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Pump Characteristics

P. S. Mahar 1 and R. P. Singh 2

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Abstract: The total cost of a pumped water supply system includes the capital costs of the pipeline and pumping units, the replacement costs

of various components included, and the energy costs related to the system’s operation. The capital cost of pipeline and energy cost

are nonlinear functions of the pipe diameter. In addition, the pump characteristics, the replacement costs of components, and the escalating

energy costs are of a nonlinear nature. In this paper, a nonlinear optimization model is developed to design a pumping main for required

discharge, static head, pump characteristics, and economic parameters. The optimization model minimizes the total annual cost of the

pumping main and pump, satisfying the pump characteristic curve equations. The applicability of the developed model is demonstrated

with the help of a design example. The optimization model determines the optimal diameter of pumping main with pump efficiency

for a required discharge or optimal discharge range with pump efficiency for an available diameter. The optimization model shows the

effect of escalating costs of components and energy on the size of pumping main. Further, the model can also be used to determine the

optimal operating conditions for a new pumping system or to evaluate an existing pumping system. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)PS.1949-1204

.0000157. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Author keywords: Optimization model; Pumping main; Capital cost; Energy cost; Pump characteristic curves.

Introduction in Mays and Tung (1992), Lansey (2000), and Bhave (2003).

Lansey and Awumah (1994) minimized energy consumption costs

Water supply systems consist of different components such as res- to determine optimal pump operation schedules for water distribu-

ervoirs/tanks, pumps, pipeline, valves, and fittings. To meet the de- tion systems using dynamic programming. Ormsbee and Lansey

mand of increasing population, the design of a new water supply (1994) reviewed and discussed the optimal control methodologies

system or improvements to an existing one are important problems for water supply pumping systems considering the type of system,

for the designers. The general design problem of a water supply the type of hydraulic model used, the type of demand model used,

system involves minimizing the overall cost of the system subject the type of optimization method used, and the nature of resulting

to meeting the pressure and flow requirements. Conventionally, the optimal control policy.

water supply systems have been designed by trial-and-error meth- In water supply systems, pumping mains transport water over

ods on the basis of engineering judgment. More efficient and ac- long distances to meet the required flow and pressure. As a water

curate optimization methods have been applied to design of water supply system may be subjected to different loading conditions

supply systems during the last four decades, covering various as- (Mays 2004), the pump has to operate at different discharge, head,

pects such as cost of pipe networks, energy costs, pumping oper- and efficiency points. The discharge, head, and efficiency of a

ations, and pumping mains. Many researchers minimized the cost pump are represented by its characteristic curves having a nonlinear

of pipe networks using linear programming (Alperovits and Shamir nature. The pump characteristic curves and the system head curve

1977; Fujiwara et al. 1987), nonlinear programming (Shamir 1974; can be used to select the size of a pumping main and proper oper-

Lansey and Mays 1989; Varma et al. 1997), and dynamic program- ating range of the pump to result in the minimum energy cost with

ming (Liang 1971; Yang et al. 1975). Application of advanced tech- maximum possible efficiency. This will help in minimizing the

niques of optimization like genetic algorithms (Tolson et al. 2004; overall cost of the water supply system. The cost minimization

Prasad and Park 2004; Tu et al. 2005; Kadu et al. 2008; Krapivka of a pumping main has drawn little attention of researchers.

and Ostfeld 2009), ant colony optimization (Zecchin et al. 2007), Swamee (1996, 2001) developed methodology for optimal design

and differential evolution (Vasan and Simonovic 2010) have been of pumping mains using geometric programming. However, the

used to optimize the cost of pipe networks. A detailed description nonlinear pump characteristics were not included in the geometric

of optimal design of pipelines for water supply systems is available programming approach. In addition, the optimization models have

ignored the inclusion of escalation in the capital cost of the com-

1

Professor and Head, Civil Engineering Dept., College of Technology, ponents to be replaced and the energy cost that affects the design of

GBPUA&T Pantnagar, 263 145, Distt. Udham Singh Nagar (Uttarakhand), pipelines (Jensen 1981). The capital cost of discrete pipe sizes, the

India (corresponding author). E-mail: pooransmahar@yahoo.co.in operating characteristics of pumps, and the energy cost to overcome

2

Professor, Irrigation and Drainage Engineering Dept., College of the pipe friction are nonlinear in nature. Therefore, it will be more

Technology, GBPUA&T Pantnagar, 263 145, Distt. Udham Singh Nagar appropriate to use a nonlinear programming model to select optimal

(Uttarakhand), India. E-mail: rajprasin1@rediffmail.com

pipe size on the basis of replacement cost of the pump and its op-

Note. This manuscript was submitted on May 4, 2012; approved on

August 7, 2013; published online on September 2, 2013. Discussion erating characteristics for the required flow rate and pressure head.

period open until February 2, 2014; separate discussions must be submitted This paper presents the application of a nonlinear programming

for individual papers. This paper is part of the Journal of Pipeline Systems model for optimal design of a pumping main by considering

Engineering and Practice, © ASCE, ISSN 1949-1190/04013010(6)/ pump characteristics. The model considers capital investment

$25.00. and replacement costs of the components and energy cost with

escalating cost factors. Optimal diameter of the pumping main, Cost of Pumping Unit

optimal discharge range, and optimal operating conditions for a

pumping system can be obtained from the solution of the The capital cost of the pumping unit varies with discharge and

optimization model. pressure head. The relationship among discharge, pressure head,

and efficiency of a centrifugal pump is generally expressed in

the form of its characteristic curves (Church and Lal 1973; Punmia

Theoretical Considerations et al. 2010). The characteristic curves are plotted with the help

of performance test data of the pumps supplied by the pump

The total cost of a pumped water supply system includes the capital manufacturers. Using the manufacturer’s data, the head-capacity

costs of pipeline, pumping unit, and their replacement costs; energy curve for the pump can be represented in a polynomial form as

cost to operate the pump; and maintenance and repair costs of the (Lal 1995)

components. The water treatment cost, cost to transfer among water

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H ¼ a0 þ a1 Q þ a2 Q 2 ð6Þ

treatment plants, and cost of water losses are also included in the

total cost of the water supply system (Kanakoudis and Tolikas where H = pump head (m); Q = pump discharge (L=s); and a0 , a1 ,

2003). The maintenance and repair costs are generally considered and a2 = constants. Similarly the efficiency-capacity curve for the

as a percentage of the capital cost of the system or omitted from the pump can be represented as

cost analysis, as their effect will be common for selecting compo-

nents from different alternatives. Kanakoudis and Tolikas (2001) η ¼ b0 þ b1 Q þ b2 Q2 ð7Þ

calculated optimum replacement time for pipes of a water network

using present value method of analysis. Kanakoudis (2004) intro- where η = efficiency of the pump, (percent); and b0 , b1 , b2 = con-

duced a methodology for preventive maintenance schedule/policy stants. The efficiency of the pump is calculated as

of water supply networks. Kanakoudis and Tolikas (2004) devel-

100QH

oped a methodology that analyzes the possible preventive mainte- η¼ ð8Þ

nance actions in a water supply system. These studies used 75BHP

technicoeconomic analysis that takes into account all kinds of costs

where BHP = brake horsepower. The capital cost of the pump can

for repair and replacement of trouble causing parts of a network.

be represented as (Bhave 2003)

Bhave (2003) has described and applied present worth method,

annual cost method, benefit cost ratio method, and rate of return 73.5QHCu

method for economic analysis of a water supply system. The Cp ¼ ð9Þ

75η

methodology presented in this study uses the annual cost method

(James and Lee 1971) of life-cycle cost analysis. where Cp = capital cost of the pump (Rs); and Cu = cost of pump-

ing unit (Rs=kW). Because the life of the pump is less than that of

the pipeline, the replacement cost of the pump with escalating rate

Pipeline Cost during the project life can be calculated (Jensen 1981) as

Cpr ¼ Cp ð10Þ

diameter of a pumping main can be treated as a continuous variable ð1 þ iÞn1

in optimization problems. Therefore, the capital cost per unit length

of pipes can be represented by a nonlinear function of diameter as where Cpr = replacement cost of the pump (Rs); r = decimal equiv-

(Bhave 2003) alent escalation rate in capital cost of the pump; and n1 = life of the

pump (year). The total annual cost of the pump can be calculated as

I c ¼ adb ð1Þ

F2 ¼ ðCp þ Cpr ÞCr ð11Þ

where I c = initial capital cost of the pipeline (Rs=m, Rs designates

the Indian currency i.e., rupee); a and b = constants; and d = where F2 = total annual cost of the pump (Rs). Eq. (11) can be

diameter of pipeline (mm). The annual capital cost of the pumping expressed as

main can be obtained as (Jensen 1981) K 2 QH

F2 ¼ ð12Þ

F1 ¼ Cr I c L ð2Þ η

where F1 = annual capital cost of the pumping main (Rs); L =

length of the pumping main (m); and Cr = capital recovery factor

73.5Cu ð1 þ rÞn1

(dimensionless), which can be calculated as K2 ¼ 1þ Cr ð13Þ

75 ð1 þ iÞn1

ið1 þ iÞn

Cr ¼ ð3Þ

ð1 þ iÞn − 1

Energy Cost

where i = decimal equivalent annual interest rate; and n = life of the

The annual energy cost for overcoming frictional head loss in the

pumping main (year). Eqs. (1) and (2) can be combined to relate

pumping main can be calculated as (Mahar and Singh 2001)

annual capital cost with diameter as

73.5Q × t × Ce × H s × Ea

F1 ¼ K 1 db ð4Þ Ec ¼ ð14Þ

75η

where K 1 = constant, which can be calculated as

where Ec = annual energy cost (Rs); t = annual use (h); Ce = cost

K 1 ¼ aCr L ð5Þ of electricity (Rs=kW · h); Hs = system head requirement (m); and

Ea = escalating energy cost factor. The system head requirement min · T c ¼ F1 þ F2 þ Ec ð21Þ

can be calculated as

The first two constraints related to the pump characteristics are

Hs ¼ hst þ hf þ hm ð15Þ represented by Eqs. (6) and (7).

Further, to meet the pressure head requirement by the pump, the

where hst = static head (m); hf = frictional head loss in the total constraint can be written as

length of the pipe (m); and hm = the minor head loss (m). The value

of hf can be calculated using the Hazen-Williams equation as H ≥ Hs ð22Þ

1.852

Q

hf ¼ 1.212 × 1010 d−4.87 L ð16Þ

C Design Example and Discussion

where C = Hazen-Williams coefficient for pipe material. The value A design example is presented to show the applicability of the

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of Ea can be calculated as (Jensen 1981) developed nonlinear optimization model. The following subsec-

tions describe the design example, its optimal solution, and related

ð1 þ eÞn − ð1 þ iÞn i discussion.

Ea ¼ ð17Þ

ð1 þ eÞ − ð1 þ iÞ ð1 þ iÞn − 1

where e = decimal equivalent annual rate of energy cost increase Design Example

(here, e is not equal to i). Eqs. (14)–(17) can be combined to relate In a water supply system, a centrifugal pump has to supply water

the annual energy cost with diameter as through a pumping main having a length of 1,000 m. The optimal

QH s diameter of the pumping main and the optimal operating conditions

Ec ¼ K 3 ð18Þ of the pump were designed using the following data:

η

• Design period = 30 years;

where K 3 = constant that can be calculated as • Daily pumping hours = 16;

• Static head = 5 m;

73.5 × t × Ce × Ea • Expected pump life = 15 years;

K3 ¼ ð19Þ

75 • Cost of pumping unit = Rs 6,000=kW;

• Cost of energy = Rs 2.5=kW · h;

Total Cost • Interest rate = 7%;

• Escalation rate for fixed and energy costs = 5%;

The total annual cost of the pumping main with pump can be

• Hazen-Williams coefficient = 115; and

represented as

• Minor loss = 10% of the friction head loss.

T c ¼ F 1 þ F 2 þ Ec ð20Þ The available diameters of CI pipes and their unit cost for the

pumping main are given in Table 1 as applicable in Uttarakhand

where T c = total annual cost of the pumping main including pump. Drinking Water Resources Development & Construction Nigam,

Dehradun (Uttarakhand), India for 2003. Table 2 includes the data

related to the pump characteristics (Punmia et al. 2010).

Optimization Model

As the diameter of the pumping main increases, the capital cost Solution

increases and the energy cost to overcome the frictional head loss

The given data were used to calculate the annual costs and

decreases. The diameter that will result in the minimum cost can be

other parameters required for use in the formulated nonlinear

easily obtained if the pump has to run at peak efficiency (Bhave

2003). Because head, efficiency, and discharge of a pump are in-

terrelated, any change in the demand or static head of the supply Table 1. Unit Capital Cost of Available C I Pipe Sizes

system may significantly affect the efficiency of the pump, and Pipe diameter (mm) Cost per unit length (Rs=m)

hence the energy consumption. Further, in actual practice the pump

may not run at fixed efficiency for the required discharge because 150 655.00

of varying demands. Therefore, it is important to determine the 200 960.00

250 1,290.00

range of efficiency for optimal operation of the pump to result

300 1,660.00

in the minimum total cost of the system for the required discharge 350 2,095.00

and pressure head. 400 2,550.00

The cost functions of the pumping main with pump are nonlin- 450 3,080.00

ear [Eqs. (4), (12), and (18)]. The relationship between the head,

efficiency, and discharge of the pump and system head requirement

are also nonlinear in nature [Eqs. (6), (7), and (15)]. Therefore, a Table 2. Pump Characteristics Data

nonlinear optimization model is required to obtain the diameter of

the pumping main and optimal operating conditions of the pump Discharge (L=s) Head (m) Efficiency (%)

to result in the minimum value of the total cost of the system. 0 20 0

The objective of the optimization model is to obtain the optimal 8 18.6 48

diameter of the pumping main and operating conditions of the 16 16.7 69

pump, which can be achieved by minimizing the total annual cost 24 14 75

of the system given by Eq. (20) with constraints related to pump 32 10.9 70

characteristics and system head requirements. The objective func- 40 7.4 60

48 3.6 47

tion can be written as

optimization model. For the data in Table 1, the constants of Eq. (1) Table 4. Optimal Solution for Different Values of Discharge without

were obtained by fitting a power curve using Excel as a ¼ 0.5649 Escalated Costs at a Static Head of 5 m

and b ¼ 1.404, for I c in Rs=m and d in mm. Using Eq. (2) the value Optimal Pump System Optimal

of Cr was obtained as 0.080586; and using Eq. (5), the value of Discharge diameter Efficiency head head annual

K 1 was obtained as 45.52325934. The constants of Eq. (6) were (L=s) (mm) (%) (m) (m) cost (Rs)

obtained by using Excel as a0 ¼ 20.083, a1 ¼ −0.1598, and 10 142.8 47.7 18.1 9.6 79,617

a2 ¼ −0.0039. Similarly, the constants of Eq. (7) were obtained 15 164.8 61.7 16.8 9.9 96,052

by using Excel as b0 ¼ 6.2381, b1 ¼ 5.0446, and b2 ¼ −0.0897. 20 183.6 71.3 15.3 9.9 111,324

Using Eq. (13), the value of K 2 was obtained as 830.888. Using 25 201.0 76.3 13.7 9.8 126,788

Eq. (19), the value of K 3 was found as 24,919.227. 30 218.0 76.8 11.8 9.5 143,567

The head-discharge and efficiency-discharge characteristics of 35 235.9 72.9 9.7 9.1 163,136

the pump represented by Eqs. (6) and (7), respectively were written

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requirement represented by Eq. (22) was written by combining

The optimal solutions for the case without escalation are presented

Eqs. (15) and (16). Thus, the objective function and constraints

in Table 4. Comparing the results of Tables 3 and 4, it can be ob-

after substituting the values of the respective constants were

served that lower values of the optimal diameter and optimal cost

obtained as

are obtained without considering escalation in capital and energy

830.888QH 24919.23QH s costs. The actual annual cost for optimal diameters obtained with

min T c ¼ 45.5233d1.404 þ þ ð23Þ cost escalation will be the same as optimal cost given in Table 3.

η η

However, because of increases in the capital and energy costs dur-

subject to ing the project life, the actual annual cost for diameters obtained in

H ¼ 20:083 − 0:1598Q − 0:0039Q2 ð24Þ Table 4 will be different than the optimal cost. Therefore, by con-

sidering the escalation rate of 5% in capital and energy costs in

Eq. (23), the actual annual costs were calculated for the optimal

η ¼ 6:2381 þ 5:0446Q − 0:0897Q2 ð25Þ diameters from Table 4. The calculated values of actual annual

costs are plotted in Fig. 1 and compared with optimal annual costs

from Table 3. It can be seen from Fig. 1 that the optimal annual cost

Hs ¼ 5 þ 0:203462 × 1010 Q1.852 d−4.87 ð26Þ for pipe diameters obtained by considering the cost escalation is

slightly lower than the actual annual cost for diameters obtained

H ≥ Hs ð27Þ without considering the cost escalation. However, the difference

in cost may be important for larger lengths of the pumping main

and a higher escalation rate. Therefore, it is concluded that the se-

Optimal Design lection of smaller diameters obtained without considering the cost

The optimization model formulated according to Eqs. (23)–(27) escalation will actually be uneconomical during the project life.

was solved using LINGO 8.0 software (LINDO Systems Inc.

2003) in demo mode for a static head of 5 m and escalation rate

of 5% (both in the fixed and energy costs). Discharge was used as Effect of Static Head on Optimal Solution

an input to the model. For different values of discharge within the

To see the effect of static head on optimal solution, the model was

pump capacity, the optimal values of diameter, efficiency of pump,

solved for a higher static head of 15 m. The results are given in

pressure head of the pump, and total annual cost of the system were

Table 5. Comparing the results given in Tables 3 and 5, it can

obtained as given in Table 3. The model results in optimal diameter

be observed that the values of efficiency and head of the pump

for any required discharge available within the pump characteristics

are the same for static heads of 5 and 15 m. The optimal diameters

range. For discharge of 45 L=s, no feasible solution was obtained.

are bigger for higher values of discharge and static head. The

This is because of constraints represented by Eq. (27), in which the

system head and optimal cost are higher for static head of

value of Hs becomes greater than H with the available pipe sizes.

15 m. Further, with a static head of 15 m, no optimal solution

From Table 3 it can be seen that for a discharge of 30 L=s, the

was obtained for discharge of 22 L=s and higher because of lower

optimal diameter of 238.3 mm is resulting at the peak efficiency

available head to meet frictional head loss.

of 76.8%.

To see the effect of cost escalation on the optimal solution, the

optimization model was again solved considering no escalation.

Escalated Costs at a Static Head of 5 m

Optimal Pump System Optimal

Discharge diameter Efficiency head head annual

(L=s) (mm) (%) (m) (m) cost (Rs)

10 156.0 47.7 18.1 8.0 99,659

15 180.0 61.7 16.8 8.2 119,753

20 200.6 71.3 15.3 8.2 138,709

25 219.6 76.3 13.7 8.1 158,283

30 238.3 76.8 11.8 7.9 180,027 Fig. 1. Comparison of actual annual cost for optimal diameters with

35 257.7 72.9 9.7 7.7 206,096 and without escalation

Table 5. Optimal Solution for Different Values of Discharge with the optimal diameter with discharge range and corresponding effi-

Escalated Costs at a Static Head of 15 m ciency range for a particular pump. The model can also be used to

Optimal Pump System Optimal evaluate existing pumping systems to predict optimum time to re-

Discharge diameter Efficiency head head annual pair or replace the pump. Further, the model can be used for select-

(L=s) (mm) (%) (m) (m) cost (Rs) ing a pump to result in the optimal operating conditions for required

10 156.0 47.7 18.1 18.0 151,885 values of pipe diameter, discharge, and pressure. The consideration

15 202 61.7 16.8 16.8 183,812 of escalating costs in the optimization model will result in proper

20 320 71.3 15.3 15.3 260,903 selection of optimal diameter. The presented optimization model

22 No solution will be useful for water supply and irrigation engineers.

Notation

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a = constant;

a0 = constant;

a1 = constant;

a2 = constant;

BHP = brake horsepower;

b = constant;

b0 = constant;

b1 = constant;

b2 = constant;

Fig. 2. Discharge range for optimal diameters C = Hazen-Williams coefficient for pipe material;

Ce = cost of electricity (Rs=kW · h);

Cp = capital cost of the pump (Rs);

Optimal Operating Range Cpr = replacement cost of the pump (Rs);

Cr = capital recovery factor (dimensionless);

Because of the availability of pipe in discrete sizes, the optimal Cu = cost of pumping unit (Rs=kW);

diameters obtained in Tables 3 and 5 were rounded to the next d = diameter of pipeline (mm);

higher available pipe sizes. The model was further solved to deter- e = decimal equivalent annual rate of energy cost increase;

mine the optimal discharge range using the rounded pipe sizes for Ea = escalating energy cost factor;

both of the values of the static head. The optimal discharge range Ec = annual energy cost (Rs);

for the rounded pipe sizes are shown in Fig. 2. It can be seen from F1 = annual capital cost of the pumping main (Rs);

Fig, 2 that the discharge range for an optimal diameter is reduced F2 = total annual cost of the pump (Rs);

for both static heads at higher discharge. Further, it can be seen H = pump head (m);

from Table 3 and Fig. 2 that the peak efficiency lying in the dis- Hs = system head (m);

charge range of 20–35 L=s is covered under a pipe diameter of hf = frictional head loss in the total length of the pipe (m);

250 mm for a static head of 5 m. Similarly, Table 5 and Fig. 2 hm = minor head loss (m);

can be used to decide the optimal diameter and discharge range hst = static head (m);

at the best efficiency for a static head of 15 m. By solving the opti- i = decimal equivalent annual interest rate;

mization model, the exact value of the peak efficiency was obtained I c = initial capital cost of the pipeline (Rs=m);

as 72.4% for a discharge value of 20.81 L=s in a pipe of 450-mm K 1 = constant;

diameter, which is the highest available pipe size. However, in this K 2 = constant;

case the peak efficiency lies in a very narrow discharge range, K 3 = constant;

i.e., 20.655–20.81 L=s. L = length of the pumping main (m);

n = life of the pumping main (year);

n1 = life of the pump (year);

Q = pump discharge (L=s);

Conclusions r = decimal equivalent escalation rate in capital cost of the

In water supply systems, optimization techniques have been mostly pump;

applied to minimize the cost of water distribution networks. Opti- t = annual use (h);

T c = total annual cost of the pumping main including pump;

mal design of the pumping main considering the nonlinear nature

η = efficiency of the pump (percent); and

of pump characteristic curves will minimize the overall cost of a

Rs = Indian currency i.e., rupee.

water supply system. Hence, a nonlinear optimization model is de-

veloped to select the optimal diameter of a pumping main from a set

of available pipe sizes considering pump characteristics for any re-

quired value of discharge, static head, and economic parameters. References

The model minimizes the total annual cost of the pumping main

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