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PROJECT REPORT

NETAJI SUBHAS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

EC316 Microprocessor Lab PROJECT

AUTO PLANT IRRIGATION SYSTEM

Synopsis
The project we have undertaken is Auto ati Plant Irrigation “yste . This project is taken up as India
is an agriculture oriented country and the rate at which water resources are depleting is a dangerous
threat hence there is a need of smart and efficient way of irrigation. In this project we have
implemented sensors which detect the humidity in the soil (agricultural field) and supply water to
the field which has water requirement. The project is 8085 microprocessor based design which
controls the water supply and the field to be irrigated. There are sensors present in
each field which are not activated till water is present on the field. Once the field gets dry sensors sense
the requirement of water in the field and send a signal to the microprocessor. Microprocessor then
supply water to that particular field which has water requirement till the sensors is deactivated again.
In case, when there are more than one signal for water requirement then the microprocessor will
prioritize the first received signal and irrigate the fields accordingly.

SUBMITTED BY:
Krishan Kumar (82\EC\13)
Md.aslam (101\EC\13)
PROJECT TITLE AND PARTNER DETAILS

Project Title: AUTO PLANT IRRIGATION SYSTEM

Student Details: The project was undertaken by:


1. Krishan Kumar (82/EC/13)
2. Md.aslam (101/EC/13).

Submitted to – Prof. Dhananjay V. Gadre


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
To complete our project, we are very much
thankful to our Professor Dhananjay Gadre Sir for
giving us this opportunity and guidance throughout
the project. We would also like to thank our
friends for their support and help in making the
project. This project was definitely a milestone in
our career and we learnt a lot more than just
electronics, values of hard work and team work.

We would also like to thank our friends and


classmates especially Kartik goel and Ishaan Kubba
who worked with us and helped at each and every
point of time we needed help and assistance. From
helping us learn EAGLE, guiding to get PCB ready,
helping us through the soldering sessions, getting
Correction’s in code and also final checks
On the project and what not, they were always
with us. It was a really good memorable
experience working with all of them.
We would also like to thank all the staff of the
Department of Electronics of Netaji Subhas
Institute of Technology for providing us with all the
requisites for completion of this project.
CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION
2. PROJECT DESCRIPTION
3. BLOCK DIAGRAM
4. PROGRAM FLOWCHART
5. PROGRAMMING CODE
6. WORKING
7. TESTING
8. MAKING OF AUTO PLANT IRRIGATION SYSTEM
9. SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM
10. BOARD FILE
11. GANTT CHART
12. CONCLUSION
13. BIBLIOGRAPHY

INTRODUCTION
In the fast paced world human beings require everything to be automated. Our life style
demands everything to be remote controlled. Apart from few things man has made his
life automated. And why not? In the world of advance electronics, life of human beings
should be simpler hence to make life more simple and convenient, we have made
AUTOMATIC PLANT IRRIGATION “Y“TEM . A model of controlling irrigation facilities to
help millions of people. This model uses sensor technology with microprocessor to make
a smart switching device.
The model shows the basic switching mechanism of Water motor/pump using
sensors from any part of field by sensing the moisture present in the soil.
PROJECT DESCRIPTION

Various components are used in making the project


which are mentioned below:
1. 8085 Microprocessor
2. 8k ROM 2864 with address Latch
3. 8K RAM 6264 with address Latch
4. Op-amp IC LM324 and Resistors 10K ohm
5. Water pump 12 volt dc
6. LCD display 16x2
7. Decoder IC 74138
8. Power supply
9. Latch 74573 (3)
10. Input buffer 74244
11.10k ohm pot.
12. Led 3mm Red and Green
13. 6 MHz Crystal
14. Capacitors VCC and Ground .1uf
15. Crystal capacitor 22pf
16. USB connector
17. Transistor BC547 and BD139 use of Darlington pair
18. PTR connector, MO2 connector
19. Not Gate IC 7402
20. Omron Switch 10x
21. Polar capacitor 10uf
22. Ceramic capacitor .1uf
23. Zero board for pump Circuit
24. Dc jack
25. 12 volt dc charger supply for pump
26. Mini USB Cable
27. EEPROM Programmer
28. Solder wire
29. Many others comp.

LED
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor device that emits visible light when an
electric current passes through it. The light is not particularly bright, but in most
LEDs it is monochromatic, occurring at a single wavelength. The output from an LED
can range from red.

(At a wavelength of approximately 700 nanometers) to blue-violet (about 400


nanometers). Some LEDs emit infrared (IR) energy (830 nanometers or longer);
such a device is known as an infrared-emitting diode (IRED). An LED or IRED
consists of two elements of processed material called P-type semiconductors and N-
type semiconductors. These two elements are placed in direct contact, forming a
region called the P-N junction. In this respect, the LED or IRED resembles most
other diode.

RESISTOR

A resistor is an electrical component that limits or regulates the flow of electrical current
in an electronic circuit. Resistors can also be used to provide a specific voltage for an
active device such as a transistor. All other factors being equal, in a direct-current (DC)
circuit, the current through a resistor is inversely proportional to its resistance, and
directly proportional to the voltage across it. This is the well-known Ohm's Law. In
alternating-current (AC) circuits, this rule also applies as long as the resistor does not
contain inductance or capacitance.

CAPACITOR
A capacitor is a tool consisting of two conductive plates, each of which hosts an
opposite charge. These plates are separated by a dielectric or other form of insulator,
which helps them maintain an electric charge. There are several types of insulators
used in capacitors. Examples include

Ceramic, polyester, tantalum air, and polystyrene. Other common capacitor insulators
include air, paper, and plastic. Each effectively prevents the plates from touching each
other. A capacitor is often used to store analogue signals and digital data. Another
type of capacitor is used in the telecommunications equipment industry. This type of
capacitor is able to adjust the frequency and tuning of telecommunications
equipment and is often referred to a variable capacitor. A capacitor is also ideal for
storing an electron. A capacitor cannot, however, make electrons. A capacitor
measures in voltage, which differs on each of the two interior plates. Both plates of the
capacitor are charged, but the current flows in opposite directions. A capacitor contains
1.5 volts, which is the same voltage found in a common AA battery. As voltage is used
in a capacitor, one of the two plates becomes filled with a steady flow of current. At
the same time, the current flows away from the other plate. To understand the flow of
voltage in a capacitor, it is helpful to look at naturally occurring examples. Lightning, for
example, is similar to a capacitor. The cloud represents one of the plates and the
ground represents the other. The lightning is the charging factor moving between the
ground and the cloud.

IMAGE OF ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITOR

UNPOLARISED / CERAMIC CAPACITORS


A non-polarized ("nonpolar") capacitor is a type of capacitor that has no implicit
polarity -- it can be connected either way in a circuit. Ceramic, mica and some
electrolytic capacitors are non- polarized. You'll also sometimes hear people call them
"bipolar" capacitors.

SYMBOL
IMAGE OF CERAMIC CAPACITOR

LCD

Liquid Crystal Display


Liquid crystal displays (LCD) are widely used in recent years as compares to LEDs. This
is due to the declining prices of LCD, the ability to display numbers, characters and
graphics, incorporation of a refreshing controller into the LCD, Their by relieving the
CPU of the task of refreshing the LCD and also the ease of programming for
characters and graphics. HD 44780 based LCDs are most com LCD pin description
The LCD discuss in this section has the most common connector used for the Hitatchi
44780 based LCD is 14 pins in a row and modes of operation and how to program and
interface with microcontroller is describes in this section.
D7
The voltage VCC and VSS provided by +5V and ground respectively while VEE is used
for controlling LCD contrast. Variable voltage between Ground and VCC is used to
specify the contrast (or "darkness") of the characters on the LCD screen.
RS (register select)
There are two important registers inside the LCD. The RS pin is used for their selection
as
Follows. If RS=0, the insures to send a command such as clear display, cursor at
home etc.. If RS=1, the data register is selected,
R/W (read/write)
The R/W (read/write) input allowing the user to write information from it. R/W=1, when
it read and R/W=0, when it writing.
EN (enable)
The enable pin is used by the LCD to latch information presented to its data pins. When data is
supplied to data pins, a high power, a high-to-low pulse must be applied to this pin in order to for
the LCD to latch in the data presented at the data pins.
D0-D7 (data lines)
The 8-bit data pins, D0-D7, are used to send information to the LCD or read the contents of the
LCD„s internal registers. To displays the letters and numbers, we send ASCII codes for
i n s truction command code register is selected, then allowing to mostly use.

The letters A-Z, a-z, and numbers 0-9 to these pins while making RS =1. There are also
command codes that can be sent to clear the display or force the cursor to the home position
or blink the cursor. We also use RS =0 to check the busy flag bit to see if the LCD is ready
to receive the information. The busy flag is D7 and can be read when R/W =1 and RS =0, as
follows:
If R/W =1 and RS =0, when D7 =1(busy flag =1), the LCD is busy taking care of internal
operations and will not accept any information. When D7 =0, the LCD is ready to receive new
information.
CODES COMMAND TO LCD INSTRUCTION
(HEX) Register
1 Clear display screen
2 Return home
4 Decrement cursor (shift cursor to left)
6 Increment cursor (shift cursor to right)
5 Shift display right
7 Shift display left
8 Display off, cursor off
A Display off, cursor on
C Display on, cursor off

E
F Display on, cursor blinking
10 Shift cursor position to left
14 Shift cursor position to right
18 Shift the entire display to the left
1C Shift the entire display to the right
80 Force cursor to beginning of 1st line
C0 Force cursor to beginning of 2nd line
38 2 line and 5x 7 matrix
Pin Symbol I/O Description
1 VSS - Ground
2 VCC - +5V power supply
3 VEE - Power supply to control contrast
4 RS I RS=0 to select command register, RS=1 to select data register.
5 R/W I R/W=0 for write, R/W=1 for read

6 E I/O Enable The 8 bit data


bus 10 DB3 I/O The 8 bit
data bus 11 DB4 I/O The 8
bit data bus 12 DB5 I/O The
8 bit data bus 13 DB6 I/O
The 8 bit data bus 14 DB7
I/O The 8 bit data bus

Power Supply – The 8085 system is powered using an external 5V source


using a Micro- USB (bottom side). Capacitors are used to minimize any kind of noise from
the source on generated in the system due to high frequency switch. Indication LED is
also used to indicate the system is powered on. A XLR-02 connector is provided on the
board to power the matrix.
BLOCK DIAGRAM
PROGRAM FLOWCHART
START

Input/ Output

No
If volt>2.26 volt

yes

Switch On pump and


delay of 10 sec ,
pump is on for 10sec

Increment the
count by one

Store count in reg.

Output the data on LCD

No
Reset pressed

Yes

Halt
PROGRAMMING CODE
WORKING

Our Proje t Auto Pla t Irrigatio syste Based on 8085.In This Project the main use IC is 8085. And Rom ,Ram ,Latch
.In This Project Use moisture sensor Circuit ( use of comparator IC Op Amp LM324).Another Circuit in pump Circuit ( 2
Transistor BC547 ,BD139 Use Darlington pair ).then sensor probes in dry soil then pump and sod led switch on 10 sec
and then both sensor probes in wet soil then pump and sod led switch off 5sec ,pump is not run .after 5 sec again check
and then again if dry then pump run anyway off pump. Increment counter reg. by one after run pump.

TESTING

Testing the Circuit Board, these steps were followed during the testing process:

1. A simple assembly language program was burnt in the EEPROM to check for inputs on
the SID pin and to throw the same as output on the SOD line.

RIM

ANI 80H

ORI 40H

SIM

The output on the SOD pin was indicated using a red LED. The working of this program
ensured smooth functioning of the 8085 and the EEPROM.

2. After check our project Sid Sod then burnt main code in ROM and after
successfully complete run of our project then share video of project by
ECE 311/316 Group.
AUTO PLANT IRRIGATION SYSTEM
1.Soldering Part
DARLINGTON PAIR (BC547 AND BD139
TRANSISTOR)
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM
BOARD FILE
GANTT CHART

CONCLUSION

Fi ally, after so a y ups a d dow s, here is our proje t AUTO PLANT


IRRIGATION “Y“TEM desig ed y Krisha Ku ar 82/EC/13 and MD ASLAM
101/EC/13.and successfully complete run our project.
We would like to thank Professor Dhananjay Gadre for providing this
opportunity and guidance throughout the project.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

• BOOKS
• GAONKAR, R. S., & GAONKAR, R. S. (1996). Microprocessor architecture,
programming, and applications with the 8085.

• DATASHEETS

• http://www.nxp.com/documents/data_sheet/74HC_HCT138.pdf
http://www.datasheetarchive.com/8085%20opcode-datasheet.html
• www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/adc0808-n.pdf
• https://8085simulator.codeplex.com.html