2)
Settlement volume(m)

1.5 6

2.0 4

2.5 2

3.0 0

Figure 6: Elapsed time of consolidation settlement and unconfined compressive strength

3.2. Improvement effectiveness for sandy ground


Next, an example of application for sandy ground is shown. To illustrate the increase in density of sand,
typical SPT N-values obtained from sites improved by both vibratory SCP and non-vibratory SCP
procedures are shown in Figure 7(a) while examples of CPT qc values from vibratory SCP–improved
ground are illustrated in Figure 7(b). It is observed that penetration resistances obtained between sand
piles installed increased as the piles pushed and displaced the adjacent ground.
Moreover, results of cases where various instruments (e.g., pressuremeters and dilatometers) were used to
measure the lateral stresses before and after implementation of both vibratory and non-vibratory SCP
methods are presented in Figure 8. In the figure, the relation between the lateral stress ratio, KC, and
replacement ratio, as, are plotted 1 month and 2 years after the SCP operation. Note that the data points
corresponding to improvement ratio as=0 refer to the condition prior to the implementation of SCP
method. It can be observed that substantial increase in KC–values is observed 2 years after
implementation, with larger increase in KC values occurring at higher as.

Kinoshita, H. et al. - Sand Compaction Pile Technology and its Performance in both Sandy and Clayey Grounds
ISSMGE - TC 211 International Symposium on Ground Improvement IS-GI Brussels 31 May & 1 June 2012

(b) CPT qc-value


(a) SPT(N1)80-value
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Drilling log Sand pile 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Drilling log Sand pile
0 0

clay
Imp. ratio Imp. ratio

clay
2 aS=10 (%) 2
aS=9 (%)

4 4

sand
Depth (m)
Depth (m)

6 6

sand
8
8 NV : Non-vibratory
V : Vibratory
10 10

12 12 Pre CPT qc-values


Pre SPT N-values Post CPT qc-values(V-SCP)
Post SPT N-values (V-SCP) Post CPT qc-values(Nv-SCP)
14 14
Post SPT N-values (Nv-SCP)

Figure 7: Examples of increased penetration resistances in grounds improved by SCP method in terms
of: (a) SPT N–values; and (b) CPT qc–values

3.0
Measurement Exsecusion
Pre SBP Nv-SCP
2.5
Lateral stress ratio, Kc

Post SBP (1mo) Nv-SCP


Post SBP (2yrs) Nv-SCP
2.0 Pre DLM Nv-SCP
Post DLM (1mo) Nv-SCP
Pre PM V-SCP
1.5 Post PM (1mo) V-SCP
Post PM (2yrs) V-SCP
* SBP:Self Boring
1.0 DLM:Dilatometer
PM:Pressure-meter
0.5
NV : Non-vibratory
0.0 V : Vibratory
0 5 10 15 20 25
Improvement ratio, as(%)

Figure 8: Example of results showing increase in KC–values due to SCP implementation

4. CASES WHERE IMPROVEMENT EFFECT OF SCP METHOD HAS


BEEN VERIFIED IN INTENSE EARTHQUAKES
Figure 9 shows the epicenter locations and characteristics of the 1974 Miyagiken-oki earthquake and
seven other large-scale earthquakes which occurred later, including the 2011 Tohoku Pacific earthquake,
and gives information on the performance of SCP-improved ground as a result of these earthquakes. As
the figure shows, there has been no report of major disruption to structures erected on SCP-compacted
ground, thus confirming in a qualitative sense the validity of compaction-type ground improvement. The
following are some representative cases of ground improvement performance related to important
structures.

4.1. Improvement effectiveness in port facility structures (1993 Kushiro-oki


Earthquake)
Figure 10 shows a standard section of the Kushiro West Port that was affcted by the 1993 Kushiro-oki
Earthquake (Yamada et al. 1990). At this location, countermeasures to resist earthquakes, mostly
compaction by the vibratory SCP method, were implemented in the ground behind the quay walls. In
areas adjacent to steel structures, gravel drain method was adopted to avoid any negative effects of
vibration or displacement from the improvement work. SPT N-values in areas between sand piles in the
compaction-improved areas were around 20~30. The maximum horizontal acceleration recorded at the
Kushiro Port Construction Office, located about 1.5 km from the quay walls, was 470 gal but no damage
due to the earthquake was observed, and port activities resumed the day following the earthquke.
However, in unimproved grounds within the same wharf area, large cracks appeared in quay walls
(approx. 10 cm wide, 20 cm vertical offset) and the quays could not be used.

Kinoshita, H. et al. - Sand Compaction Pile Technology and its Performance in both Sandy and Clayey Grounds
ISSMGE - TC 211 International Symposium on Ground Improvement IS-GI Brussels 31 May & 1 June 2012

Hokkaido Nansei-oki Earthquake(July'93;M=7.8)


Effectiveness of SCP improvement for Hokkaido Toho-oki Earthquake(Oct.'94;M=8.1)
storage tank site at Hakodate confirmed. Effectiveness confirmed of SCP method at site
SCP used in embankment restoration work where it was adopted for restoration work after
of Goshiribetsu River.  '93 Kushiro-oki earthquake (Nishikawa et al. 1995). 

Kushiro-oki Earthquake(Jan'93;M=7.8)
Nihonkai Chubu Earthquake(May'83;M=7.7) Effectiveness confirmed of SCP and gravel drain
Effectiveness of SCP improvement for method used for Kushiro's West Harber (Iai et al. 1993).
SCP used in restoration work of Kushiro and
Okitate storage tank site confirme (JSCE 1986).
Tokachi Rivers (Sasaki et al. 1995).
Hyogo-ken Nambu Earthquake(Jan.'95;M=7.2) Sanriku Haruka-oki Earthquake(Des.'94;M=7.5)
Earthquake-resistant effect of ground Effectiveness of SCP improvement confirmed
improvement confirmed (Yasuda et al. 1996). x Sanriku
at Haruka-oki
Hachinohe storage tankEarthquake(Des.'94;M=7.5)
site (JGS 1994).
SCP used for restoration work of guays, Effectiveness of SCP improvement confirmed
Breakwaters,etc. at Hachinohe storage tank
Tohoku Pacific Earthquake site (JGS 1994).
(Mar ’11, M=9.0)
Effectiveness of SCP improvement in areas adjacent to Tokyo Bay

Miyagi-ken-oki Earthquake(Jun.'78;M=7.4)
Effectiveness of SCP improvement confirmed at
storage tank site near Ishinomori fising port (Ishihara et al. 1980)

Figure 9: Recent intense earthquakes and information gained on ground improvement performance

  30.0
Mooring post
20.0
Curb
1.2 Gravel mat
Fender
+3.0 t=0.3
H.W.L+1.5 +1.8 +1.5 +2.2 +1.5
H.W.L+0.0
l=8.0m

Rubble -6.0
Natural
Steel sheet pliles

Ground -7.5 -7.5


Steel sheet pile SKY -41 t=16, l=24.5m

TypeⅣ

1.7m
-12.6
1.4
-14.6 4@1.4=5.6 4@1.7=6.8
1.7m

(φ400) (φ700)

-22.7 Gravel drains Sand compaction piles


Sand compaction piles

φ70cm
Sand Compaction Pile
Figure 10: Standard section of revetment

4.2. Improvement effectiveness in river embankments (1993 Kushiro-oki


Earthquake)
The 1993 Kushiro-oki Earthquake caused serious damage to many parts of eastern Hokkaido. River
embankments, particularly those along the Kushiro River, suffered damage that included lateral cracking,
cross cracking, slope collapse and cave-ins. The Kushiro River embankments suffered intermittent
collapse over a section of several hundred meters, attributed to liquefaction in the alluvial sand layer and
in the embankment itself below groundwater level.
In the restoration work, vibratory SCP method was adopted for the first time for foundation ground
improvement in the restoration of river embankments. Figure 11 shows a standard section (Sasaki et al.
1993). One year and nine months after the restoration work was completed, the Hokkaido-Toho-oki
Earthquake occurred, and again the region suffered massive seismic impact. In the locations where the
SCP method had been used there was no damage, but cracking re-occurred at locations where the
embankment had been restored after the Kushiro-oki Earthquake only by compact-tamping because the
cracking at that time had been light.

Kinoshita, H. et al. - Sand Compaction Pile Technology and its Performance in both Sandy and Clayey Grounds
ISSMGE - TC 211 International Symposium on Ground Improvement IS-GI Brussels 31 May & 1 June 2012

1.5m
Point of post-construction

1.5m
investigation

Sand Compaction
Sand CompactionPiles
Piles

ine φ70cm φ70cm


terL Elevation
n 10
Mat t=1.0m Ce 1.5m (m)

2.000 2.000
5
+3.5 1:2
1:2
+2.5

-2.5 -2.5

-5.0 -5

52.5m
-10

Figure 11: Standard section of river embankment

4.3. Improvement effectiveness in a storage tank facility (1993 Hokkaido Nansei


-oki Earthquake)
In the 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-oki Earthquake a remarkable difference was observed between the areas of
improved ground, including the vibratory SCP-improved tank base ground, and the adjacent unimproved
areas. Figure 12 shows the locations of sand boil marks in the improved tank base ground and the
adjacent non-improved ground areas. The tanks themselves, installed on ground that had been improved
against liquefaction using the SCP method, did not suffer damage, but evidence of sand boiling could be
observed at a distance of approximately 1/2 of the improvement depth from the improved section.

approx.1.5m
trace of sand boil
Crack
13.00m

SCP□1.8m

9.00m 18.00m 9.00m


36.00
1.8m 0
70
Crack φ
1.8m

trace of sand boil

φ70cm
Sand Compaction Pile

Figure 12: Standard section and plan of storage tank facility

4.4. Improvement effectiveness in buildings (1995 Hyogo-ken Nambu


Earthquake)
Large scale liquefaction occurred in the two man-made islands, Port Island and Rokko Island, in the Kobe
Port area as a result of the 1995 Kobe Earthquake. For structures in both islands, various types of ground
improvement were undertaken as measures to accelerate consolidation settlement in the alluvial clay layer
due to excess weight, and to increase the bearing capacity of the landfill soil layer. In the improved
sections, there was little damage caused by settlement etc. as compared with the damage in unimproved
areas. Figure 13 shows the measured post-earthquake settlements of the buildings with pile foundations in

Kinoshita, H. et al. - Sand Compaction Pile Technology and its Performance in both Sandy and Clayey Grounds
ISSMGE - TC 211 International Symposium on Ground Improvement IS-GI Brussels 31 May & 1 June 2012

the areas of improved grounds. In both islands, 40-50 cm settlement occurred in the unimproved areas,
but in the areas improved by compaction methods, including SCP, the settlement was negligible (Yasuda
et al. 1996).

0 5 10 15
 
100

90 Port Island (P.I.)


Relative settlement (cm) 80
Rokko Island (R.I.)
Average in P.I.
70 Average in R.I.
60
50

40

30

20

10

0
Untreated Preloading Sand drains Sand drains Rod (vibro) Sand compaction
plus preloading compaction piles

Figure 13: Relative settlement and methods of ground improvement (buildings with pile foundation)

During the 1995 Hyogoken Nambu earthquake, six cases of subsidence measurement of buildings on
spread foundations located in the man-made islands were conducted before and after the earthquake
(Kakurai et al. 1996). Figure 14 shows the cross-sections of these buildings. The foundation ground
beneath buildings a~e were improved by compaction, while no improvement was implemented under
building f. Also indicated in each figure are the total bearing load from each of the building, the amount
of absolute settlement measured and the improvement ratio. As shown in the figure, the settlement
following the earthquake of building f with unimproved foundation ground was about 20cm whereas the
amount of settlement in buildings a~e was in the order of several centimeters, depending on the extent of
improvement.

Building c

Building b
Building a
G.L [40kN/m2] K.P.+9.0m G.L [60kN/m2] K.P.+9.0m G.L [130kN/m2] K.P.+6.3m
    【1.9cm】     【4.5cm】     【4.2cm】
SCP zone
Depth (m)

SCP zone SCP zone


-10 -17 K.P.+3.0m -23 -18 (as=8%)
-19 (as=10%) K.P.+1.0m (as=10%)
-20 -26 fill
fill -25 fill
-36 alluvium clay a : Improvement ratio
-30 -41 alluvium clay alluvium clay s
-40 -45 diluvium layer
diluvium layer
diluvium layer
Building d
[50kN/m2]
Building f
Building e 【12.6cm】

G.L [110kN/m2] K.P.+7.2m G.L K.P.+5.2m G.L [60kN/m2] K.P.+6.0m


    【2.0cm】     【20.3cm】
K.P.+3.0m
Depth (m)

SCP zone -11 SCP zone (as=6%)


-10 K.P.+3.0m
-24 -20 (as=12%) -21
fill -22 fill
-20 fill
-30 alluvium clay -35 alluvium clay
-41 alluvium clay -38
-40 diluvium layer
diluvium layer diluvium layer
Note:GWL indicated is from boring log

Figure 14: Absolute settlement and SCP improved area (Buildings on spread foundation)

4.5. Improvement effectiveness in buildings (2001 Tohoku Pacific Earthquake)


Following the 11 March 2011 Tohoku Pacific Earthquake (Mw 9.0), liquefaction was observed in many
areas adjacent to Tokyo Bay, about 390 km from the epicentre, as shown in Figure 15. Manholes were
uplifted, grounds settled, and buildings and bridges were damaged as a result of liquefaction.

Kinoshita, H. et al. - Sand Compaction Pile Technology and its Performance in both Sandy and Clayey Grounds
ISSMGE - TC 211 International Symposium on Ground Improvement IS-GI Brussels 31 May & 1 June 2012

Edogawa
Funabashi
Koto Ichikawa
Narashino

Urayasu Chiba
Minato
Tokyo Bay area 0 3km

Figure 15: Liquefied zones along Tokyo Bay (Ishikawa et al, 2011)

A medical center building is located in reclaimed land along the Tokyo Bay as shown in Figure 16. The
building is 5 stories high and supported by piles. After the liquefaction assessment, it was judged that
there is a high potential for liquefaction and consequently, non-vibratory SCP was adopted at this site as a
countermeasure against liquefaction. The imrovement specification is square arrangement with pitch of
1.5m (as=16.7%) and the length of the pile is 12m. In the surrounding area of the improved site, gravel
instead of sand was used to dissipate the excess water pressure from liquefied area. The effectiveness of
this method was verified for a building in Rokko Island during the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nambu Earthquake.
As shown in Photo 1, although liquefaction-induced damage was observed outside the improved area, no
damage was observed within the improved area.

Sand Compaction Pile


1.5m

0.75m

Non-vibratory 1.5m
(Using grave
Improved area
1.5m

Location of building

Non-vibratory SCP (Using sand)

Figure 16: Plan view of the SCP improved area of the building

5. CONCLUDING REMARKS
This paper highlighted the features of the SCP method and its improvement effectiveness though
investigation of the implementation and performance of improved grounds during actual large
earthquakes in Japan.
There was no damage on the improved area during the 2011 Tohoku Pacific Earthquake. This showed
that the improved ground by SCP method is effective not only against intense earthquakes such as the
1995 Hyogo-ken Nambu Earthquake but also against earthquakes having long duration time. A
qualitative understanding of these factors and analyses should be undertaken in future studies.

Kinoshita, H. et al. - Sand Compaction Pile Technology and its Performance in both Sandy and Clayey Grounds
ISSMGE - TC 211 International Symposium on Ground Improvement IS-GI Brussels 31 May & 1 June 2012

improved area
Unimproved area

Photo 1: Successful ground improvement in Tatsumi area

REFERENCES
Architectural Institute of Japan, AIJ (2001). Recommendations for Design of Building Foundations (in
Japanese).
Harada, K., Orense, R.P., Ishihara, K. and Mukai, J. (2010). “Lateral Stress Effects on Liquefaction
Resistance Correlations,” New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Bulletin, Vol. 43, pp.
13-23.
Harada, K., Nozu, M. and Orense, R.P. (2011). “Liquefaction-proofing through sand compaction pile
method : Case studies from recent gigantic earthquakes in Japan,” 7th APRU Research on Multi-
hazard the Pacific Rim, Auckland, New Zealand (to be presented)
Ishihara, K., Kawase, Y. and Nakajima, M. (1980). “Liquefaction Characteristics of Sand Deposits at Oil
Tank Site during the Miyagiken-oki Earthquake,” Soils and Foundations, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 97-
111.
Ishihara, K. and Harada, K. (1992). “Sand compaction pile method - a ground technique for soft soils,”
Proc. of the International Geotechnical Conference, Vietnam, pp.471-480.
Ishikawa, K. and Yasuda, S. (2011). “Liquefaction along Tokyo Bay during the 2011 Tohoku-Pacific
Ocean Earthquake in Japan,” 2nd International Conference on Performance-Based Design in
Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering (to be submitted).
Japanese Geotechnical Society (2009). Manual of Sand Compaction Pile Method by Re-driven System (in
Japanese).
Kakurai, M., Aoki, M., Hirai, Y. and Matano, H. (1996). “Investigation of spread foundations on liquefied
man-made islands,” Tsuchi-to-Kiso, 44-2, pp.64-66 (in Japanese).
Sasaki, Y., Tamura, K., Yamamoto, M. and Ohbayashi, J. (1995). “Soil Improvement Work for River
Embankment Damaged by 1993 Kushiro-oki Earthquake,” Proceedings of 1st International
Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 1, pp. 43-48.
Yamada, H. and Sato, M. (1990). “Site Tests related to Work to Implement Countermeasures to
Liquefaction at Kushiro Port,” Presentation Outlines 4th set, of 34th Hokkaido Development
Agency Technical Research Meeting, pp. 259-264. (in Japanese)
Yasuda, S., Ishihara, K., Harada, K. and Shinkawa, N. (1996). “Effect of Soil Improvement on Ground
Subsidence due to Liquefaction,” Soils and Foundations, Special Issue, pp. 99-107.
Yasuda, S. and Harada, K. (2011). “Liquefaction-induced Damage in the Reclaimed Lands along Tokyo
Bay,” Journal of Japanese Geotechnical Society, 59-7, pp.38-41. (in Japanese).

Kinoshita, H. et al. - Sand Compaction Pile Technology and its Performance in both Sandy and Clayey Grounds