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abduction The movement of the eye outward toward the temple.

accommodation The change in the curvature of the crystalline lens that helps to focus images of
objects close to the eye.

adduction The movement of the eve inward toward the nose.

ametropia The refractive state of an eye that is unable to focus correctly due to refractive error.

anisocoria A condition in which the pupils are ofunequal size in dim examination illumination.

anterior chamber The small compartment between thecornea and the iris that is filled with a
clear, transparent fluid called aqueous humor.

anterior chamber angle The junction of the cornea and the iris, from which aqueous humor
leaves the eye. Also called filtration angle.

aphakia Absence of the lens, usually because of cataract extraction.

aqueous humor The clear, transparent fluid that fills the anterior chamber.

astigmatism The refractive error of an eye whose corneal surface curvature is greater in one
meridian than another: both distant and near objects appear blurred and distorted.

bitemporal hemianopia A visual field defect affecting the temporal field of both eyes.

blepharitis A common inflammation of the eyelid margin.

blowout fracture An injury due to blunt trauma, in which orbital bones are broken.

bulbar conjunctiva The portion of the conjunctival membrane that covers the globe.

canaliculus One of two tubes (upper catialiculus and lower canaliculus) through which tears
pass into the lacrimal sac.

canal of Schlemm A structure that drains the aqueous humor from the anterior chamber after it
has flowed through the trabecular meshwork.

canthus The point where the upper and lower eyelids meet on the nasal side (medial canthus)
and the temporal side (laieraI conduis).

cardinal positions of gaze The six points to which a patient’s eyes are directed to test
extraocular muscle function; the positions are right and up, right, right and down, left and up,
left, and left and clown.

cataract An opacified (clouded) crystalline lens.

central scotoma A defect in the center of the visual field.

chalazion A painful, tender lump that may become visible on the outer lid: clue to long—term
inflammation and infection of a meibomian gland.

choroid A layer of tissue, largely made up of blood vessels that lies between the sciera and the
retina in the uveal tract.

cilia The eyelashes.

ciliary body A band-like strucwre of muscle and secretory tissue that extends from the edge of
the iris and encircles the inside of the sciera.

ciliary muscle The muscle fibers in the ciliary body of the uveal tract that are involved in

ciliary process A finger-like extension of the ciliary body that produces aqueous humor.
concave lens A glass or plastic eyeglass lens in which one or both surfaces are curved inward.
Also called negative lens or minus lens.

confrontation visual field test A test comparing the boundaries of the patient’s field of vision
with that of the examiner, who is presumed (o have a normal field. conjunctiva The thin,
translucent mucous membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelids and outer surface of the
globe, except for the cornea.

conjunctivitis A swelling of (he small conjunctival blood vessels, making the conjunctiva appear
red. Also called pink eye.

convex lens A glass or plastic eyeglass lens in which one or both surfaces are curved outward.
Also called positive lens or plus lens.

cornea The clear membrane at the front of the globe that first focuses light the eye receives.

corneal abrasion A scratch of the cornea! epithelium.

corneal endothelium The layer of cells that covers the inner surface of the cornea and maintains
proper fluid balance within the cornea.

corneal stroma The main body of the cornea; contributes rigidity to the cornea.

corneal ulcer A lesion after an infection of or injury to the corneal epithelium.

cover test A test performed by alternately covering and uncovering each eye to determine
whether a patient’s eyes are misaligned.
cup/disc ratio The ratio between the horizontal diameter of the physiologic cup (numerator) and
the bonzontal diameter of the optic disc (denominator).

cycloplegia Temporary paralysis of the ciliary muscle (preventing accommodation) and of the
iris sphincter muscle (preventing dilation of the pupil).

cycloplegic refraction Refractometry performed with the use ola drug that temporarily paralyzes
the ciliary muscle, thus blocking accommodation.

cylindrical lens A lens that has curvature in only one meridian.

dacryocystitis Inflammation of the lacrimal sac; usually caused by bacterial infection in the
presence of block age or obstruction of the nasolacrimal duc.

dendritic Branch-shaped such as the corneal ulcers seen after infection with the herpes simplex

dilator muscle The iris muscle that dilates the pupil in reduced light conditions; fibers from this
muscle stretch from the pupil to the boundaries of the iris.

diopter The unit of measure of the power of a lens. direct ophthalmoscope A hand-held
instrument with a light-and-mirror system that affords an upright, monocular view of a narrow
field of the fundus, magnified 15-fold.

disc The opic nerve head; also called optic disc or optic cup.

ectropion A condition in which the lower eyelid margin is pulled away from the eye; caused by
malformation of or damage to the eyelid tissues.

enimetropia The refractive state of an eye that is able to focus correctly. endophthalmitis A
serious ocular bacterial infection with inflammation of the vitreous and adjacent tissues.

entropion A condition in which the upper or lower lid margin is turned inward.

episcieritis Inflammation of the surface layer of the sciera.

esophoria The inward deviation of the eye that is present only when one eye is covered.

esotropia The inward deviation of the eye in which the eyes are misaligned even when

exophonia The outward deviation of the eye that is present only when one eye is covered.

exophthalmorneter An instrument that measures the prominence of the eyeball in relation to the
bony orbital rim surrounding it.
exotropia The outward deviation of the eye in which the eyes are misaligned even when

extended-wear lenses Soft contact lenses that are approved for overnight wear for up to 7 days.

floaters Small particles of dead cells or other debris that become suspended in vitreous, or
particles of the vitreous itself that degenerate in the normal aging process; they cast shadows on
the retina and appear to the patient as spots or cobwebs.

fluorescein A dye solution used in the diagnosis of certain corneal defects and in applanation
tonometry; also used intravenously in fiuorescein angiography to identify abnormal retinal blood

Fluorescein angiography Diagnostic photography of retinal vessels that requires injection of

fluorescem dye.

fornix The loose pocket of conjunctival tissue where the eyelid and globe portions of the
conjunctiva meet beneath the upper and lower lids. Also called cul-de-sac.

fovea The center of the macula.

homonymous hemianopia A visual field defect affecting the temporal quadrants of one eye and
the nasal quadrants of the other eye and whose borders are aligned to the vertical meridian of the
visual field.

hyphema The pooling of blood in the anterior chamber as a result of trauma or certain diseases.

hypopyon The accumulation of pus in the anterior chamber.

lacrimal apparatus The structures of the eye that produce tears and the ducts that drain the excess
fluid from the front of the eyes into the nose.

lacrimal gland The gland located in the lateral part of the tipper lid that produces the watery
middle layer of the tear him.

lacrimal sac The sac that holds tears after they pass through the canaliculi. which empty through
the naso-lacrimal duet into the nasal cavity.

legal hlindness A best-corrected visual acuity of 20/200 or less or a visual field reduced to 2O or
less in the bet ter-seeing eye.

levator palpehrae The muscle attached to the tarsal plate in the middle layer of the upper and
lower eyelids that raises the eyelid when it contracts.
limhus The junction between the sclera and the cornea.

macula The near-central area of the retina that provides detailed central vision.

manifest refraction Refractometry performed without the use of cycloplegic drugs.

media opacities The general term used to describe a variety of conditions that cloud, obscure, or

affect the ocular media and, ultimately, may disrupt vision.

meihomian gland A gland located on the inner margin of the eyelid that secretes the oily part of
the tear film.

miotic A drug that causes the iris sphincter muscle to contract, producing miosis (pupillary
constriction), which reduces the amount of light entering the eye.

mydriasis Dilation of the pupil.

mydriatic A drtig that dilates the pupil.

myopia Nearsightedness; the eye is too long for its optical system.

nasolacrimal duct The duct through which tears pass from the lacrimal sac into the nasal cavity.

nystagmus A condition in which the eyes continually shift in a rhythmic side—to-side or up-and-
down motion and then snap back to the normal position.

ocular media The three transparent optical structures that transmit light: cornea, lens, and

oculomotor nerve Cranial nerve III, which innervates the superior, medial, and inferior rectus
muscles, the inferior oblique muscle, and the orbicularis oculimuscle.

ophthalmia neonatorum Conjunctivitis in the new born.

palpebral conjunetiva The portioi of the conjunctiva that lines the inner eyelids.

papilledema A swelling of the optic disc with engorged blood vessels; caused by increased fluid
pressure within the skull.

perimetry The measurement of the expanse and sensitivity of the visual field.

phoria The tendency of the eyes to deviate; usually prevented by the brain’s effort to fuse the two
photorefractive keratectomy A type of refractive surgery that employs laser light instead of
surgical knives to reshape the corneal curvature; also referred to as PRK.

physiologic blind spot The sightless “hole” in the normal visual field corresponding to the optic

pigment epithelium The outer layer of the retina; lies against the choroid.

pingueculum A small, benign, yellow-white mass of degenerated tissue beneath the bulbar
conjunctiva, just nasal or temporal to the limbus.

polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) lenses Non—gas-permeable hard contact lenses.

posterior chamber The aqueous-fluid—filled space between the back of the iris and the front of
the vitreous, in which the crystalline lens is suspended.

posterior segment The rear portion of the eye; includes the vitreous and the retina.

presbyopia The progressive loss of the accommodative ability of the lens, due to natural
processes of aging.

primary angle-closure glaucoma A form of glaucoma in which the natural age-related increase in
the size of the lens blocks the flow of aqueous through the pupil, gradually bowing the iris
forward until its outer edge blocks the aqueous outflow channels in the anterior chamber angle.

primary open-angle glaucoma A form of glaucoma in which the pressure inside the eye is
elevated because of increased resistance to aqueous drainage in the outflow channels; accounts
for 60% to 90% of all adult glaucomas.

prism diopter The unit of measure of the refractive power of a prism.

progressive-addition multifocals Multifocal eyeglass lenses in which no discrete, visible line

divides the distance and near segments; rather, the optical power is added progressively in a
transitional zone. Also called progressive-add multifocals.

proptosis A condition characterized by a protruding eyeball; caused by an increase in volume of

the orbital contents. Also called exophthalmos.

pseudophakia The use of an intraocular lens to correct the vision of an aphakic patient.

pterygium A wedge-shaped growth on the bulbar conjunctiva.

ptosis Drooping of and inability to raise the upper eyelid; caused by the levator muscle’s
inability to function.
punctum The opening on the upper eyelid margin (upper punctum) and lower eyelid margin
(lower puncturn) near the nose, from which tears pass.

radial keratotomy A type of refractive surgery in which radial incisions are made in the cornea to
flatten its curvature and reduce nearsightedness; also referred to as RK.

refraction The process of measuring a patient’s refractive error and using clinical judgment to
determine the optical correction needed.

refractive error A nonpathologic deficiency in the eye’s optical system.

refractive state The relative ability of the refractive components of the eye to bring objects into
focus on the retina.

refractometry The measurement of refractive error with a variety of instruments and techniques.

refractor An instrument for determining a corrective lens prescription; stores a range of trial
lenses that can be dialed into position. Also called Phoroptor regular astigmatism The most
common form of astigmatism, in which the corneal curvature resembles that of a football
standing on one end or on its side.

retinal detachment The separation of the sensory layer from the pigment layer of the retina.

retinitis pigmentosa A hereditary progressive retinal degeneration that may lead to blindness.

retinoscope A hand-held instrument for measuring refractive error; consists of a light source and
a viewing component.

retinoscopy The use of a retinoscope to determine a refractive error; the first step in
refractometry Also called objective refractometry or objective refraction.

rigid gas-permeable (RGP) lenses Contact lenses that permit oxygen and carbon dioxide
diffusion through both the lens material and a tear pump.

Schirmer test A test that uses filter paper to measure the patient’s tear output and helps to
confirm the diagnosis of a dry-eye condition.

sciera The outer fibrous tissue of the globe that surrounds the cornea and forms the wall of the
eye, protecting intraocular contents.

secondary glaucoma Glaucoma that occurs secondary to another, primary disease.

slit lamp An instrument used for close examination of the lids and lashes, cornea, lens,
membranes, and clear fluids within the eye; consists of a microscope of low magnifying power
and a light source that projects a rectangular beam that changes in size and focus. Also called

Snellen acuity test A way of measuring visual acuity by testing the ability to see standardized
characters at a specific distance on a special target called the Snellen chart.

Snellen chart A printed chart for testing visual acuity consisting of Snellen optotypes-specially
formed letters of the alphabet arranged in rows of decreasing letter size.

soft lenses Flexible contact lenses that permit oxygen and carbon dioxide diffusion through the
lens material itself, with a minimal tear pump.

stereopsis The ability to perceive depth visually in three dimensions.

strabismic amblyopia The tendency of a child’s brain to suppress the image from the deviating

stral)ismus A misalignment of the eyes that may cause vision to be disturbed; occurs when the
extraocular muscles do not work in a coordinated manner.

stye A reddened, sore lump near the outer edge of the eyelid, caused by an inflammation of a
lash follicle oraccessory glands of the lid margin. Also called external hordeolum.

subconjunctival hemorrhage A rupture of a conjunctival blood vessel that allows blood to flow
under the tissue and produces a bright-red flat area on the conjunctiva.

superior oblique muscle The extraocular muscle that rotates the eye both downward and inward
toward the nose in primary position.

superior rcctus muscle The extraocular muscle that is primarily responsible [or turning the eye

tonometer An instrument for measuring intraocular pressure.

trabecular meshwork The sponge-like structure that filters the aqueous humor from the anterior
chamber and controls its rate of flow out of the eye.

trichiasis An abnormality of the eyelid caused by an eyelash that grows in the wrong direction
and rubs against the surface of the eye, producing a red eye.

trifocal lens An eyeglass lens thai has three powers: one for correcting distance vision, one for
correcting intermediate range of sight, and one for correcting near vision.

tropia A condition in which misalignment of the eyes is present even when the eyes are
vergence power Also simply power. The measure of a lens’s ability to converge or diverge light

zonule A transparent fiber that supports the lens by attaching to the ciliary body.

Common Ophthalmologic Abbreviations

AC Anterior chamber
ACIOL Anterior chamber intraocular lens
AION Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy
ALT Argon laser traheculoplasty (for glaucoma)
AP D Afferent pupillary defect (used inter changeably with R)
ARMD Age-related macular degeneration
BDR Background diabetic retinopathy
BRAO Branch retinal artery occlusion
BRVO Branch retinal vein occlusion
cc With correction (wearing refractive correction)
CAI Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor
cm Cup/disc ratio (optic nerve cupping)
CF Counts fingers (vision assessment)
CI. Contact lens
CME Cystoid macular edema
CNVM Choroidal neovascular membrane
CRAO Central retinal artery occlusion
CRVO Central retinal vein occlusion
CSR Central serous chorioretinopathy
CVF Confrontation visual fields
cwS Cotton-wool spots
DFL Dilated fundus examination
DME Diabetic macular edema
DR Diabetic retinopathy
ECCE Extracapsular cataract extraction
EKC Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis
EOM Extraocular muscles
ERG Electroretinogram
ERM Epiretinal membrane
ET Esotropia
FAI.P Focal argon laser photocoagulation
FB Foreign body
FBS Foreign-body sensation
FFA Fundus fluorescein angiogram
GED Graves’ eye disease
GPC Giant papillary conjunctivitis
GVF Goldmann visual field
HCL Hard contact lens
HM Hand movements (vision assessment)
HT Hvpertropia
HVFA Humphrey visual field analyzer
HZO Herpes zoster ophihalmicus
ICCE Intracapsular cataract extraction
IOFB Intraocular foreign body
IOL Intraocular lens
ION lschemic optic neuropathy
IOP Intraocular pressure
KF Keratic precipitates (in uveitis, iritis)
KPE Kelman phacoemulsification
LASIK Laser in situ keratomileusis
LP Light perception (vision assessment)
LPI Laser peripheral iridectomy
NFL Nerve fiber layer
NLP No light perception (vision assessment)
NPDR Nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy
NS Nuclear sclerosis (type of cataract)
NVD Neovascularization of disc (optic nerve head)
NVE Neovascularization elsewhere (in retina)
OD Right eye
OHT Ocular hypertension (increased TOP)
os Left eye
OU Both eyes
PO.1 Propine 0.1% eye drops
P1,2,3, or 4 Pilocarpine 1%, 2%, 3%, or 4%
PAI Prednisolone acetate eye drops, 1% (generic)
PCIOL Peripheral anterior synechiae
PDR Posterior chamber intraocular lens
PE Proliferative diabetic retinopathy
PF1 Phacoemulsification (for cataract surgery)
PH Pred Forte. 1% (brand name)
PI Pinhole lens
PI .03, .06, Peripheral iridectomy or iridotomy
.125, or Phospholine iodide eyedrops .03%, .06%,
.25 .125%, or .25%
PILO Pilocarpine eye drops